Category Archives: Islamic Articles.

General knowledge about Pakistan.

First female representative of Pakistan in the UN Shaista Ikramullah.
First Pakistan to win the prestigious Pulitzer Prize Adrees Latif.
First female governor State Bank of Pakistan Shamshad Akhtar.
First women Pilot in Pakistan Shukriya Khanam.
First Secretary General of Pakistan Ch. Muhammad Ali.
First Administrator of Karachi Syed Hasham Raza.
First Chairman of senate Habib ullah Khan.
President of first Constitution Assembly of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam.
First female deputy speaker in Pakistan Begum Jahanara Shahnwaz.
First female member of Parliament Begum Shaista Suhrawady
Ikramullah.
First female minister of education Begum Mahmooda Salim Khan.
First female minister of Population Dr. Attiya Inayatullah.
First Pakistan minister of information Syeda Abida Hussain.
First female Pakistani minister of finance Benazir Bhutto.
First female minister of law and human rights Shahida Jamil.
First female ―foreign ministry spokesperson Tasleem Aslam.
First private Airline of Pakistan Hajvery Airline.
First public airline of Pakistan Orient Airline.
First capital of Pakistan Karachi.
First TV Station Lahore.
First Nuclear reactor of Pakistan Karachi nuclear power plant 1972.
First Woman Judge of High Court of Pakistan Majida Razvi.
First Speaker of Constitution Assembly Molvi Tameez ud Din.
First Sports channel of Pakistan Super Geo.
First Pakistani who received noble Prize Dr. Abdus Salam (1979 in Physics).
First Pakistani who received Lenin Prize Faiz Ahmad Faiz (1961).
First woman Prime Minister in Pakistan Benazir Bhutto.
Youngest Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto.
First female Speaker of National Assembly Fahmeeda Mirza.
First Finance Minister of Pakistan Ghulam Muhammd.
First Census in Pakistan 1951.
First natural gas reserves were discovered in Pakistan Sui (1952).
First time won the cricket world cup 1992.
Pakistan‘s First cabinet sworn August 15, 1947.
First news agency of Pakistan APP.
First Pakistani female athlete who won gold medal in
SAF Games.
Naseem Hameed.
First state to join Pakistan Bahawalpur.
First railway track Karachi and Kotri (1861).

 #FPSC_FIA300 Most Repeated Questions (Custom Inspector/Inspector FIA/Inspector excise & Texation )
(FPSC Written Test);

1. The river Danube rises in which country?
Germany.
2. Which US state has the sugar maple as its state tree and is the leading US producer of maple sugar?
Vermont.

3. Which country is nicknamed ‘The Cockpit of Europe’ because of the number of battles throughout history fought on its soil?
Belgium.

4. What is the capital of Libya?
Tripoli.

5. Apart from French, German and Romansch, what is the fourth official language of the Switzerland?

Italian.

  1. Which country is the world’s largest producer of coffee?
    Brazil.
  2. In which city was the world’s first underground train was service opened in 1863?
    London.

  3. How many pairs of ribs are there in the human body?

  4. Which country is separated form Ethiopia by the Red Sea?
    Yemen.

  5. What is the main port of Italy?
    Genoa.

  6. Mount Logan is the highest peak in which country?
    Canada.

  7. In which state is Harvard University?
    New Jersey.

  8. Which is larger: Norway or Finland?
    Finland.

  9. Which city was the first capital of the Kingdom of Italy until 1865?
    Turin.

  10. What is measured by an ammeter?
    Electric current.

  11. What is a rhinoceros horn made of?
    Hair.

  12. Which three countries, apart from the former Yugoslavia, share borders with Greece?
    Albania, Bulgaria, Turkey.

  13. The Palk Strait separates which two countries?
    India and Sri Lanka.

  14. Ga is the symbol for which element?
    Gallium.

  15. In the Greek alphabet, what is the name for the letter O?
    Omicron.

  16. What, in the 16th and 17th century, was a pavana?
    A dance.

  17. A nephron is the functional unit of which organ in the human body?
    Kidney.

  18. In which country is the ancient city of Tarsus?
    Turkey.

  19. The Khyber Pass links which two countries?
    Afghanistan and Pakistan.

  20. Name the six US states that comprise New England.
    Rhode Island, Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and Massachusetts.

  21. Which musical instrument is played by both exhaling and inhaling?
    Harmonica (or mouth organ).

  22. The northern part of which country is called Oesling?
    Luxembourg.

  23. Napier is a city in which country?
    New Zealand.

  24. What is the Hook of Holland?
    A port in the southeast Netherlands,

  25. The river Douro forms part of the border between which two countries?
    Spain and Portugal.

  26. In which country is the Great Slave Lake?
    Canada.

  27. Which six countries border the Black Sea?
    Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine.

  28. Kathmandu is the capital of which country?
    Nepal.

  29. What name is given to a mixture of bicarbonate of soda and tartaric acid used in cooking?
    Baking powder.

  30. AOL are an internet service provider. What does AOL stand for?
    America Online.

  31. Who discovered penicillin?
    Alexander Fleming.

  32. Which English queen had an extra finger on her hand?
    Anne Boleyn.

  33. Which precious metal has the symbol Pt?
    Platinum.

  34. The Gobi desert extends over which two countries?
    China and Mongolia.

  35. Apart from America, which is the only country in the world to which alligators are native?
    China.

  36. Which are the highest types of clouds: stratocumulus or cirrus?
    Cirrus.

  37. Which ancient measure of length was based on the length of the arm from fingertip to elbow?
    Cubit.

  38. After World War I, Transylvania became part of which country?
    Romania.

  39. Which sea in Northern Europe is bounded by several countries including Sweden, Finland, Poland and Germany?
    The Baltic.

  40. A road tunnel runs from Pelerins in France to Entreves in Italy under which mountain?
    Mont Blanc.

  41. The Barents Sea is part of which ocean?
    Arctic.

  42. Which two countries are either side of the mouth of the River Plate?
    Argentina and Uruguay.

  43. Quicklime is an alkaline powder obtained by strongly heating which other material?
    Chalk.

  44. What is the longest river solely in England?
    Thames.

  45. The Great Barrier Reef is off coast of which Australian state?
    Queensland.

  46. What is the name of the milky fluid obtained from trees which is used to produce rubber?
    Latex.

  47. Of what is entymology the study?
    Insects.

  48. Of where is Amman the capital?
    Jordan.

  49. How many innings are there for each team in a game of baseball?
    Nine.

  50. Which is the only mammal with the power of active flight?
    Bat.

  51. Which lower level of clouds are commonly called ‘rain clouds’?
    Nimbus.

  52. What is the longest river in India?
    Ganges.

  53. Which metallic element has the property of catching fire if dropped in hot water?
    Sodium.

  54. Which month of the year obtains its name from the Latin verb for ‘to open’?
    April.

  55. On what river does Rome stand?
    Tiber.

  56. Quantas is the national airline of which country?
    Australia.

  57. What in Scotland is the meaning of the prefix ‘Inver’?
    River mouth.

  58. Which US state has the lowest population?
    Alaska.

  59. Which county is nicknamed the Garden of England?
    Kent.

  60. Which African country was formerly called French Sudan?
    Mali.

  61. Which sport was originally called ‘soccer-in-water’?
    Water polo.

  62. Which unit of measurement is derived from the Arabic quirrat, meaning seed?
    Carat.

  63. Which Italian city was originally built on seven hills?
    Rome.

  64. What does the acronym NAAFI stand for?
    Navy, Army and Air Force Institutes.

  65. Dolomite is an ore of which metal?
    Magnesium.

  66. Manama is the capital of which country?
    Bahrain.

  67. On which river does Berlin stand?
    River Spree.

  68. What type of clock was invented in 1656 by Christian Huygens?
    The pendulum clock.

  69. In which desert is the world’s driest place?
    Atacama (Chile).

  70. Which is the world’s saltiest sea?
    The Red Sea.

  71. …… and which is the least salty?
    The Baltic Sea.

  72. Which nun won the Nobel prize for peace in 1979?
    Mother Teresa.

  73. How many points in the pink ball worth in snooker?
    Six.

  74. Which scientist was named ‘Person of the Century’ by Time Magazine?
    Albert Einstein.

  75. What kind of creature is a monitor?
    Lizard.

  76. Which medical specialty is concerned with the problems and illnesses of children?
    Pediatrics.

  77. Who sailed in Santa Maria?
    Christopher Columbus.

  78. What name is given to the stiffening of the body after death?
    Rigor mortis.

  79. Which country was formerly known as Malagasy Republic?
    Madagascar.

  80. Addis Ababa is the capital of which country?
    Ethiopia.

  81. The name of which North African city literally means ‘white house’?
    Casablanca.

  82. Of what sort of fish is the dogfish a small variety?
    Shark.

  83. Which Asian country was divided at the 38th parallel after World War II?
    Korea.

  84. What is the name of the Winter Olympics event that combines cross-country skiing and shooting?
    Biathlon.

  85. Which American science-fiction writer wrote Fahrenheit 451?
    Ray Bradbury.

  86. For which powerful opiate is diamorphine the technical name?
    Heroin.

  87. How many dominoes are there in a normal set?

  88. Who was cartoonist who created Batman?
    Bob Kane.

  89. Aerophobia is a fear of flying, agoraphobia is a fear of open spaces, what is acrophobia a fear of?
    Heights.

  90. In computing, how is a modulator-demodulator more commonly known?
    Modem.

  91. An auger bit is used to drill what type of material?
    Wood.

  92. What part of the wheelbarrow is the fulcrum?
    The wheel.

  93. What C is a device used to determine small lengths, of which a vernier is one type?
    Caliper.

  94. Rip, chain and band are types of which tools?
    Saw.

  95. What calibrated tool was the standard tool for engineers and scientists prior to the invention of the hand-held calculator?
    Slide rule.

  96. What P is sometimes referred to as block and tackle?
    Pulley.

  97. For what purpose would a gardener use a dibber?
    Making holes.

  98. What J is a device used to raise an object too heavy to deal with by hand?
    Jack.

  99. Ball-pein, club, claw and bush are types of which tool?
    Hammer.

  100. Which African animal’s name means ‘river horse’?
    Hippopotamus.

  101. Which Indian religion was founded by Guru Nanak?
    Sikhism.

  102. What is the most distant of the giant planets?
    Neptune.

  103. What is the capital of Austria?
    Vienna.

  104. What in printing do the letters ‘u.c.’ stand for?
    Upper case.

  105. Which eye infection is sometimes called pinkeye?
    Conjunctivitis.

  106. What sort of creature is an iguana?
    A lizard.

  107. What, politically, does UDI stand for?
    Unilateral declaration of independence.

  108. Wagga Wagga is a city in which Australian state?
    New South Wales.

  109. Which Indian religion celebrated the 300th anniversary of its founding in 1999?
    Sikhism.

  110. What do the initials FBI stand for?
    Federal Bureau of Investigation.

116. By what name is the fruit of the plant Ananas comosus known?
Pineapple.

  1. Donnerstag is German for which day of the week?
    Thursday.
  • What type of citrus fruit is a shamouti?
    Orange.

  • Apiphobia is a fear of what?
    Bees.

  • Which Asian capital city was known as Batavia until 1949?
    Jakarta.

  • Which astronomical unit os distance is greater, a parsec or a light year?
    A parsec.

  • The ancient city of Carthage is now in which country?
    Tunisia.

  • What in Russia is Izvestia?
    A newspaper.

  • Which is the world’s windiest continent?
    Antarctica.

  • In the book Treasure Island what is the name of the ship?
    Hispaniola.

  • In which part of the body are the deltoid muscles?
    Shoulder.

  • E is the international car registration letter for which country?
    Spain.

  • Vienna stands on which river?
    Danube.

  • What type of camel has two lumps?
    Bactrian.

  • In the MG motor car, what do the letters MG stand for?
    Morris Garages.

  • The name of which Roman god means ‘shining father’ in Latin?
    Jupiter.

  • What is the central colour of a rainbow?
    Green.

  • Which French city is a meeting place for the European Parliament?
    Strasbourg.

  • What part of the body consists of the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum?
    Small intestine.

  • Annapurna is a mountain in which mountain range?
    Himalayas.

  • What kind of foodstuff is Monterey Jack? (It was also a cartoon’s name
    ‘What’s for breakfast?’

  • What is the name of a person, plant or animal which shuns the light?
    Lucifugous.

  • What, in field of optics, is biconvex?
    A lens which is convex on both sides.

  • Which country was invaded in Iraq in 1980?
    Iran.

  • What did Johann Galle discover in 1846?
    Neptune.

  • What, in internet terminology, does SMTP stand for?
    Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

  • How is October 24 1929 remembered?
    Black Thursday.

  • The River Danube flows into which sea?
    The Black Sea.

  • Which strait separates the North and South islands of New Zealand?
    Cook Strait.

  • What, in internet terminology, does FTP stand for?
    File Transfer Protocol.

  • Who wrote Black Beauty?
    Anna Sewell.

  • What is the capital of Poland?
    Warsaw.

  • Ice-cream was first produced in which country in the 17th century?
    Italy.

  • In medicine, what does the acronym SARS stand for?
    Severe Acute Respiratory System.

  • Which popular name for Netherlands is actually a low-lying region of the country?
    Holland.

  • Which Shakepeare play was set in Elsinore Castle, Denmark?
    Hamlet.

  • Who said: ‘Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration’?
    Edison.

  • The Kyukyu Island chain lies between which two countries?
    Japan & Taiwan.

  • Which fibrous protein is the major constituent of hair, nails, feathers, beaks and claws?
    Keratin.

  • Of which fruit is morello a variety?
    Cherry.

  • Which explorer discovered Victoris Falls in Africa?
    David Livingstone.

  • Who was the last king of Egypt?
    Farouk.

  • What is the literal meaning of the word mafia?
    Bargging.

  • Which war lasted 16 years longer than its name implies?
    The Hundred Year’s War.

  • What is the national sport of Malaysia and Indonesia?
    Badminton.

  • Which is the shallowest of the Great Lakes?
    Lake Erie.

  • What name is given to minute or microscopic animals and plants that live in the upper layers of fresh and salt water?
    Plankton.

  • Which country was originally named Cathay?
    China.

  • Sinhalese is a language spoken in which country?
    Sri Lanka.

  • The Sao Francisco river flows through which country?
    Brazil.

  • In which sport do teams compete for the Dunhill Cup?
    Golf.

  • Which Shakespeare character’s last words are: ‘The rest is silence’?
    Hamlet.

  • In economics, whose law states that: ‘bad money drives out good money’?
    Gresham’s

  • Who made the first navigation of the globe in the vessel Victoria?
    Magellan.

  • Which mountaineer on being asked why he wanted to climb Everest said: ‘Because it’s there’?
    George Mallory.

  • What was the former name for Sri Lanka?
    Ceylon.

  • Of which Middle East, country is Baghdad the capital?
    Iraq.

  • How many arms does a squid have?
    Ten.

  • Which indoor game is played with a shuttlecock?
    Badminton.

  • Do stalactites grow upwards or downwards?
    Downwards.

  • What food is also called garbanzo?
    Chick-pea.

  • What is the quality rating for diesel fuel, similar to the octane number for petrol?
    Catane number.

  • Which German city and port is at the confluence of the rivers Neckar and Rhine?
    Mannheim.

  • Where in Europe are the only wild apes to be found?
    Gibraltar.

  • The Brabanconne is the national anthem of which country?
    Belgium.

  • In which country is the River Spey?
    Switzerland.

  • Which international environmental pressure group was founded in 1971?
    Greenpeace.

  • What is the capital of Morocco?
    Rabat.

  • How many balls are on the table at the start of a game of pool?
    Sixteen.

  • In which country is the volcano Mount Aso?
    Japan.

  • What name is given to inflammation of one or more joints, causing pain, swelling and restriction of movement?
    Arthritis.

  • Which mineral is the main source of mercury?
    Cinnabar.

  • What A is the national airline of Russia, code name SU?
    Aeroflot.

  • What would be kept in a quiver?
    Arrows.

  • What ‘ology’ is concerned with the study of unidentified flying objects?
    Ufology.

  • Coal and longtailed are types of which bird family?
    Tit.

  • In the game of darts, what is the value of the outer bull?

  • In which part of the human body is the cochlea?
    Ear.

  • What is the modern name of the rocky fortress which the Moors named Gabel-al-Tarik (the Rock of Tarik)?
    Gibraltar.

  • What was the name of German terrorist Andreas Baader’s female partner?
    Ulrike Meinhof.

  • And what was the name of the urban guerrilla organisation they headed?
    The Red Army Faction.

  • Which German bacteriologist discovered Salvarsan, a compound used in the treatment of syphilis, before the introduction of antibiotics?
    Paul Ehrlich.

  • Which ancient Roman satirist wrote the 16 Satires?
    Juvenal.

  • Who became the Queen of Netherlands in 1980?
    Beatrix.

  • Who was the last Bristish king to appear in battle?
    George II.

  • What is the art of preparing, stuffing and mounting the skins of animals to make lifelike models called?
    Taxidermy.

  • What is the Beaufort scale used to measure?
    Wind speed.

  • What is the technical name for abnormally high blood presure?
    Hypertension.

  • What part of eye is responsible for its color?
    The iris.

  • The letter RF on a stamp would indicate it is from which country?
    France.

  • What is the meaning of the musical term cantabile?
    In a singing style.

  • San Juan is the capital of which island in the West Indies?
    Puerto Rico.

  • Which profession gets its name from the Latin word for lead?
    Plumbing.

  • On which part of the body do grasshoppers have their ears?
    Hind legs. 261. Who wrote children’s stories about the land of Narnia?
    C.S. Lewis.

  • What is the second planet from the sun?
    Venus.

  • What is the highest mountain in the Alps?
    Mont Blanc.

  • Of which Caribbean country is Port-au-Prince the capital?
    Haiti.

  • Which German city is asscociated with the legend of the Pied Piper?
    Hameln, or Hamelin.

  • What name is given to the wind pattern that brings heavy rain to South Asia from April to September?
    Monsoon.

  • What is the first book of the New Testament?
    The Gospel according to Saint Matthew.

  • What name is given to the time taken for half the atoms in a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay?
    Half-life.

  • Who was president of Kenya from 1964 to 1978?
    Jomo Kenyatta.

  • Which German author wrote the anti-war novel All Quiet on the Western Front?
    Erich Maria Remarque.

  • Which country had a police force called the Tonton Macoutes?
    Haiti.

  • What would you find in formicary?
    Ants.

  • Who was the first British sovereign to make regular use of Buckingham Palace when in residence in London?
    Queen Victoria.

  • Of where is Sofia the capital?
    Bulgaria.

  • What is meant by the musical term andante?
    At a moderate tempo.

  • In a bullfight, what is the mounted man with a lance called?
    A picador.

  • Which team has a soccer team called Ajax?
    Amsterdam.

  • Which Dutch explorer discovered New Zealand?
    Abel Tasman.

  • Who became first black world heavyweight boxing champion in 1918?
    Jack Johnson.

  • The name of which city in South America means Vale of Paradise?
    Valparaiso.
    _____281. Which gas used in advertising signs has the symbol Ne?
    Neon.

  • Which branch of mathematics uses symbols to represent unknown quantities?
    Algebra.

  • What does the abbreviation RAF stand for?
    Royal Air Force.

  • What name is given to the use of live animals in the experiments?
    Vivisection.

  • Viti Levu is the largest island of which country?
    Fiji.

  • The Golden Arrow was a famous train that ran from Paris to which destination?
    Monte Carlo.

  • Which country fought on both sides during World War II?
    Italy.

  • What centigrade temperature is gas mark 6 equal to?
    200 degrees C.

  • In the game of chess, which piece is called springer in Germany?
    Knight.

  • What is the meaning of the Russian word ‘mir’?
    Peace.

  • Who, in World War II, were Axis Power?
    Germany, Italy. Japan.

  • Which scientist used kites to conduct electrical experiments?
    Benjamin Frankline.

  • What is the longest river in France?
    Loire.

  • Which inventore had a research laboratory at Menlo Park?
    Edison.

  • Which birds fly in groups called skeins?
    Geese.

  • In medicine, which is the most widespread parasitic infection?
    Malaria.

  • What nationality was the explorer Ferdinand Magellan?
    Portuguese.

  • Which Italian city is called Firenze in Italian?
    Florence.

  • What is Autralia’s largest city?
    Sydney.

  • 300. Which term meaning ‘lightning war’ was used to describe military tactics used by Germany in World War II?
    Blitzkrieg.
     *Some useful Measurements for GK*

    1cm = 10mm
    1mitre = 100cm
    1Km = 1000mitres
    1kg = 1000grams
    1gram= 1000milligram(mg)
    1Quintal = 100Kg
    1Metric ton = 1000Kg
    1Pound = 454gm
    1litre = 1000ml
    1kilo litre=1000litres
    1Gallon = 3.79litres
    1Barrel oil= 163.65litres
    1cusec = 1 cubic feet of water flows through a point in one second( this measure used only for flowing water)
    1TMC = 100 crore cubic feet water(this measure used only for reserved water)
    1 inch = 2.54cm
    1 feet =12 inch= 30.48cm
    1Yard(????)= 3feet
    1mile = 1.609 km
    1Natical mile=1.852km
    1 cent= 435.6 sq feet
    1acre = 100 cents
    1Hectare = 2.471 acres
    1kilo byte(KB)=1024bytes
    1Megabyte(MB)=1024KB
    1Gigabyte(GB)=1024MB
    1Terabyte(TB)=1024GB
    1Million=10 Lakhs
    1Billion=1000 Million= 100 crore
    1 Trillion= 1000 Billion=1Lakh crore
    1 Karat = 4.16 ‘/. gold
    24 karat gold=99.5 ‘/. gold(pure gold)
    22 karat gold= 91.6 ‘/. gold + 8.4 ‘/. other metal Normally this 22 Karat gold is called as 916, KDM, HALL MARK
    18 Karat gold=75 ‘/. gold+25 ‘/. other metal
    12 karat gold = 50 ‘/. gold+ 50 ‘/. other metal
    1 Ream = 500 papers
    1gross = 12 dozens = 144 articles

    # Important # Information # to # be # kept
    # for # Record .:

    1 Gunta = 121 Sq yards.
    1 Gunta = 101.171 Sq Meter.
    1 Gaj = 1 Yard
    1 Yard = 36 inch
    1 Yard = 3 feet
    1 Yard = 0.9144 meter =
    1 mtr.
    1 sq Yard = 0.83612 Sq meter.
    1 sq Yard = 9 sq feet.
    1 Sq yard = 1296 Sq inch.
    1 Meter = 1.0936 Yards.
    1 Meter = 39.370 inch.
    1 Meter = 3.280 feet.
    1 Sq meter = 1.1959 Sq yard.
    1 Sq meter = 1550 Sq inch.
    1 Sq Meter = 10.763 Sq feet.
    1 feet = 0.304 meter.
    1 feet = 0.333 yards.
    1 feet =12 inch
    1 Sq feet = 0.111 Sq Yard.
    1 Sq feet = 0.09290 Sq Meter.
    1 Sq feet = 144 Sq inch.
    1 inch = 2.54 vv
    1 Inch = 0.0254 meter.
    1 Inch = 0.0277 yards.
    1 Inch = 0.0833 feet.
    1 Sq Inch = 0.00064516 Sq Meter.
    1 Sq Inch = 0.00077160 Sq Yards.
    1 Sq Inch = 0.00694444 Sq feet.
    1 Acre = 4046.86 Sq Meter.
    1 Acre = 4840 Sq yards.
    1 Acre = 43560 Sq feet..

    *REASONS TO READ BOOKS*

    1. Books help you to feel more confident.
    2. Books help you to travel around the world in the cheapest way.

    3. Books develop your personality.

    4. Books provide food for thought.

    5. Books make you laugh and think.

    6. Books draw you towards perfection.

    7. Books stimulate creativity.

    8. Books bring out writing talent.

    9. Books help you in communicating.

    10. Books clear your vision.

    11. Books satisfy your curiosity.

    12. Books help you make better choices.

    13. Books help you build literary talent.

    14. Books do not require any special device to teach.

    15. Books increase your attention span.

    16. Books are fruitful pastime.

    17. Books can be used anytime, anywhere.

    18. Books provide entertainment, when others fail.

    19. Books make you powerful.

    20. Books help you know the ‘Whys’ and ‘Hows’ of everything.

    21. Books help you to create and spread fun.

    22. Books help you travel across time intelligently.

    23. Books keep you updated with facts and figures.

    24. Books spread love, affection and knowledge.

    25. Books make the best of friends.

    26. Books take you to intellectual environment.

    27. Books help you feel the world around you.

    28. Books entertain your mind.

    29. Books broaden your horizon.

    30. Books bring Nature to your doorstep.

    31. Books bring about a ‘personality change’.

    32. Books increase comprehension.

    33. Books do not require company.

    34. Books are stress-busters.

    35. Books develop a sense of belonging to people around you.

    36. Books provide mental and physical relaxation.

    37. Books act as a communication tool.

    38. Books are intellectually satisfying activity.

    39. Books provide spiritual experience.

    40. Books provide emotional strength.

    41. Books build your self-esteem.

    42. Books help and encourage your imagination to soar.

    43. Books make you smarter and wiser.

    44. Books help you grow.

    45. Books take you to a ‘world of dreams’.

    46. Books can change your life and vision.

    47. Books help you in achieving ‘life goals’.

    48. Books develop wonderful experience.

    49. Books transform lives.

    50. Books inspire, books motivate, books build nations.

    The last point to stress here for everyone is by saying :

    I challenge you to start reading books

    Establish a book club to develop our reading culture.

    Famous-books-and-their-authors

    •Shahnama-i-Islam was written by Hafeez Jalandri.
    • Man who ruled India was written by Philip Woodruff.
    • The book confession was written by Rousseau.
    • Quaid –e-Azam Jinnah. The story of a Nation is written by G.Allana.
    • Heroes and Hero-Worship was written by Carlyle.
    • Foundation of Pakistan was written by Sharif ud din Pirzada.
    • Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam was written by Edward Fitzgeranld.
    • Gitanjali was written by Rabindranath Tagore.
    • Asrar-e-khudi is written by Allama Iqbal
    • Bal-e-Jibril is written by Allama Iqbal
    • Bang-e-dara is written by Allma Iqbal
    • Bostan is written by Sheikh Saadi
    • Darbar-i-Akbari is written by Azad, Muhammad Hussain
    • Gulistan is written by Sheikh Saadi
    • Hayat-i-Jawid is written by Hali
    • Javaid Nama is written by Allama Iqbal
    • Jawab-e-Shikwah is written by Allama Iqbal
    • Ktab al Shifa is written by Ibn Sina
    • Mirat ul Aroos is written by Nazir Ahmed
    • Muqaddamah is written by Ibn Khaldun
    • Shaer o Shaeri is written by Altaf Hussain Hali
    • Mussaddas-i-Hali is written by Altaf Hussain Hali
    • Naqsh-e-Faryadi is written by Faiz Ahmed Faiz
    • Payam-e-Mashriq is written by Allama Iqbal
    • Shahnama is written by Firdausi
    • Tehzeeb al Ikhlaq is written by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
    • Tafhim ul quran is written by Syed Abdul ala Maudoodi.
    • Yadgar-i-Galib is written by Hali
    • Zabur-e-Anjam is written by Dr. Allama Iqbal
    • Zarb-e-Kaleem is written by Dr. Allama Iqbal
    • Arabian Nights is written by Sir Richard Buton
    • An Ideal Husband is written by Oscar Wilde
    • A woman of No importance is written by Oscar Wild
    • Animal Farm is written by George Orwell
    • Anthony Cleopatra is written by W. Shakespeare
    • As you like it is written by W. Shakespeare
    • Caesar and Cleopatra is written by G.B Shaw
    • Comedy of Errors is written by W. Shakespeare
    • Daughter of the East is written by Benazir Bhuto
    • Decline and Fall of Roman Empire is written by Edward Gibbon
    • Doctor’s Dilemma is written by G.B Shaw
    • East of Aden is written by John Steinbeck
    • French Revolution is written by Tomas Carlyle
    • Freedom at Midnight is written by Larry Collins and Dominique Lapiere
    • Gone with the Wind is written by Margaret Mithchel
    • Great Expectations is written by Charles Dickens
    • Gulliver’s Travels is written by Jonathan Swift
    • Hamlet is written by W.Shakespeare
    • Ibn Battuta Travels in Asia and Africa is written by Ibn Battuta
    • Jungle book is written by Rudyard Kipling
    • Jinnah of Pakistan is written by Stanley Wolpert
    • Myth of independence is written by Z. A Bhutto
    • World War is written by W. Churchill
    • Merchant of Venice is written by Shakerpeare
    • Muhammad Ali Jinnah is written by M.H Saiyid
    • Much Ado About Nothing is written by Shakespeare
    • Nine Days Wonder is written by John Masefield
    • Nineteen Eighty Four is written by George Orwell
    • Old man and the Sea is written by Ernest Hamingway
    • Oliver Twist is written by Charles Dickens
    • Origin Of species is written by Charles Darwin
    • Paradise Lost is written by John Milton
    • Pickwick papers is written by Charles Dickens
    • Pride and Prejudice is written by Jane Austen
    • Robinson Crusoe is written by Daniel Defoe
    • Sense and Sensibility is written by Jane Austin
    • Sohrab and Rustam Mathew Arnold
    • Social Contact is written by Rousseau
    • Treasure Island is written by R.L Stevenson
    • Tropic of Cancer is written by Henry Miller
    • Twelfth Night is written by W. Shakespeare
    • A Tale of Two Cities is written by Charles Dickens
    • Vanity of Human Wishes is written by Samuel Johnson
    • Wealth of Nation is written by Adam Simith
    • Zulfi Bhutto of Pakistan is written by Stanley Wolpert
    • Faust is written by Goethe
    • Mein Kampf is written by Hitler
    • Divine Comedy is written by Dante
    • Odyssey (Greek) is written by Homer
    • Utopia is written by Thomas Mooore
    • War and Peace is written by Leo Tolstoy
    • Crime and Punishment is written by F.M Dostovsky
    • Communist Manifesto is written by Karl Marx and Eagles
    • Das Capital is written by Karl Marx
    • The idiot is written by Dostoevsky
    • Don Quixoto is written by Miguel De Cervates
    • The Prince is written by Machiavelli
    • Constitutional Development of Pakistan is written by G.W Choudhry
    • Five Thousand Years of Pakistan is written by Wheeler R.E.M
    • Foreign Policy of Pakistan is written by Zulifkar Ali Bhutto
    • Jinnah, Creator of Pakistan is written by Hecor Bolitho
    • Muslim Separatism in India and Pakistan is written by Abdul Hamid
    • Pakistan the Formative Phase is written by Lawrence Ziring
    • Political Syetem in Pakistan is written by Khalid B. Saeed
    • Politics in Pakistan is written by Khalid B. Saeed
    • Quaid-i-Azam and Pakistan is written by Ahmad Hasan Dani
    • Struggle for Pakistan is written by I.H Qureshi
    • The Emergence of Pakistan is written by Mohammad Ali Choudhry
    • The Making of Pakistan is written by K.K Aziz
    • Towards Pakistan is written by Whaeed-uz-Zaman
    • World Politics Since 1945 is written by P. Calvocrassi
    • Khusboo is written by Parveen Shakir
    • Laila Majnoo is written by Amir Khusro
    • Akbar nama is written by Abu Fazal
    • Al Qanoon fil Tib is written by Ibne Sina
    • Green Book is written by Presisdent Moamoor Gadafi
    • Republic is written by Plato
    • Revolution and Independence is written by Words Worth
    • Road to Freedom is written by Bertrand Russel
    • Romeo and Juliet is written by Shakespeare
    • Joan of Arc is written by G.W Shaw.
    • Foust was written by Goethe.
    • “Profiles in Courage” is written by Henry Kissinger.
    • Pickwick Papers were written by Charles Dickens.
    • “East and Eden” was written by John Steinback.
    • A farewell to Arms is written by Earnest Hemingway.
    • Travel in Arabian Desert was written by C.M Doughty.
    • The spirit of Islam was written by Syed Ameer Ali.
    • The poem Shikwah and Jawab-e-Sikwah was written by Allama Iqbal.
    • Five Thousand Years of Pakistan was written by REM Wheeler.
    • Struggle of Pakistan was written by I.H Qureshi.
    • The poem “Ancient Mariner” is the work of Coleridge.
    • White Papers are policy statements published by the British parliament on the subject of tremendous public importance.
    • Blue Books are the official reports of the British Government.
    • White Books are the official publications of the countries like Portugal, China, and Germany.
    • Yellow Books are the official records of France.
    • Grey Books are the official policy as well as reports of the Japanese government.
    • Green Books are the official reports of the Italian government.
    • Orange Books are the official publication of the Netherlands.
    • Lenin wrote ‘the state and revolution’.
    • Ibn-e-Khaldun retired as a judge.
    • Al Ghazali is known as Hujatul Islam.
    • The name of the book which Al-Farabi wrote is ‘Ara Madinatul Fazila’.
    • Plato wrote ‘the laws’.
    • Aristotle founded ‘the lyceum’.
    • Mao wrote ‘On contradictions’.
    • J.S. Mill wrote ‘On liberty’.
    • Witness to surrender=Siddique Saliq.
    • A short history of Pak:=I.H.Qureshi.
    • Discovery of Pak:= A.Aziz.
    • Foundation of Pak: = Sharifuddin Pirzada.
    • Five Thousand Years of Pak::= R.E.M. Wheeler.
    • History of Freedom Movement=I.H.Qureshi.
    • Jinnah of Pak: = Stanley Woolpert.
    • Jinnah as I know him= Abdul Hassan Isphahani.
    • The Making of Pakistan= Richard Symonds.
    • The Making of Pakistan=K.K.Aziz.
    • Jinnah:Creator of Pak:=Hector Bolithio.
    • Quaid-e-Azam: The Story of A Nation=G.Allana.
    • India wins Freedom= Abdul Kalam Azad.
    • Emergence of Pak:=Ch: Rahmat Ali.
    • Towards Pakistan=Wahiduzaman
    • Transfer of Power in India=V.P.Memon.
    • Pak: Nagozeer Tha= Syed Hasan Raza.
    • Quaid-i-Azam & Pakistan=Ahmed Hassan Dani.
    • Friends not Masters=Ayub Khan.
    • The Pakistan Issue= Nazir Yar Jung.
    • Quid wrote the preface of “My Leader”=Ziauddin Ahmed.
    • Muslim Nationalism in India= Malik Hafeez.
    • Pathway to Pak: = Ch: Khaiquzzaman.
    • The Indian Musalimans= W.W.Hunter.
    • Our Struggle=Mohd: Noman.
    • Evolution of Pak: Sharifuddin Pirzada.
    • Mohd: Ali Jinnah=G.Allana.
    • Birth of Pak: =Dr. Sachin.
    • Pak: the Heart of Asia= Liaquat Ali Khan.
    • Incomplete Partition = Alastair Lamb.
    • Birth of a tragedy= Dr. Tahir Amir.
    • My Last day with Quaid=Ilahi Bux
    • Outline of a scheme of Indian Federation=Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan.
    • Thought on Pakistan= Ambedkar.
    • ‘Freedom’ at Midnight= Larry Collins
    • Hayat-e-Javed was written by Altaf Hussain Hali.
    • The Forgotten Years is an autobiography of from Foreign Minister Sir Zafarullah Khan.
    • Mission with Mountabatten=Alan Campbell Johnson.
    • Religious Thought of Sayyid Ahmed Khan==Bahir Ahmad Dar.
    • The Cambridge History of the British Empire=H.H.Dodwell.
    • Oxford History of India=Vincent Smith.
    • India, Pakistan & the West=Percival Smith.
    • The book “party politics in Pakistan’ (1947-58) is written by K.K.AZIZ.
    • Alice in Wonderland is a book written by Lewis Carrol.
    • Edwina and Nehru is written by Catherine Clement.
    • Beloved is a novel authored by Toni Morrison.
    • Conquest of Happiness was authored by Bertrand Russel.
    • Crossing the Threshold of Hope was authored by Pope John Paul II.
    • Gulliver’s Travel is authored by Jonathan Swift in which there is description of the island of Lilliputs.
    • Higher than Hopes is biography of Nelson Mandela.
    • India Divided is a book written by Dr. Rajenra Parsad.
    • Indian War of Independence is a book written by V.D. Savarkar.
    • Kubla Khan is a poem by Coleridge.
    • Life Divine is a book written by Sri Aurobindo.
    • Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus is the book written by John Gray.
    • Mother India is a book written by Katherine Mayo.
    • My Frozen Turbulence in Kashmir is written by Jagmohan.
    • Unto This Last is written by Ruskin.
    • Who wrote Gone with the Wind: Margaret Mitchell
    • Who wrote “History of God”? Karen Armstrong
    • Raghuvasma was written by Kalidas.
    • Grief and Hope is a book written by Noa Ben Artizi-Plossof, grand-daughter of slain Israili PM Yitzak Rabin.
    • Freedom Behind Bars is a book written by Kiran Bedi.
    • Hayat-e-Jawaid, written by Altaf Hussain Hali, is on the life of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
    • “The Sun also Rises” is written by Earnest Hemingway.
    • Khadija Mastoor wrote Angan.
    • Imam Ghazali is the author of Ihya-ul-Uloom.
    • Montesquieu wrote ‘the spirit of laws’.
    • Who wrote the book – Call of the Wild-Jack London
    • Who wrote “Voyage through History”? Musarrt Hussain Zuberi
    • Who is the author of “Preparing for the Twenty First Century”? Paul Kennedy
    • Who wrote “Supreme Court and Human Rights”? Tamizuddin
    • The author of famous book, “Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy” is Henry Kissinger.
    • ‘Rise and Fall of Great Powers’ is the work of Paul Kennedy.
    • My Experiments with Truth is autobiography of Mahtma GandhiFamous-books-and-their-authors

    •Shahnama-i-Islam was written by Hafeez Jalandri.
    • Man who ruled India was written by Philip Woodruff.
    • The book confession was written by Rousseau.
    • Quaid –e-Azam Jinnah. The story of a Nation is written by G.Allana.
    • Heroes and Hero-Worship was written by Carlyle.
    • Foundation of Pakistan was written by Sharif ud din Pirzada.
    • Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam was written by Edward Fitzgeranld.
    • Gitanjali was written by Rabindranath Tagore.
    • Asrar-e-khudi is written by Allama Iqbal
    • Bal-e-Jibril is written by Allama Iqbal
    • Bang-e-dara is written by Allma Iqbal
    • Bostan is written by Sheikh Saadi
    • Darbar-i-Akbari is written by Azad, Muhammad Hussain
    • Gulistan is written by Sheikh Saadi
    • Hayat-i-Jawid is written by Hali
    • Javaid Nama is written by Allama Iqbal
    • Jawab-e-Shikwah is written by Allama Iqbal
    • Ktab al Shifa is written by Ibn Sina
    • Mirat ul Aroos is written by Nazir Ahmed
    • Muqaddamah is written by Ibn Khaldun
    • Shaer o Shaeri is written by Altaf Hussain Hali
    • Mussaddas-i-Hali is written by Altaf Hussain Hali
    • Naqsh-e-Faryadi is written by Faiz Ahmed Faiz
    • Payam-e-Mashriq is written by Allama Iqbal
    • Shahnama is written by Firdausi
    • Tehzeeb al Ikhlaq is written by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
    • Tafhim ul quran is written by Syed Abdul ala Maudoodi.
    • Yadgar-i-Galib is written by Hali
    • Zabur-e-Anjam is written by Dr. Allama Iqbal
    • Zarb-e-Kaleem is written by Dr. Allama Iqbal
    • Arabian Nights is written by Sir Richard Buton
    • An Ideal Husband is written by Oscar Wilde
    • A woman of No importance is written by Oscar Wild
    • Animal Farm is written by George Orwell
    • Anthony Cleopatra is written by W. Shakespeare
    • As you like it is written by W. Shakespeare
    • Caesar and Cleopatra is written by G.B Shaw
    • Comedy of Errors is written by W. Shakespeare
    • Daughter of the East is written by Benazir Bhuto
    • Decline and Fall of Roman Empire is written by Edward Gibbon
    • Doctor’s Dilemma is written by G.B Shaw
    • East of Aden is written by John Steinbeck
    • French Revolution is written by Tomas Carlyle
    • Freedom at Midnight is written by Larry Collins and Dominique Lapiere
    • Gone with the Wind is written by Margaret Mithchel
    • Great Expectations is written by Charles Dickens
    • Gulliver’s Travels is written by Jonathan Swift
    • Hamlet is written by W.Shakespeare
    • Ibn Battuta Travels in Asia and Africa is written by Ibn Battuta
    • Jungle book is written by Rudyard Kipling
    • Jinnah of Pakistan is written by Stanley Wolpert
    • Myth of independence is written by Z. A Bhutto
    • World War is written by W. Churchill
    • Merchant of Venice is written by Shakerpeare
    • Muhammad Ali Jinnah is written by M.H Saiyid
    • Much Ado About Nothing is written by Shakespeare
    • Nine Days Wonder is written by John Masefield
    • Nineteen Eighty Four is written by George Orwell
    • Old man and the Sea is written by Ernest Hamingway
    • Oliver Twist is written by Charles Dickens
    • Origin Of species is written by Charles Darwin
    • Paradise Lost is written by John Milton
    • Pickwick papers is written by Charles Dickens
    • Pride and Prejudice is written by Jane Austen
    • Robinson Crusoe is written by Daniel Defoe
    • Sense and Sensibility is written by Jane Austin
    • Sohrab and Rustam Mathew Arnold
    • Social Contact is written by Rousseau
    • Treasure Island is written by R.L Stevenson
    • Tropic of Cancer is written by Henry Miller
    • Twelfth Night is written by W. Shakespeare
    • A Tale of Two Cities is written by Charles Dickens
    • Vanity of Human Wishes is written by Samuel Johnson
    • Wealth of Nation is written by Adam Simith
    • Zulfi Bhutto of Pakistan is written by Stanley Wolpert
    • Faust is written by Goethe
    • Mein Kampf is written by Hitler
    • Divine Comedy is written by Dante
    • Odyssey (Greek) is written by Homer
    • Utopia is written by Thomas Mooore
    • War and Peace is written by Leo Tolstoy
    • Crime and Punishment is written by F.M Dostovsky
    • Communist Manifesto is written by Karl Marx and Eagles
    • Das Capital is written by Karl Marx
    • The idiot is written by Dostoevsky
    • Don Quixoto is written by Miguel De Cervates
    • The Prince is written by Machiavelli
    • Constitutional Development of Pakistan is written by G.W Choudhry
    • Five Thousand Years of Pakistan is written by Wheeler R.E.M
    • Foreign Policy of Pakistan is written by Zulifkar Ali Bhutto
    • Jinnah, Creator of Pakistan is written by Hecor Bolitho
    • Muslim Separatism in India and Pakistan is written by Abdul Hamid
    • Pakistan the Formative Phase is written by Lawrence Ziring
    • Political Syetem in Pakistan is written by Khalid B. Saeed
    • Politics in Pakistan is written by Khalid B. Saeed
    • Quaid-i-Azam and Pakistan is written by Ahmad Hasan Dani
    • Struggle for Pakistan is written by I.H Qureshi
    • The Emergence of Pakistan is written by Mohammad Ali Choudhry
    • The Making of Pakistan is written by K.K Aziz
    • Towards Pakistan is written by Whaeed-uz-Zaman
    • World Politics Since 1945 is written by P. Calvocrassi
    • Khusboo is written by Parveen Shakir
    • Laila Majnoo is written by Amir Khusro
    • Akbar nama is written by Abu Fazal
    • Al Qanoon fil Tib is written by Ibne Sina
    • Green Book is written by Presisdent Moamoor Gadafi
    • Republic is written by Plato
    • Revolution and Independence is written by Words Worth
    • Road to Freedom is written by Bertrand Russel
    • Romeo and Juliet is written by Shakespeare
    • Joan of Arc is written by G.W Shaw.
    • Foust was written by Goethe.
    • “Profiles in Courage” is written by Henry Kissinger.
    • Pickwick Papers were written by Charles Dickens.
    • “East and Eden” was written by John Steinback.
    • A farewell to Arms is written by Earnest Hemingway.
    • Travel in Arabian Desert was written by C.M Doughty.
    • The spirit of Islam was written by Syed Ameer Ali.
    • The poem Shikwah and Jawab-e-Sikwah was written by Allama Iqbal.
    • Five Thousand Years of Pakistan was written by REM Wheeler.
    • Struggle of Pakistan was written by I.H Qureshi.
    • The poem “Ancient Mariner” is the work of Coleridge.
    • White Papers are policy statements published by the British parliament on the subject of tremendous public importance.
    • Blue Books are the official reports of the British Government.
    • White Books are the official publications of the countries like Portugal, China, and Germany.
    • Yellow Books are the official records of France.
    • Grey Books are the official policy as well as reports of the Japanese government.
    • Green Books are the official reports of the Italian government.
    • Orange Books are the official publication of the Netherlands.
    • Lenin wrote ‘the state and revolution’.
    • Ibn-e-Khaldun retired as a judge.
    • Al Ghazali is known as Hujatul Islam.
    • The name of the book which Al-Farabi wrote is ‘Ara Madinatul Fazila’.
    • Plato wrote ‘the laws’.
    • Aristotle founded ‘the lyceum’.
    • Mao wrote ‘On contradictions’.
    • J.S. Mill wrote ‘On liberty’.
    • Witness to surrender=Siddique Saliq.
    • A short history of Pak:=I.H.Qureshi.
    • Discovery of Pak:= A.Aziz.
    • Foundation of Pak: = Sharifuddin Pirzada.
    • Five Thousand Years of Pak::= R.E.M. Wheeler.
    • History of Freedom Movement=I.H.Qureshi.
    • Jinnah of Pak: = Stanley Woolpert.
    • Jinnah as I know him= Abdul Hassan Isphahani.
    • The Making of Pakistan= Richard Symonds.
    • The Making of Pakistan=K.K.Aziz.
    • Jinnah:Creator of Pak:=Hector Bolithio.
    • Quaid-e-Azam: The Story of A Nation=G.Allana.
    • India wins Freedom= Abdul Kalam Azad.
    • Emergence of Pak:=Ch: Rahmat Ali.
    • Towards Pakistan=Wahiduzaman
    • Transfer of Power in India=V.P.Memon.
    • Pak: Nagozeer Tha= Syed Hasan Raza.
    • Quaid-i-Azam & Pakistan=Ahmed Hassan Dani.
    • Friends not Masters=Ayub Khan.
    • The Pakistan Issue= Nazir Yar Jung.
    • Quid wrote the preface of “My Leader”=Ziauddin Ahmed.
    • Muslim Nationalism in India= Malik Hafeez.
    • Pathway to Pak: = Ch: Khaiquzzaman.
    • The Indian Musalimans= W.W.Hunter.
    • Our Struggle=Mohd: Noman.
    • Evolution of Pak: Sharifuddin Pirzada.
    • Mohd: Ali Jinnah=G.Allana.
    • Birth of Pak: =Dr. Sachin.
    • Pak: the Heart of Asia= Liaquat Ali Khan.
    • Incomplete Partition = Alastair Lamb.
    • Birth of a tragedy= Dr. Tahir Amir.
    • My Last day with Quaid=Ilahi Bux
    • Outline of a scheme of Indian Federation=Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan.
    • Thought on Pakistan= Ambedkar.
    • ‘Freedom’ at Midnight= Larry Collins
    • Hayat-e-Javed was written by Altaf Hussain Hali.
    • The Forgotten Years is an autobiography of from Foreign Minister Sir Zafarullah Khan.
    • Mission with Mountabatten=Alan Campbell Johnson.
    • Religious Thought of Sayyid Ahmed Khan==Bahir Ahmad Dar.
    • The Cambridge History of the British Empire=H.H.Dodwell.
    • Oxford History of India=Vincent Smith.
    • India, Pakistan & the West=Percival Smith.
    • The book “party politics in Pakistan’ (1947-58) is written by K.K.AZIZ.
    • Alice in Wonderland is a book written by Lewis Carrol.
    • Edwina and Nehru is written by Catherine Clement.
    • Beloved is a novel authored by Toni Morrison.
    • Conquest of Happiness was authored by Bertrand Russel.
    • Crossing the Threshold of Hope was authored by Pope John Paul II.
    • Gulliver’s Travel is authored by Jonathan Swift in which there is description of the island of Lilliputs.
    • Higher than Hopes is biography of Nelson Mandela.
    • India Divided is a book written by Dr. Rajenra Parsad.
    • Indian War of Independence is a book written by V.D. Savarkar.
    • Kubla Khan is a poem by Coleridge.
    • Life Divine is a book written by Sri Aurobindo.
    • Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus is the book written by John Gray.
    • Mother India is a book written by Katherine Mayo.
    • My Frozen Turbulence in Kashmir is written by Jagmohan.
    • Unto This Last is written by Ruskin.
    • Who wrote Gone with the Wind: Margaret Mitchell
    • Who wrote “History of God”? Karen Armstrong
    • Raghuvasma was written by Kalidas.
    • Grief and Hope is a book written by Noa Ben Artizi-Plossof, grand-daughter of slain Israili PM Yitzak Rabin.
    • Freedom Behind Bars is a book written by Kiran Bedi.
    • Hayat-e-Jawaid, written by Altaf Hussain Hali, is on the life of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
    • “The Sun also Rises” is written by Earnest Hemingway.
    • Khadija Mastoor wrote Angan.
    • Imam Ghazali is the author of Ihya-ul-Uloom.
    • Montesquieu wrote ‘the spirit of laws’.
    • Who wrote the book – Call of the Wild-Jack London
    • Who wrote “Voyage through History”? Musarrt Hussain Zuberi
    • Who is the author of “Preparing for the Twenty First Century”? Paul Kennedy
    • Who wrote “Supreme Court and Human Rights”? Tamizuddin
    • The author of famous book, “Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy” is Henry Kissinger.
    • ‘Rise and Fall of Great Powers’ is the work of Paul Kennedy.
    • My Experiments with Truth is autobiography of Mahtma Gandhi
    [11/29, 9:43 AM] ‪+92 313 4987727‬: Marginal Line : 320 km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border
    Line of Actual Control : India & China on the Northern Border
    Line of Control : India and Pakistan
    Durand Line : Afghanistan and Pakistan
    Radcliffe Line : India and Pakistan (its includes Bangladesh Line)
    Blue Line : Isreal & Lebanon
    Purple Line : Israel and Syria
    Green Line : Israel and its neighbours (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria)
    Mason–Dixon line : Maryland and Pennsylvania/Delaware in Colonial America
    Curzon Line : Poland & Russia
    Military Demarcation Line (MDL) or Armistice Line : North Korea and South Korea
    McMohan Line : India & China
    Maginot Line : France & Germany
    Mannar haime line : Russia & Finland
    Order Neisse Line : Germany & Poland (aftermath of World War II)
    Hindenburg Line : Poland & Germany (at the time of First World War)
    Sigfried Line East : France & Germany (at the time ofsecond world war)
    16 Parallel North : Angola and Namibia
    17th Parallel Line : North & South Vietnam
    20 Parallel North : Libya & Sudan
    22 Parallel North : Egypt & Sudan
    25 Parallel North : Mauritania & Mali
    26 Parallel North : Western Sahara & Mauritania
    31 Parallel North : Iraq & Iran
    35 Parallel North : US it serves as border b/w Tennessee/Mississippi, Tennnessee/Alabama,
    Tennesse/Georgia, NorthCarolina/Georgia
    36 Parallel North : In the US it Forms forms the southernmost boundary of the state of Missouri with the
    state of Arkansas
    38 Parallel North Line : North & South Korea
    40 Parallel North : US it serves as border b/w Nebraska &Kansas
    41 Parallel North : US it forms the border b/w wyoming/utah border, Wyoming/colorado,
    Nebraska/Colorado.
    42 Parallel North : US it serves as border of new york & Pennsylvania Border
    43 Parallel North : US it serves as border of b/w State Nebraska &state of south Dakota
    45 Parallel North : US it forms the boundary b/w Montana & wyoming
    49 Parallel North (Medicine Line) : USA & Canada

    : 🌈 *LAKES of Pakistan* 🌈

    🌏1. Lalusar, lake is located in ,Kaghan,.

    🌍2. keenjher lake, is located near ,Thatta Sindh,.

    🌍3. Hamune lake ,is located in Baluchistan.

    🌏4. Phander lake, is located in N.W.F.P.

    🌍5. Manchhar lake, is located near Dadu Sindh.

    🌍6. Saif-ul-Maluk lake, is located in Kaghan.

    🌏7. The largest lake, of Pakistan is Manchhar.

    🌍8. Hina lake, is located near Queeta.

    🌏9. Kalar kahar, lake is located in Salt Range.(Chakwal Punjab)

    🌍10. Hub lake, is located near Karachi Sindh.

    🌍11. Haleji lake, is located in Sindh.(Paradise of birds)

    🌏12. Kachura lake, is located is situated in Skardu.

    🌏13. Sat Para lake, is located near Baltistan.

    🌍14. Rawal lake, is located in Islamabad.

    🌍15. Keenjhar, is the largest lake of Pakistan.

    🌏16. Manchar is the largest fresh water lake.

    ⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕

    ✅✅ *GLACIERS of Pakistan*✅✅

    🎈1. 13% area of mountain region is covered by glacier in Pakistan.

    🎈2. In Pakistan glaciers covers the area of 13680 sqkm.

    🎈3. Siachen, Hispar, Biafo, Batura, Chogo Lungma and Yengunta glaciers, are present in Karakoram Range.

    🎈4. Siachen glacier, is present in the region of Baltistan.

    🎈5. The total length of Siachen glacier, is 72.5 km.

    🎈6. Batura, is the 2nd largest glacier of Pakistan, with the length of 64.5 km,.

    🎈7. Baltoro glacier, is situated in the mountain range of Karakoram,.

    🎈8. Siachen, is the highest glacier of Pakistan.

    🎈9. The total length of Hispar glacier, is 49 km. Biafo glacier is 67 km long.

    🎈10. Siachen is the longest glacier ,of Pakistan.

    🎈11. The total length of Baltoro glacier, is 58 km.

    🎈12. The total length of Siachen glacier, is 20000 feet.

    ⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕

      💧 *RIVERS of Pakistan*💧

    🌊1. Jhelum and Chenab, rivers meet at Trimmu.

    🌊2. All rivers of Punjab enter into river Indus at Kot Mithan.

    🌊3. River Indus is also known as ,Abaseen river,Attock river and, Skardu river,.

    🌊4. The smallest river, of Pakistan is Ravi.

    🌊5. The longest river, of Pakistan is Indus,.

    🌊6. The total length of river Indus is 2900km.

    🌊7. The total length of river Ravi, is 715km.

    🌊8. Harrapa city, is situated on the bank of Ravi.

    🌊9. The river in Pakistan whose annual flow is twice,that of the Nile is river Indus,.

    🌊10. The Indus River rises, from Tibet,.

    🌊11. There are seven rivers, flow in Baluchistan,.

    🌊12. Hingol is the largest river of Baluchistan.

    🌊13. Indus River ends, at ArabianSea,.

    🌊14. There are four rivers, flow in Sindh,.

    🌊15. Panjkora River, is located in N.W.F.P.

    🌊16. There are five rivers flow, in Punjab.

    🌊17. There are eight rivers flow in N.W.F.P.

    🌊18. Bolan River, is located in Baluchistan.

    🌊19. Baran River, is located in Sindh.

    🌊20. Most of the country’s rivers flow into Indus River.

    🌊21. There are twenty four rivers in Pakistan.

    🌊22. Dasht River, is located in Baluchistan.

    🌊23. Porali River, is located in Baluchistan.

    🌊24. Gomal and Karam rivers, are located in N.W.F.P.

    🌊25. Indus River is called Nile ,of pakistan.

    ⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕⭕

    “””===List Important organization with head Quarter”””=====

    1.””HQ of UNO”””====New York===
    2″””HQ of ICC””””
    ====Dubai Abu Dhabi===
    3.””””HQ of Hockey””””
    ===Lausanne(Switzerland)===
    4.”””HQ of Olympic Game””””
    ====Lausanne(Switzerland)====
    5.””HQ of FIFA “””””
    ====Zurich ( Switzerland)===
    6.”””HQ of Brics””””
    =====Shanghai===
    7.”HQ of Shanghai Cooperation Organization””””
    ====Beijing ( China)===
    8.””””Union European Football Association””””
    ,====Nyon ( Switzerland)===
    9.Economic Cooperation Organization”
    ”====Tehran ( Iran )===
    10.”””””International Civil Aviation organization””””
    ==== Quebic (Canneda)===
    11.””United nation industrial development organization””
    ====Vienna (Autaria)===
    12.”Asia Pacific economic corporation”
    ===Singapore 1968===
    13.””””Organization of petroleum exporting countries”””
    =====Vienna ( Austria)===
    14.”””HQ of All India Muslim League”””
    =====Likhnao====
    15.”””””HQ of Seato”””
    ===Bankok (Thailand)===
    16.””””HQ of Sento””””
    ====Ankara===
    17.”””””””HQ of D-8″”””
    ======Turkey====
    18.””””HQ of Arab League””””
    =====Qaira (Egypt)====
    19.””””””HQ Of SAARC”””
    ===Khatamandu ( Nepal)===
    20″”HQ of Gulf Cooperational Council”
    ====Riyadh ( Saudi Arab)===
    21.””””HQ of World Bank””””
    =====Washington===
    22.””””HQ of ASEAN”””
    ====Jakrta===
    23.”””HQ Of International labour Organization”””
    ====Jeneva===
    24.””HQ of International civil aviation organization””
    ==Montreal (Canneda)===
    25.”HQ of International Monetary Fund
    =======Washington DC=====
    26.””””HQ of Food and agriculture organization””””
    ====Rome (Itly)===
    27.”””HQ of Universal postal union”””
    ===Burn (Switzerland)===
    28.”””HQ of International development association””””
    ===Washington===
    29.”HQ of International bank reconstruction development””
    ====Washington===
    30.”””HQ of International finance corporation””””
    ===Washington====
    31.””””world trade organization
    Geneva””””
    32.””World health organization””””
    ======Geneva====
    33.”””HQ of UNESCO””””
    ====Paris France====
    34.”””HQ of Amnesty International
    London Britain””””
    35.=====HQ of UNICEF====
    ====New York America===
    36.”””HQ of World economic forum”””
    ===Cologny Switzerland===
    37.””””HQ of International committee red cross “”””
    ===Geneva===
    38.””””HQ of International telecommunications union””””
    ====Geneva===
    39.””””HQ of United high commissioned for refugees””””
    ====Geneva===
    40.”HQ of Transparency international”””
    ===Berlin Germany===
    41.”””HQ of Interpol””
    ===Lyon France===
    42.”HQ of World Tourism organisation”
    ==Madrid (Spain)===
    43.””””””HQ of International atomic energy agency””””””
    ====Vienna Austria===
    44.”””HQ of European Union””””
    ====Brussels===
    45.””””HQ of NATO””””
    ====Brussels (Belgium)===

    English vocabulary

    (((((Vocabulary))))))

    Criteria:معیار
    Forbidden:حرام
    Lick:چاٹنا
    Inheritance:میراث
    Dave:ڈیو
    Guilt:جرم
    Seduce:بہکانا
    Racked:شکار
    Bustle:ہلچل
    Pale:پیلا
    Envisaged:پرختیارپت
    Envisage:کلپنا
    Dude:یار
    Animate:ذی
    Animated:متحرک
    Riddle:میں پہیلی
    Integer:عددی
    Slump:بحران
    Candid:صاف گوئی
    Cosmic:برہمانڈیی
    Tiny:چھوٹے
    Complement:ازدیاد
    Vagina:اندام نہانی
    Vars:تازہ
    Infantry:انفنٹری
    Pitch:پچ
    Arthritis:گٹھیا
    Convenient:آسان
    Charismas:کرسمس
    Devoted:وقف
    Bared:ننگی
    Beard:داڑھی
    Holistic:کلی
    Resolutions:قراردادوں
    Organic:نامیاتی
    Hovered:معلق
    Overhead:ہیڈ
    Indulge:قتل
    Deny:جھٹلاؤ
    Apologias:کسیلی
    Apologise:مستثنی تقاضہ
    Rude:اشج
    Reversal:الٹ
    Affirmation:اثبات
    Themself:اپنے آپ کو
    Yourself:اپنے آپ
    Consequent:نتیجے
    Fell:گر گئی
    Monotony:ایکرستا
    Variation:تغیرات
    Similarity:مماثلت
    Dissimilarity:فرق
    Journey:سفر
    Particular:خاص
    Particulars:تفصیلات
    Halts:روک دی
    Halt:رک
    Object:اعتراض
    Classification:درجہ بندی
    Engaging:دلفریب
    Trolly:ٹرالی
    Admissible:قابل قبول
    Engage:مشغول
    Engages:مصروف
    Remark:کیفیت
    Steamer:سٹیمر
    Mate:ساتھی
    Fere:تقریبا
    Often:اکثر
    Infrequently:اکثر
    Rarely:شاذ و نادر ہی
    Fare:کرایہ
    Segments:طبقات
    Fragment:فریگمنٹ
    Fairies:پریوں
    Intimacy:انترنگتا
    Sag:جھک
    Fuss:اپددر
    Devotion:عقیدت
    Passion:جذبہ
    Bestowed:عطا
    Elaborate:وضاحت
    Quest:کویسٹ
    Inquiry:انکوائری
    Ruse:چال
    Belated:تاخیر
    Belate:تاخیر
    Invasive:ناگوار
    Noninvasive:غیر ناگوار
    Retaliate:جوابی کارروائی
    Accept:قبول کریں
    Faint:بیہوش
    Miscreant:شرپسند
    Confiscate:ضبط
    Gender:صنفی

    *Word of Encouragement:*

    حوصلہ افزائی کے الفاظ:

    1. You can do it!
      آپ اسے کر سکتے ہیں!
    2. Go for it!
      اسے کر ڈالیں!

    3. You kept going, even when it was hard
      کرتے رہیں، اگرچہ کہ کرنا مشکل ہو

    4. You look so pleased to have done that.
      آپ اسے کر کے بہت خوش نظر آتے ہیں۔

    5. Don’t worry about it!
      اس کے بارے میں پریشان نہ ہوں!

    6. You’ll do better next time.
      آپ اگلی بار بہتر کریں گے۔

    7. It could have gone worse
      یہ بدتر ہو سکتا تھا۔

    8. Be positive
      مثب رہیں۔

    9. Every cloud has a silver lining
      ہر بادل میں ایک چاندنی لکیر ہوتی ہے۔

    10. Don’t give up.
      ہمت نہ ہاریں۔

    11. Practice makes a man perfect!
      مشق سے آدمی کامل بنتا ہے!

    12. You are strong and will get over it
      آپ مضبوط ہیں اور آپ اس کو کر ڈالیں گے!

    13. Do the impossible.
      ناممکن چیز کریں۔

    14. The sky is the limit
      آسمان حد ہے۔

    15. Give it a try!
      اسے آزمائیں!

    16. Stay strong!
      مضبوط رہیں!

    17. Great! You did it on your own.
      عظیم! آپ نے اسے خود سے کیا۔
      CSS ENGLISH MANIA

    *ENGLISH VOCABULARY*

    Crucial
    Critical
    مشکلات سے بھرپور

    Compassion
    Sympathy
    ہمدردی

    Merely
    Simply , Just
    صرف، سوائے

    Bond
    Contract
    تعلق

    Aggression
    Pugnacity
    فساد

    Eloquently
    Clearly
    واضح طور پر

    Era
    Period, Age
    زمانہ، دور

    Inadequate
    Insufficient
    ناکافی

    Orator
    Speech Maker
    مقرر

    Gratitude
    Feeling of being grateful
    شکرگزاری

    Venerated
    Revered
    عزت و احترام کرنا

    Discontent
    A sense of grievance
    بےچین، انتشار

    Negation
    Denial
    انکار، نفی

    Jeopardy
    Danger
    خطرہ

    Miserable plight
    Bad state
    برےحالات

    Poised
    Placid
    مطمئن

    Permitted
    Allowed
    اجازت دی جائے

    Accomplished
    Finished
    مکمل ہو جانا، ختم ہو جانا

    Ideal
    Conceptual
    تصور

    Longing
    Dreaming
    تمننا

    Obvious
    Clear
    واضح

    Esteem
    Regard, Admiration
    احترام، تعظیم

    Moment
    Instant
    Iلمحہ

    Disquieting
    Discomposing
    بےجوڑ
    ……………….☆☆☆☆☆
    ‬: Who is the current IG of Islamabad Police?
    A. Sultan Azam Temuri
    B. Muhammad Khalid Khattak
    C. Lt Retired Jan Muhammad✅✅
    D. Sikandar Hayat
    [17/09 9:18 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Who is the current IG of Balochistan Police?
    A. moazzam jah Ansari
    B. Mr. Mushtaq Ahmed Sukhera
    C. Mohsin Hassan Butt✅✅
    D. Mr. Ahsan Mehboob
    [17/09 9:18 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Who is the current IG of Azad Kashmir AJK Police?
    A. Bashir Memon
    B. Zulfiqar Ahmed Cheema
    C. Malik Khuda Bakhsh Awan
    D. Shoaib Dastgir✅✅
    [17/09 9:18 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Who is the current IG of New Railways Police?
    A. Dr Syed Kaleem Imam
    B. Mujeebur Rehman✅✅
    C. Captain (retd) Arif Nawaz Khan
    D. Muhammad Khalid Khattak
    [17/09 9:18 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Who is the Current Governor of khyber pakhtunkhwa (KPK)?
    A. Shaukatullah Khan
    B. Shah Farman✅✅
    C. Iqbal Zafar Jhagra
    D. Sardar Mehtab Abbasi
    [17/09 9:18 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Current Governor of Punjab is __________?
    A. Chaudhry Sarwar✅✅
    B. Salman Taseer
    C. Shehbaz Sharif
    D. Malik Rafiq Rajwana
    [17/09 9:18 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Current Governor Sindh is _______________?
    A. Imran Ismail✅✅
    B. Dr. Ishratul Ebad
    C. Justice(R) Saeed U zaman Saddiqi
    D. Muhammad Zubair
    [17/09 9:18 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Who is the governor of The State Bank of Pakistan?
    A. Mr. Riaz Riazuddin
    B. Ashraf Mahmood Wathra
    C. Tariq Bajwa✅✅
    D. Shahid Hafeez Kardar
    [17/09 11:31 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Current Governor of Gilgit-Baltistan is_____________?
    A. Mir Ghazanfar Ali Khan✅✅
    B. Mr. Muhammad Jaffar
    C. Syed Pir Karam Ali Shah
    D. Mr. Aftab Haider
    [17/09 11:31 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Who is the Current Chief Minister of BALOCHISTAN?
    A. Jam Mir Kamal Khan ✅✅
    B. Abdul Quddus Bizenjo
    C. Sardar Sanaullah Zehri
    D. Ghous Bakhsh Barozai
    :

    I am not a mathematician I find this to be Very interesting and meaningful message 2 share:

    If:
    A = 1 ; B = 2 ; C = 3 ; D = 4 ;
    E = 5 ; F = 6 ; G = 7 ; H = 8 ;
    I = 9 ; J = 10 ; K = 11 ; L = 12 ;
    M = 13 ; N = 14 ; O = 15 ; P = 16 ;
    Q = 17 ; R = 18 ; S = 19 ; T = 20 ;
    U = 21 ; V = 22 ; W = 23 ; X =24 ;
    Y = 25 ; Z = 26.

    Then,

    H+A+R+D+W+O+R+K
    =8+1+18+4+23+15+18+11
    = 98%

    K+N+O+W+L+E+D+G+E
    =11+14+15+23+12+5+4+7+5
    =96%

    L+O+V+E
    = 12+15+22+5
    = 54%

    L+U+C+K ;
    =12+21+3+11
    = 47%

    None of them makes 100%.
    Then what makes 100%?

    Is it Money?
    .
    .
    .
    NO!

    M+O+N+E+Y
    = 13+15+14+5+25
    =72%

    Leadership?
    .
    .
    .
    NO!

    L+E+A+D+E+R+S+H+I+P
    =12+5+1+4+5+18+19+8+9+16
    =97%

    Every problem has a solution, only if we perhaps change our

    “ATTITUDE”…

    A+T+T+I+T+U+D+E ;
    1+20+20+9+20+21+4+5
    = 100%

    It is therefore OUR ATTITUDE towards Life and Work that makes
    OUR Life 100% Successful.

    *Amazing mathematics

    👈 👌👌👌👌💖✨✨✨🌟🌟🌟✨

    72شہدائے کربلا

    1 حضرت امام حسین
    2 حضرت عباس بن علی
    3 حضرت علی اکبر بن حسین
    4 حضرت علی اصغر بن حسین
    5 حضرت عبداللہ بن علی
    6 حضرت جعفر بن علی
    7 حضرت عثمان بن علی
    8 حضرت ابوبکر بن علی
    9 حضرت ابوبکر بن حسن بن علی
    10 حضرت قاسم بن حسن بن علی
    11 حضرت عبداللہ بن حسن
    12 حضرت عون بن عبداللہ بن جعفر
    13 حضرت محمد بن عبداللہ بن جعفر
    14 حضرت عبداللہ بن مسلم بن عقیل
    15 حضرت محمد بن مسلم
    16 حضرت محمد بن سعید بن عقیل
    17 حضرت عبدالرحمن بن عقیل
    18 حضرت جعفر بن عقیل
    19 حضرت حبیب ابن مظاہر اسدی
    20حضرت أنس بن حارث اسدی
    21 حضرت مسلم بن عوسجہ اسدی
    22 حضرت قیس بن عشر اسدی.
    23 حضرت ابو ثمامہ بن عبداللہ
    24 حضرت بریر ہمدانی
    25 حضرت ہنزلہ بن اسد
    26 حضرت عابس شاکری
    27 حضرت عبدالرحمن رہبی
    28 حضرت سیف بن حارث
    29 حضرت عامر بن عبداللہ ہمدانی.
    30 حضرت جندا بن حارث
    31 حضرت شوذب بن عبداللہ
    32 حضرت نافع بن حلال
    33 حضرت حجاج بن مسروق مؤذن
    34 حضرت عمر بن کرضہ
    35 حضرت عبدالرحمن بن عبد رب
    36 حضرت جندا بن کعب
    37 حضرت عامر بن جندا
    38 حضرت نعیم بن عجلان
    39 حضرت سعد بن حارث
    40 حضرت زہیر بن قین
    41 حضرت سلمان بن مضارب
    42 حضرت سعید بن عمر
    43 حضرت عبداللہ بن بشیر
    44 حضرت وھب کلبی
    45 حضرت حرب بن عمر-شیخ الاسلام قیس
    46 حضرت ظہیر بن عامر
    47 حضرت بشیر بن عامر
    48 حضرت عبداللہ ارواح غفاری
    49 حضرت جون غلام ابوذر غفاری
    50 حضرت عبداللہ بن امیر
    51 حضرت عبداللہ بن یزید
    52 حضرت سلیم بن امیر
    53 حضرت قاسم بن حبیب
    54 حضرت زید بن سلیم
    55 حضرت نعمان بن عمر
    56 حضرت یزید بن سبیت
    57 حضرت عامر بن مسلم
    58 حضرت سیف بن مالک
    59 حضرت جابر بن حجاج
    60 حضرت مسعود بن حجاج
    61 حضرت عبدالرحمن بن مسعود
    62 حضرت بیکر بن حئ
    63 حضرت عمار بن حسن تائی
    64حضرت زرغامہ بن مالک
    65 حضرت کینانہ بن عتیق
    66 حضرت عقبہ بن سولت
    67 حضرت حر بن یزید تمیمی
    68 حضرت عقبہ بن سولت
    69 حضرت حبلہ بن علی شیبنی
    70 حضرت کنب بن عمر.
    71 حضرت عبداللہ بن یکتیر
    72 حضرت اسلم غلام ای ترکی
    رضوان الله تعالى عليهـم اجمعين
    [9/22, 7:15 AM] ‪+92 333 9284007‬: #Daily__conversation

    Roll in the bed.
    کروٹیں بدلنا.

    This blanket itches me.
    اس کمبل سے مجھے کھجلی ہوتی ہے.

    Give a loud hiccup.
    زور سے ہچکی لینا.

    The bumb did not go off.
    بم نہیں پھٹا.

    Make mincement of something.
    کسی چیز کا قیمہ بنانا.

    His / Her name gives me palpitations.
    اسکے نام سے میرا دِل دھک دھک کرتا ہے.

    Make no apology for something.
    کوئی معذرت نہ کرنا.

    Use a provocative language against somebody.
    کسی کیخلاف اشتعال انگیز زبان استعمال کرنا.

    Incure one’s displeasure.
    ناراضگی مول لینا.

    Spurn the offer.
    پیشکش ٹھکرانا.

    The water ( 💧 ) dribbles from the tap.
    پانی نلکے سے قطرہ قطرہ گرتا ہے.

    Divine the truth.
    حقیقت کو پا لینا.

    The demonstrators melted away.
    مظاہرین تِتر بِتر ہوگئے.

    Give a press conference.
    پریس کانفرنس دینا.

    Come in the mail ( ✉ ).
    بذریعہ ڈاک آنا/ملنا.

    Set up a puppet government.
    کٹھ پتلی حکومت قائم کرنا.

    They give me a standing ovation.
    اُنہوں نے مجھے ٹھر کر داد دی.

    The meat has gone bad.
    گوشت خراب ہوچکا ہے.

    It is altogether out of the question.
    اس بات کا تو سوال ہی پیدا نہیں ہوتا.

    Treat everybody alike.
    ہر ایک سے یکساں سلوک کرو.

    I won’t be long.
    مجھے آنے میں زیادہ دیر نہیں لگے گی.

    Put an advertisement in something.
    میں اشتہار ڈالنا.

    Acknowledge the defeat.
    شکست تسلیم کرنا.

    I have an account with the Bank Alfalah.
    میرا بینک الفلاح میں اکاؤنٹ ہے.

    I had an accidental meeting with Nouman in the market.
    میری نعمان سے مارکٹ میں اتفاقیہ ملاقات ہوئی.

    The sun ( ☀) has risen above the horizon.
    سورج افق سے اُبھر ہوا ہے.

    Go two at time.
    دو دو کر کے جاؤ.

    Miss an opportunity.
    موقع ضائع کرنا.

    Satisfy one’s ego.
    آنا کو تسکین دینا.

    Mitigate poverty/anger.
    غربت یا غصے کو کم کرنا.

    Lay down arms.
    ہتھیار ڈالنا.

    Ascribe something to somebody.
    کوئی چیز کسی سے منسوب کرنا.

    Humanise the human.
    انسان کو انسان بناؤ.

    Reform something.
    کسی چیز کی اصلاح کرنا.

    Betray somebody’s confidence.
    کے اعتماد کو ٹھیس پہنچانا.

    Dispel one’s fears ( 😱 ).
    کے خدشات کو دور کرنا.

    I will not let it happen.
    میں ایسا نہیں ہونے ڈوں گا.

    Let go my hand( ✋).
    میرا ہاتھ چھوڑو.

    Listen to the reason.
    عقل کی بات سننا.

    Compromise with the circumstances.
    حالات کیساتھ سمجھوتہ کرنا.

    Be envious of somebody.
    پر رشک کرنا.

    Become victim of circumstances.
    حالات کا شکار ہو جانا.

    Lose faith in something /somebody.
    اعتماد اُٹھ جانا.

    Have great concern / Anxiety for somebody.
    کی بہت فکر کرنا.

    He is a family ( 👪 ) man.
    وہ بال بچوں والا ہے.

    Ring up the doctor.
    ڈاکٹر کو فون کرو.

    Revive the memories.
    یادیں تازہ کرنا.

    Nouman wants everything cut and dried.
    نعمان ہر چیز تیار مانگنا چاہتا ہے.

    Dogs were let loose on him/her.
    اس پر کُتے چھوڑ دیئے گئے.

    The things will settle.
    حالات ٹھیک ہوجائیں گے.

    Be bent on doing something.
    کوئی کام کرنے پر تُلا ہونا.

    Threaten / intimidate somebody.
    کو ڈرانا دھمکانا.

    Frustrate somebody’s designs.
    کے منصوبے خاک میں ملانا.

    Make amends for something.
    کی تلافی کرنا.

    Raise obstcales in one’s way.
    کے راستے میں روکاوٹیں کھڑی کرنا.

    He divorced Saira.
    اس نے سائیرہ کو طلاق دی.

    Be disguised as somebody.
    کا بھیس بدلنا.

    At length the wrestler gave in.
    آخرکار پہلوان نے ہار مان لی.

    Lend somebody in trouble.
    کو مصیبت میں ڈالنا.

    disinherit somebody.
    کو جائیداد سے لاوارث کردینا.

    Come to the light.
    (حقائق کا) کا منظر عام پر آنا.

    Misunderstand somebody.
    کو غلط سمجھنا.

    Doubt somebody’s intention.
    کی نیت پر شک کرنا.

    Deal with somebody later.
    سے بعد میں نمٹنا.

    Don’t tax my patience.
    میرے صبر کا امتحان مت لو.

    Apply the brake.
    بریک لگاؤ.

    I can not recall his/her name.
    مجھے اسکا نام یاد نہیں آرہا.

    Prop something against something.
    کوئی چیز کسی چیز کے سہارے کھڑا کرنا.

    Totter / stagger home.
    (زخمی یا شراب نوشی کی حالت میں) لڑکھڑاتے ہوئے گھر جانا.

    I’m going to satisfy my hunger.
    میں اپنی بھوک مٹانے جارہا ہوں.

    Nouman is quenching / slaking his thirst.
    نعمان اپنی پیاس بجھا رہا ہے.

    Nouman has reclined against the wall.
    نعمان دیوار سے ٹیک لگا چکا ہے.

    The child is drooling.
    بچے کئ رال بہہ رہی ہے.

    Stab somebody in the back.
    کے پیٹھ میں چھرا گھونپنا.

    Don’t mourn over your fate.
    اپنی قسمت پر رونا.

    Such acstasy I had never known before.
    ایسا مزہ مجھے پہلے کبھی نہیں آیا تھا.

    My education was interrupted.
    میری تعلیم متاثر ہوئی.

    He married thrice.
    اس نے تین شادیاں کیں.

    Watch your steps.
    دیکھ کر قدم رکھو.

    Take the air.
    ہوا خوری کرنا.

    I have lost my appetite.
    میری بھوک ختم ہوچکی ہے.

    The students had created a tumult in the class.
    طلباء نے جماعت میں ہنگامہ کھڑا کر دیا تھا.

    The people showered Rose ( 🌹) petals on Imran Khan.
    لوگوں نے عمران خان پر پھولوں کی پتیاں نچھاور کیں.

    No untoward incident took place.
    کوئی ناخوشگوار واقعہ پیش نہیں آیا.

    He doesn’t even answer to my salutation.
    وہ میرے سلام کا جواب تک نہیں دیتا ہے.
    Make compensation for something.
    کی تلافی کرنا.

    Banish this fear from your mind.
    یہ خوف ذہن سے نکال دو.

    Turn tail.
    دم دبا بھاگ جانا.

    Don’t molest the girls / women.
    لڑکیوں / عورتوں کو مت چھوڑو.

    We made a brief halt in the desert.
    ہم تھوڑی
    [9/22, 7:15 AM] ‪+92 333 9284007‬: #Daily__conversation

    دال میں کچھ کالا ہے
    Something is fishy 
    ناراضگی
    Displeasure 
    مجھے پھنسانا چاہتی ہو
    You want to trap me 
    بَھتّہ خور
    Extortionist 
    لش پش ہے
    It’s fantastic! 
    Crumble 
    ڈھیر ہوجانا
    صابَن دانی
    Soap dish 
    اب نخرے مت کرو
    Don’t make pretensions 
    [9/22, 7:15 AM] ‪+92 333 9284007‬: ENGLISH VOCABULARY

    Crucial
    Critical
    مشکلات سے بھرپور

    Compassion
    Sympathy
    ہمدردی

    Merely
    Simply , Just
    صرف، سوائے

    Bond
    Contract
    تعلق

    Aggression
    Pugnacity
    فساد

    Eloquently
    Clearly
    واضح طور پر

    Era
    Period, Age
    زمانہ، دور

    Inadequate
    Insufficient
    ناکافی

    Orator
    Speech Maker
    مقرر

    Gratitude
    Feeling of being grateful
    شکرگزاری

    Venerated
    Revered
    عزت و احترام کرنا

    Discontent
    A sense of grievance
    بےچین، انتشار

    Negation
    Denial
    انکار، نفی

    Jeopardy
    Danger
    خطرہ

    Miserable plight
    Bad state
    برےحالات

    Poised
    Placid
    مطمئن

    Permitted
    Allowed
    اجازت دی جائے

    Accomplished
    Finished
    مکمل ہو جانا، ختم ہو جانا

    Ideal
    Conceptual
    تصور

    Longing
    Dreaming
    تمننا

    Obvious
    Clear
    واضح

    Esteem
    Regard, Admiration
    احترام، تعظیم

    Moment
    Instant
    Iلمحہ

    Disquieting
    Discomposing
    بےجوڑ
    [9/22, 7:15 AM] ‪+92 333 9284007‬: A SUMMARY OF HUMAN BIOLOGY
    1: Number of Bones 206
    2: Number of Muscles 639
    3: Number of Kidneys 2
    4: Number of Milk Teeth 20
    5: Number of Ribs 24 (12 pair)
    6: Number of Heart Chamber 4
    7: Largest artery Aorta
    8: Normal blood pressure 120/80mmHg
    9: Ph of Blood 7.4
    10: Number of vertebrae in the Spine 33
    11: Number of vertebrae in the Neck 7
    12: Number of Bones in Middle Ear 6
    13: Number of Bones in Face 14
    14: Number of Bones in Skull 22
    15: Number of Bones in Chest 25
    16: Number of Bones in Arms 6
    17: Number of Muscles in Human Arm 72
    18: Number of Pumps in Heart 2
    19: Largest Organ Skin
    20: Largest gland Liver
    21: Biggest cell female Ovum
    22: Smallest cell male Sperm
    23: Smallest Bone Stapes
    24: First transplanted Organ Heart
    25: Average length of Small Intestine 7m
    26: Average length of Large Intestine 1.5m
    27: Average weight of new Born baby 2.6kg
    28: Pulse rate in One Minute 72 times
    29: Normal body temperature 37 C° (98.4 F°)
    30: Average Blood Volume 4 to 5 liters
    31: Life Span of RBC 120 days
    32: Life Span of WBC 10 to 15 days
    33: Pregnancy Period 280 days (40 week)
    34: Number of Bones in Human Foot 33
    35: Number of Bones in Each wrist 8
    36: Number of Bones in Hand 27
    37: Largest Endocrine gland Thyroid
    38: Largest Lymphatic Organ Spleen
    39: Largest part of Brain Cerebrum
    40: Largest & Strongest Bone Femur
    41: Smallest Muscle Stapedius (Middle Ear)
    41: Number of Chromosome 46 (23 pair)
    42: Number of Bones in new Born baby 306
    43: Viscosity of Blood 4.5 to 5.5
    44: Universal Donor Blood Group O
    45: Universal Recipient Blood Group AB
    46: Largest WBC Monocyte
    47: Smallest WBC Lymphocyte
    48: Increase RBC count called Polycethemia
    49: Blood Bank in the Body is Spleen
    50: Non Nucleated Blood cell is RBC
    51: RBC produced in the Bone Marrow
    52: River of Life is Called Blood
    53: Normal Blood Cholesterol level 250mg/dl
    54: Fluid part of Blood is Plasma
    55: Normal Blood Sugar 100mg/dl
    [9/22, 7:15 AM] ‪+92 333 9284007‬: Common grammar mistakes👇👇👇👇

    Wrong : I have visited Niagara Falls last weekend.
    Right : I visited Niagara Falls last weekend.

    Wrong: The woman which works here is from Japan.
    Right : The woman who works here is from Japan.

    Wrong : She’s married with a dentist.
    Right : She’s married to a dentist.

    Wrong : She was boring in the class.
    Right : She was bored in the class.

    Wrong : I must to call him immediately.
    Right : I must call him immediately.

    Wrong : Every students like the teacher.
    Right : Every student likes the teacher.

    Wrong : Although it was raining, but we had the picnic.
    Right : Although it was raining, we had the picnic.

    Wrong : I enjoyed from the movie.
    Right : I enjoyed the movie.

    Wrong : I look forward to meet you.
    Right : I look forward to meeting you.

    Wrong : I like very much ice cream.
    Right : I like ice cream very much.

    Wrong : She can to drive.
    Right : She can drive.

    Wrong : Where I can find a bank?
    Right : Where can I find a bank?

    Wrong : I live in United States.
    Right: I live in the United States.

    Wrong : When I will arrive, I will call you.
    Right : When I arrive, I will call you.

    Wrong : I’ve been here since three months.
    Right : I’ve been here for three months

    Wrong : My boyfriend has got a new work.
    Right : My boyfriend has got a new job. (or just “has a new job”)

    Wrong : She doesn’t listen me.
    Right : She doesn’t listen to me.

    Wrong : You speak English good.
    Right : You speak English well.

    Wrong : The police is coming.
    Right : The police are coming.

    Wrong : The house isn’t enough big.
    Right : The house isn’t big enough.

    Wrong : You should not to smoke.
    Right : You should not smoke.

    Wrong : Do you like a glass of wine?
    Right : Would you like a glass of wine?

    Wrong : There is seven girls in the class.
    Right : There are seven girls in the class.

    Wrong: I didn’t meet nobody.
    Right : I didn’t meet anybody.

    Wrong : My flight departs in 5:00 am.
    Right : My flight departs at 5:00

    #Admin
    [9/23, 8:21 AM] ‪+92 331 6016655‬: Whatsapgroup Career Opportunities New name Old Name
    Karachi kalachi
    Hyderabad Neerankot
    Sukkur Bakhar
    Sialkot Salkot
    Faisalabad Lailapur
    Mianwali Mian Ali
    Jacombad Khangarh
    Gujrawala Khanpur
    Hazarah Hozar
    Pakpatan Ajodhan
    Chennai Madras
    Mumbai Bombay
    Dhakka Decca
    Kolkata calcuta
    Srilanka Ceylon
    Bharat India
    Bandladesh East pakistan
    Bin Qasim Pipri
    Karnataka Mysore
    Sahiwal Montgomery

    💮ﺩﻧﯿﺎﮐﯽ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺫﺑﺎﻧﻮﮞ ﮐﮯ ﻋﻈﯿﻢ ﺷﺎﻋﺮ 💮

    ,💮1. ﺳﻨﺪﮬﯽ ……….. ﺷﺎﮦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻠﻄﯿﻒ
    💮2 . , ﺍﻧﮕﺮﯾﺰﯼ ………….. ﺷﯿﮑﺴﭙﯿﺌﺮ
    💮,3 . ﺍﻃﺎﻟﻮﯼ ……….. ﺩﺍﻧﺘﮯ
    ,💮4 . ﺑﻨﮕﺎﻟﯽ ………… ﺭﺍﺑﻨﺪﺭﻧﺎﺗﮫ ﭨﯿﮕﻮﺭ
    ,💮5 . ﭘﺸﺘﻮ ……………. ﺧﻮﺷﺤﺎﻝ ﺧﺎﻥ ﺧﭩﮏ
    ,💮6 . ﭘﻨﺠﺎﺑﯽ ………… ﻭﺍﺭﺙ ﺷﺎﮦ
    💮,7 . ﺟﺮﻣﻦ ………… ﮔﻮﺋﭩﮯ
    ,💮8 . ﺳﻨﺴﮑﺮﺕ ……….. ﮐﺎﻟﯽ ﺩﺍﺱ
    💮,9. ﺍﺭﺩﻭ ………… ﻋﻼﻣﮧ ﺍﻗﺒﺎﻝ
    ,💮10 . ﻋﺮﺑﯽ …………. ﺍﻣﺮﺍﺅﺍﻟﻘﯿﺲ
    ,💮11 . ﻓﺎﺭﺳﯽ …….. ﺵﯾﺦ ﺳﻌﺪﯼ
    ,💮12 . ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﯿﺴﯽ ……. ﺳﻠﯽ
    ,💮13 . ﻻﻃﯿﻨﯽ …….. ﺩﺭﺟﻞ
    ,💮14 . ﮨﻨﺪﯼ ……….. ﺗﻠﺴﯽ ﺩﺍﺱ

    .💮,15 ﯾﻮﻧﺎﻧﯽ ……………. ﮨﻮﻣﺮ #General_knowledges

    ■ Which Sea is Connected with Pakistan:
    #Arbian_Sea
    ■ What is the Highest Temperature recorded in jacobabad: #53_Centigrade
    ■ Which Area Recieves highest Rainfall in Pakistan ?
    #Murree
    ■ Which is the largest desert in Pakistan: #Thar
    ■ What is the Area of Balochistan:
    #347056_sq_km
    ■ What is the Area of Punjab:
    #205344_sq_km
    ■ What is the Area of Sindh:
    #140914_Sq_km
    ■ What is the Area of kPK:
    #74521_sq_km
    ■ Where the largest irrigation system of the world is situated:
    #Pakistan
    ■ Which Dam is largest electricity generating potential in the World:
    #Tarbela
    ■ On which River Kalabagh Dam is supposed to be built :
    #Indus_River
    ■ Which is the longest river of Pakistan:
    #Indus_River
    ■ Which is the largest province of Pakistan:
    #Balochistan
    ■ What is name of Pakistan Afghanistan border:
    #Durand_Line
    ■ Which Country is located in the Southern West of Pakistan:
    #Iran
    ■ What is the length of Pakistan iran border:
    #805_km
    ■ Which of the Following is the highest point in Pakistan:
    #K2
    ■ What is the highet of k2:
    #8611_Meters
    ■ What is the Original name of K2:
    #Godwin_Austin
    ■ What is the length of Pakistan-india border:
    #Line_Of_Control
    ■ Which country Is located in north of pakistan:
    #China
    ■ What is lenth of Pakistan-China border:
    #585_km this 595
    ■ Which country is situated in northern west of Pakistan:
    #Afghanistan
    ■ What is the length of Pakistan Afghanistan boders:
    #2252_km
    ■ Total Area of Pakistan:
    #796096_Sq_km
    ■ In Which continent of world Pakistan is situated:
    #Asia
    ■ At which side of asia pakistan is located :
    #Southern_Asia
    ■ How many countries are there is South Asia:
    #Seven
    ■ With how many countries pakistan shares her boders:
    #four

    Amazing facts

    Mathematics

    1. It is believed that Ancient Egyptians used complex mathematics such as algebra, arithmetic and geometry as far back as 3000 BC.

    2. It wasn’t until the 16th century that most mathematical symbols were invented. Before this time math equations were written in words, making it very time consuming.

    3. What comes after a million, billion and trillion? Why a quadrillion, quintillion, sextillion, septillion, octillion and nonillion of course.

    4. Cutting a cake into 8 pieces is possible with just 3 slices, can you work out how?

    5. An icosagon is a shape with 20 sides.

    6. A three dimensional parallelogram is called a parallelepiped.

    7. Trigonometry is the study of the relationship between the angles of triangles and their sides.

    8. The smallest ten prime numbers are: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29.

    9. The name of the popular search engine ‘Google’ came from a misspelling of the word ‘googol’, which is a very, very large number (the number one followed by one hundred zeros to be exact).

    10. A ‘googolplex’ is the number 1 followed by a googol zeros, this number is so big that it can’t be written because there isn’t enough room in the universe to fit it in! It would also take a length of time far greater than the age of the universe just to write the numbers.

    11. The number Pi (the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle) can’t be expressed as a fraction, this means it is an irrational number. When written as a decimal it never repeats and never ends.

    12. Here is Pi written to 50 decimal places: 3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510

    13. If two quantities have a ratio of approximately 1.618, they are said to be in the golden ratio. This ratio has been used throughout history to design aesthetically pleasing art works such as the Parthenon. It also appears in paintings, music, the design of books, and even in nature.

    14. π=3.14159 26535 89793 23846 26433 83279 50288 41971 69399 37510 58209 74944 59230 78164 06286 20899 86280 34825 34211 70679 82148 08651 32823 …

    15. A sphere has two sides. However, there are one-sided surfaces.

    16. There are shapes of constant width other than the circle. One can even drill square holes.

    17. There are just five regular polyhedra

    18. In a group of 23 people, at least two have the same birthday with the probability greater than 1/2

    19. Everything you can do with a ruler and a compass you can do with the compass alone

    20. Among all shapes with the same perimeter a circle has the largest area.

    21. There are curves that fill a plane without holes

    22. Much as with people, there are irrational, perfect, complex numbers

    23. As in philosophy, there are transcendental numbers

    24. As in the art, there are imaginary and surreal numbers

    25. A straight line has dimension 1, a plane – 2. Fractals have mostly fractional dimension

    26. You are wrong if you think Mathematics is not fun

    27. Mathematics studies neighborhoods, groups and free groups, rings, ideals, holes, poles and removable poles, trees, growth …

    28. Mathematics also studies models, shapes, curves, cardinals, similarity, consistency, completeness, space …

    29. Among objects of mathematical study are heredity, continuity, jumps, infinity, infinitesimals, paradoxes…

    30. Last but not the least, Mathematics studies stability, projections and values, values are often absolute but may also be extreme, local or global.

    31. Trigonometry aside, Mathematics comprises fields like Game Theory, Braids Theory, Knot Theory and more

    32. One is morally obligated not to do anything impossible

    33. Some numbers are square, yet others are triangular

    34. The next sentence is true but you must not believe it

    35. The previous sentence was false

    36. 12+3-4+5+67+8+9=100 and there exists at least one other representation of 100 with 9 digits in the right order and math operations in between

    37. One can cut a pie into 8 pieces with three movements

    38. Program=Algorithms+Data Structures

    39. There is something the dead eat but if the living eat it, they die.

    40. A clock never showing right time might be preferable to the one showing right time twice a day

    41. Among all shapes with the same area circle has the shortest perimeter

    Chemistry Facts

    Chemistry Facts

    1. There is about 1/2lb or 250g of table salt (NaCl) in the body of an average adult human.

    2. Lightning strikes produce ozone (O3) and help strengthen the ozone layer.

    3. Humans have been using chemistry since at least Ancient Egypt. By 1000bce human civilizations were using advanced forms of chemistry like extracting metals from ore, fermenting alcohol, and refining plant extracts as medicine.

    4. DNA is flame retardant.

    5. One bucketful of water contains more atoms than the Atlantic Ocean does bucketfuls of water.

    6. If you slowly pour a handful of salt into a completely full glass of water, it will not overflow. In fact, the water level will go down.

    7. Although oxygen gas is colorless (light refraction aside), both the liquid and solid forms are blue.

    8. One inch of rain is equal to 10 inches of snow.

    9. You have chemoreceptors (taste buds) on the inside of your cheeks too.

    10. Hydrofluoric acid is so corrosive that it will dissolve glass. Although it is corrosive, hydrofluoric acid is considered to be a ‘weak acid’.

    11. Approximately 20% of the oxygen in the atmosphere was produced by the Amazonian rainforests.

    12. The only elements that are liquid at room temperature are bromine and mercury.

    13. Though solid at room temperature, gallium will liquefy in your hand.

    14. Hydrogen is the most abundant element. About 75% of the elemental mass of the universe is hydrogen.

    15. The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium, with is 1 proton and 0 neutrons.

    16. The hardest chemical in your body is your tooth enamel.

    17. The ethylene gas produced by ripening fruit, ripens other fruit and vegetables.

    18. The only letter that doesn’t appear on the Periodic Table of Elements is J.

    19. The human body contains enough carbon to produce graphite for about 9,000 pencils.

    20. If you expose a glass of water to space, it will boil rather than freeze. The water vapor would almost immediately crystallize into ice.

    21 Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, water, and atmosphere.

    22. Bee stings are acidic while wasp stings are alkaline.

    23. Mosquitoes like the scent of estrogen, thus women get bitten more often than men do.

    24. The lighter was invented before the match.

    25. Hydrogen is the first element on the periodic table. It has an atomic number of 1. It is highly flammable and is the most common element found in our universe.

    26. Liquid nitrogen boils at 77 kelvin (−196 °C, −321 °F).

    27. Around 1% of the sun’s mass is oxygen.

    28. Helium is lighter than the air around us so it floats, that’s why it is perfect for the balloons you get at parties.

    29. Carbon comes in a number of different forms (allotropes), these include diamond, graphite and impure forms such as coal.

    30. Under normal conditions, oil and water do not mix. More oil facts.

    31. Although it is still debated, it is largely recognized that the word ‘chemistry’ comes from an Egyptian word meaning ‘earth’.

    32. The use of various forms of chemistry is believed to go back as long ago as the Ancient Egyptians. By 1000 BC civilizations were using more complex forms of chemistry such as using plants for medicine, extracting metal from ores, fermenting wine and making cosmetics.

    33. Things invisible to the human eye can often be seen under UV light, which comes in handy for both scientists and detectives.

    34. Humans breathe out carbon dioxide (CO2). Using energy from sunlight, plants convert carbon dioxide into food during a process called photosynthesis.

    35. Chemical reactions occur all the time, including through everyday activities such as cooking. Try adding an acid such as vinegar to a base such as baking soda and see what happens!

    36. Athletes at the Olympic Games have to be careful how much coffee they drink. The caffeine in coffee is a banned substance because it can enhance performance. One or two cups are fine but they can go over the limit with more than five. (update – as of 2004 caffeine has been taken back off the WADA banned list but its use will be closely monitored to prevent future abuse by athletes.)

    37. Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and an atomic number of 20.

    38. Calcium is not naturally found in its elemental state but calcium compounds are common.

    39. Carbon is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6.

    40. The word carbon comes from the Latin word carbo, meaning coal.

    41. Carbon forms a large number of compounds, more than any other element. Because of its willingness to bond to other nonmetallic elements it is often referred to as the building block of life.

    42. While carbon forms many different compounds it is a relatively unreactive element.

    43. There are several allotropes (different forms) of carbon with the three most well known being amorphous carbon (coal, soot etc), diamond and graphite.

    44. The properties of diamond and graphite are very different with diamond being transparent and very hard while graphite is black and soft (soft enough to write on paper).

    45. Graphite is used for its thermal insulation (lower rate of heat transfer) properties. It is also a very good conductor or electricity.

    46. The carbon atoms in graphite are bonded in flat hexagonal lattices and layered in sheets.

    47. Carbon is the 4th most common element in the Universe (after hydrogen, helium and oxygen). It is the 15th most common element in the Earth’s crust while it is the second most common element in the human body (behind oxygen).

    48. Carbon has the highest melting point of all elements, around 3500 °C (3773 K, 6332 °F).

    49. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds made entirely of molecules featuring just hydrogen and carbon. Organic chemistry involves the study of hydrocarbons.

    50. The simplest hydrocarbon compound is methane (CH4).

    51. The chemical element Chlorine has the symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

    52. On the periodic table Chlorine is in the halogen group and it is the 2nd lightest halogen gas after fluorine.

    53. In its standard form chlorine is a yellow-green gas, but its common compounds are usually colorless. Chlorine has a strong distinctive odor such as the smell of household bleach.

    54. The name Chlorine is from the Greek word chloros which means greenish yellow.

    55. Chlorine has a melting point of -150.7 °F (-101.5 °C) and a boiling point of -29.27 °F (-34.04 °C).

    56. The chemical symbol of hydrogen is H. It is an element with atomic number 1, this means that 1 proton is found in the nucleus of hydrogen.

    57. Hydrogen is the lightest, simplest and most commonly found chemical element in the Universe, making up around 75% of its elemental mass.

    58. Hydrogen is found in large amounts in giant gas planets and stars, it plays a key role in powering stars through fusion reactions.

    59. Hydrogen is one of two important elements found in water (H2O). Each molecule of water is made up of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom.

    60. Nitrogen is a chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number of 7.

    61. Under normal conditions nitrogen is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas.

    62. Nitrogen makes up around 78% of the air you breathe.

    63. Nitrogen is present in all living things, including the human body and plants.

    64. Nitrogen gas is used in food storage to keep packaged or bulk foods fresh. It is also used in the making of electronic parts, for industrial purposes and has many other useful applications.

    65. Nitrogen gas is often used as an alternative to carbon dioxide for storing beer in pressurized kegs. The smaller bubbles it produces is preferred for some types of beer.

    66. Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, has an atmosphere nearly entirely made of nitrogen (over 98%). It is the only moon in our solar system known to have a dense atmosphere.

    67. Oxygen is an element with the chemical symbol O and atomic number 8.

    68. Oxygen is a very reactive element that easily forms compounds such as oxides.

    69. Under standard temperature and pressure conditions two oxygen atoms join to form dioxygen (O2), a colorless, tasteless and odorless gas.

    70. Oxygen is essential to human life, it is found in the air we breathe and the water we drink (H20).

    71. Oxygen makes up around 21% of the air you breathe. It is also the most common element in the Earth’s crust (around 47%) and the third most common element in the Universe (but far less than hydrogen and helium, the two most common).

    72. The large amount of oxygen on Earth is supported by the oxygen cycle which involves the movement of oxygen between the air, living things and the Earth’s crust. Photosynthesis (a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds using sunlight) plays a major role in this cycle.

    73. Ozone (O3) is an allotrope (different form) of oxygen that combines three oxygen atoms together. While ground level ozone is an air pollutant, the ozone layer in the Earth’s upper atmosphere provides protection from the suns harmful rays by filtering UV light.

    74. The sun’s mass is made up of around 1% oxygen

    75. The chemical element Silicon has a symbol Si and atomic number 14.

    76. Silicon is a metalloid (or semi metal). This means it has some properties like a metal, for example, it looks like a metal and some like a non-metal, for example, it does not do conduct electricity very easily.

    77. Because silicon is a metalloid it is useful as a semiconductor which means it has electrical conductivity between metals and non-metal insulators like glass.

    78. Silicon is the 8th most abundant element in the universe by mass.

    79. Silicon is not found as a free element in nature, but rather it occurs as oxides and silicates in many minerals. Over 90% of the Earth’s crust (about 28% by mass) is composed of silicate minerals, which is why silicon is the 2nd most common element on earth after oxygen.

    80. The melting point of sulfur is 247.3 °F (119.6 °C) and the boiling point is 832.3 °F (444.6 °C).

    81. Sulfur is non-toxic in its pure element form and in the sulphate form. But its compounds such as carbon disulphide, hydrogen sulphide and sulfur dioxide are all toxic.

    82. Mineral collectors like elemental sulfur crystals for their distinct, brightly colored polyhedron (multisided) shapes.

    83. Sulfur compounds can naturally occur as sulfide minerals such as pyrite, cinnabar, galena, sphalerite and stibnite. Or as sulfate minerals such as gypsum, alunite and barite.

    Human Body Facts

    Human Body Facts

    1. The human eye is so sensitive that if the Earth were flat, you could spot a candle flickering at night from up to 30 miles away.

    2. Nerve impulses travel to and from the brain at speeds of up to 250 miles per hour, faster than a Formula 1 racecar.

    3. When you blush, the lining of your stomach blushes too.

    4. The human brain can read up to 1,000 words per minute.

    5. Inside your belly button are thousands of bacteria that form an ecosystem the size of an entire rainforest.

    6. When in love, the human brain releases the same cocktail of neurotransmitters and hormones that are released by amphetamines. This leads to increased heart rate, loss of appetite and sleep, and intense feelings of excitement.

    7. You can see ultraviolet light, the ability is just filtered out by the eye’s lens. Some people have undergone surgery to remove the lense and can detect ultraviolet light.

    8. An adult is made up of 7,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (7 octillion) atoms. For perspective, there’s a ‘measly’ 300,000,000,000 (300 billion) stars in our galaxy.

    9. Our muscles are actually incredibly more powerful than they appear to be. Human strength is limited to protect our tendons and muscles from harming themselves. This limitation can be removed during an adrenaline rush, during which some people have lifted boulders or even cars off themselves.

    10. We humans are the best long-distance runners on the planet. Better than any four-legged animal. In fact, thousands of years ago we used to run after our prey until they died of exhaustion.

    11. A full head of human hair is strong enough to support 12 tonnes.

    12. In 30 minutes, the human body gives off enough heat to bring a gallon of water to the boil

    13. We have the same amount of hairs on our body as a chimpanzee. Most are useless and so fine that they are invisible.

    14. The atoms that make up your human body today are same atoms that formed during the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago.

    15. Human bone is as strong as granite. A block of bone the size of a matchbox could support nine tonnes of weight.

    16. If the human brain were a computer, it could perform 38 thousand-trillion operations per second. The world’s most powerful supercomputer, BlueGene, can manage only .002% of that.

    17. The focusing muscles in your eyes move around 100,000 times a day. To give your leg muscles the same workout, you’d need to walk 50 miles.

    18. For every pound of fat or muscle gained, your body creates seven miles of new blood vessels

    19. Humans share 50% of their DNA with bananas.

    20. Loneliness is physically painful. Just as you have a drive to avoid physical pain, you have a similarly powerful drive to connect with others and seek companionship – in order to avoid the pain of loneliness.

    21. A single human sperm contains the 37.5mb of male DNA required to create a human child. That means an average ejaculation sees the transfer of 1,500 terabytes of information.

    22. Your body produces 25 million new cells each second. Every 13 seconds, you produce more cells than there are people in the United States.

    23. Humans are bioluminescent and glow in the dark. The light that we emit is 1,000 times weaker than our human eyes are able to pick up.

    24. Humans shed 40 pounds of skin in their lifetime, completely replacing their outer skin every month.

    25. In one day, your blood travels 12,000 miles around your body. That’s four times the distance across the US from coast-to-coast.

    26. Our brain’s connected neurons look similar to the structure of the universe. In a way, our brains are modeled after the universe.

    27. Around 90% of the cells that make humans aren’t “human” in origin. We’re mostly fungi and bacteria.

    28. Along with the five traditional senses of sound, sight, touch, smell and taste, humans have 15 “other senses.” These include balance, temperature, pain and time as well as internal senses for suffocation, thirst, and fullness.

    29. You’re a little richer than you might think. Inside all of us is around 0.2 milligrams of gold, most of which is in our blood Sadly, you’d need the blood of around 40,000 people to collect enough gold to make one 8g coin.

    30. The human brain uses 20% of the entire body’s oxygen and calorie intake, despite only accounting for about 2% of an adult’s body mass.

    31. If you stretched out the 300,000,000 capillaries in your lungs end to end, the line would extend from Seattle to San Diego, or about 1,300 miles.

    32. Some women see more colors than everyone else. Most people have three types of color receptors to see color vision, while some women have four or even five of these receptors and can see a wider range of colors.

    33. A condition called synesthesia can cause senses to overlap. In other words, some people can taste words or hear colors.

    34. The need to breathe so much is due to carbon dioxide buildup more than the need for oxygen. If there was a different way to get rid of carbon dioxide from the blood, we would only need to breathe at a rate of about once per minute.

    35. Crying alleviates stress and allows humans to decrease feelings of anger and sadness. It physically does help to let it out.

    36. The brain uses over a quarter of the oxygen used by the human body. More human brain facts.

    37. Your heart beats around 100000 times a day, 36500000 times a year and over a billion times if you live beyond 30. More human heart facts.

    38. Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body. They are created inside the bone marrow of your bones. More blood facts.

    39. The colour of a humans skin is determined by the level of pigment melanin that the body produces. Those with small amounts of melanin have light skin while those with large amounts have dark skin. More skin facts.

    40. Adult lungs have a surface area of around 70 square metres! More lung facts.

    41. Humans have a stage of sleep that features rapid eye movement (REM). REM sleep makes up around 25% of total sleep time and is often when you have your most vivid dreams. More eye facts.

    42. Most adults have 32 teeth. More teeth facts.

    43. The smallest bone found in the human body is located in the middle ear. The staples (or stirrup) bone is only 2.8 millimetres long. More ear facts.

    44. Your nose and ears continue growing throughout your entire life. More nose facts.

    45. Infants blink only once or twice a minute while adults average around 10.

    46. As well as having unique fingerprints, humans also have unique tongue prints.

    47. The left side of your body is controlled by the right side of your brain while the right side of your body is controlled by the left side of your brain.

    48. Antibiotics are only effective against bacteria, they won’t help in fighting off a virus.

    49. It takes the body around 12 hours to completely digest eaten food.

    50. Your sense of smell is around 10000 times more sensitive than your sense of taste. More senses facts.

    51. With the 60,000 miles of blood vessels inside the average human body, you could circumnavigate Earth two and a half times.

    Planet Facts

    Planet Facts

    Mercury click to collapse contents

    1. Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System.

    2. The orbital speed of Mercury is 47.8 km/sec (29.7 miles/sec).

    3. Mercury has no atmosphere and no known satellites, perhaps because of its proximity to the Sun.

    4. The diameter of Planet Mercury is 4,878 km (3,031 miles).

    5. The first visit to Mercury was a flyby made by the Mariner 10 spacecraft in 1974.

    6. Mercury is often identified with the Greek god Hermes, the messenger of the gods in Roman mythology.

    7. Mercury orbits the sun once every 87.97 Earth Days.

    8. A day, from sunrise to sunrise, on Mercury is equivalent to 176 Earth Days.

    9. Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, the maximum distance from the Sun = 70 million km (43.5 million miles).

    10. Mercury’s minimum distance from Earth = 77 million km (48 million miles).

    11. Mercury is known as a terrestrial planet consisting of about 70% metallic and 30% silicate material.

    12. First it was Copernicus who noticed orbiting planet in the early 16th century; and then Galileo was the first to observe Mercury during the 17th century.

    13. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Mercury would be 38 lbs. (Multiply your actual weight by 0.38).

    14. The surface of the planet is covered in craters much like those seen on Earth’s moon. This is a sign that Mercury has been geologically dormant for billions of years.

    15. Since Mercury’s orbit is within Earth’s orbit, it can be viewed from Earth in the early morning or the late evening, but never in the middle of the nighttime.

    16. The planet makes three complete rotations on its axis per every two orbital revolutions.

    17. The surface temperature of Mercury ranges from -173 to 427°C. (-279 to 800°F).

    18. Mercury is the second densest planet after Earth.

    19. The surface of Mercury is very similar to our moon. It has a very barren, rocky surface covered with many craters.

    20. Being so close to the Sun, the daytime temperature on Mercury is scorching – reaching over 400 Degrees Celsius.

    21. At night however, without an atmosphere to hold the heat in, the temperatures plummet, dropping to -180 Degrees Celsius.

    22. Mercury has a very low surface gravity.

    23. Mercury has no atmosphere which means there is no wind or weather to speak of.

    24. There is also no water on the surface of Mercury, it is possible however that there could be water underneath the surface.

    25. Likewise, there is no air on the surface but it could be trapped underneath.

    Venus click to collapse contents

    1. The diameter of Venus is 12,100 km (7,522 miles).

    2. The interior of Venus is composed of a central iron core and a molten rocky mantle, similar to the composition of Earth.

    3. The surface of Venus is very dry with flat plains, highland regions, and depressions.

    4. Venus is the sixth largest planet in the Solar System.

    5. Venus is the second closest planet to the Sun.

    6. Planet Venus is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty.

    7. The atmosphere of Venus is primarily composed of carbon dioxide (96%) and nitrogen (3%), with traces of other gases and little to no water vapor.

    8. Similar in size, density, and mass, Venus and Earth often referred to as sister planets.

    9. The orbital speed of Venus is 35 km per second (78,292 mi/hr)

    10. Maximum distance of Venus from the Sun is 109 million km (68 million miles)

    11. Minimum distance of Venus from the Earth is 40 million km (25 million miles)

    12. Venus is the hottest planet in the Solar System.

    13. Venus is one of the brightest objects in the sky, next to the Sun and Moon.

    14. It takes 243 days for Venus to rotate on its axis.

    15. The surface of Venus may have been formed by a lot of volcanic activity. It is said to have 167 volcanoes that measure up to 100 km across.

    16. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Venus would be 88 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 0.88)

    17. The rotation of Venus is so slow that it travels around the sun quicker than it can make one rotation on its axis. This means that Venus has a longer day than it does a year.

    18. Aside from planet Earth, Venus is the most explored planet. Many space probes have visited and landed on Venus to gather data.

    19. The clouds surrounding Venus are comprised mostly of sulfuric acid.

    20. Studies point to the fact that Venus used to have water on it, but it dried up as the sun started letting off more energy.

    21. The atmosphere of Venus made up mainly of carbon dioxide.

    22. Its size is slightly smaller than Earth.

    23. It also features gravity similar to that of Earth.

    24. The surface of Venus is often described as a “stormy desert” full of many craters and very active volcanoes.

    25. The surface is also likened to molten lead.

    26. Venus features no liquid water.

    Earth click to collapse contents

    1. The Earth is around 4.6 billion years old according to scientists.

    2. The Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System.

    3. The Earth’s atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), argon (.93%),and carbon dioxide (0.03%).

    4. Earth’s atmosphere divided in 5 sections from the surface: Troposphere (0-13 km), Ozone Layer (13-25 km), Stratosphere (25-50 km), Mesosphere (50-75 km), and Thermosphere (75-150 km)

    5. Earth is the fifth largest planet in the Solar System.

    6. The Diameter of the Earth is 12,756 km (7,926 miles)

    7. The earth’s orbital speed is 29.8 km per second (66,660 mi/hr)

    8. Earth has only one satellite, the Moon. The Moon is the second brightest object in the sky from Earth.

    9. Earth has an average surface temperature of 13°C (55.4°F).

    10. The greenhouse effect raises Earth’s temperature 35°C(95°F).

    11. Earth’s distance from the Sun – Min. 146 million km (91million miles) Max. 152 million km (94.5 million miles).

    12. Earth is composed of: iron (32%), oxygen (30%), silicon (15%), magnesium (14%), sulfur (3%), nickel (2%), calcium (1.5%), aluminum (1.4%) and the remainder made up of other elements.

    13. Earth’s main tectonic plates: African plate, Antarctic plate, Indo-Australian Plate, Eurasian Plate, North American Plate, South American Plate, and the Pacific Plate.

    14. Earth has several layers with unique chemical and seismic properties: Crust (0-40 km), upper mantle (40-400 km), transition region (400-650 km), lower mantle (650-2700 km), D layer (2700-2890 km), outer core (2890-5150 km), and the inner core (5150-6378 km) from the surface.

    15. The Earth is not perfectly round, rather it is an oblate spheroid. This is due to the planet’s equatorial bulge.

    Mars click to collapse contents

    1. Known as the Red Planet, Mars is characterized by its red, dusty landscape.

    2. The atmosphere on Mars is very thin, composed mainly of carbon dioxide (95%), nitrogen (2.7%), and argon (1.6%), with traces of oxygen and water.

    3. The orbital speed of Mars is 24.2 km per second (54,133 mi/hr).

    4. Temperatures on Mars vary from 0°C (32°F) to -100°C (-148°F).

    5. The diameter of the planet Mars is 6,785 km.

    6. A Mars year is equal to 686.98 Earth Days.

    7. A day in Mars is equal to 24.6 Earth Hours.

    8. Mars maximum distance from the Sun = 249 million km (155 million miles).

    9. Mars is 35 million miles from Earth.

    10. Mars is the god of war in Roman mythology (Ares).

    11. The polar ice caps consist of frozen Co2 (dry ice) which lies over a layer of ice.

    12. Mars has very weak gravity which cannot hold onto the atmosphere well.

    13. Mariner 4 – first successful flyby mission to Mars. Launched on November 28, 1964 and arrived at Mars on July 14, 1965.

    14. Mariner 9 – first successful orbit of Mars. Launched May 30, 1971 and began orbit November 13, 1971.

    15. Viking 1 – Successful orbit and landing on surface of Mars. Launched August 20, 1975 and arrived at Mars July 20, 1976.

    16. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Mars would be 38 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 0.38).

    17. Phobos, one of Mars’ two moons, is gradually getting closer and closer to Mars. It is believed that it will eventually collide with the planet.

    18. The surface of Mars is covered in canyons and valleys. This leads scientists to believe that the planet once had water on it.

    19. Just like Earth, both of Mars’ poles are blanketed in ice.

    20. Mars is nicknamed the red planet because it is covered with rust-like dust. Even the atmosphere is a pinkish red, colored by tiny particles of dust thrown up from the surface.

    21. Mars experiences violent dust storms which continually change its surface.

    22. Mars has many massive volcanoes and is home to Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in our solar system, it stands 21km high and is 600km across the base.

    23. Mars has a very thin atmosphere made mostly of carbon dioxide. It is not thick enough to trap the sun’s heat like Venus, so the planet is very cold. Temperatures range from -120 Degrees Celsius on winter nights to 25 Degrees Celsius in the summer.

    24. Mars has many channels, plains and canyons on the surface which could have been caused by water erosion in the past.

    Jupiter click to collapse contents

    1. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system with a mean diameter of 139,822 km (86,881 miles).

    2. Jupiter’s mass is 318 times larger than Earth. The diameter is 11 times, volume is 1,321 times, and surface area is 122 times of Earth.

    3. The orbital speed of Jupiter is 13.1 km/sec.

    4. A year on Jupiter is equal to 11.9 Earth Years.

    5. A day on Jupiter is equal to 9.8 Earth Hours.

    6. At the centre of Jupiter is a rocky core, slightly bigger than Earth but weighing about 20 times more.

    7. Jupiter’s maximum distance from the Sun = 817 million km (508 million miles).

    8. Jupiter’s minimum distance from Earth = 588 million km (365 million miles).

    9. Jupiter has many moons circling around it. Four of these moons are bigger than Pluto.

    10. Jupiter has sixty three moons or satellites, eight are regular and 55 irregular.

    11. Jupiter’s four largest moons are named: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

    12. Voyager 1 provided the earliest and clearest photographs of Jupiter on January of 1979.

    13. Jupiter has rings, the third planet discovered to have a ring system in our Solar System.

    14. Jupiter has a very strong magnetic field, you would weigh two and a half times as much as you would on Earth.

    15. Jupiter’s rings were discovered by Voyager 1 in 1979.

    16. Jupiter’s largest moon is the biggest in the Solar System. Named Ganymede, it is larger than the planet Mercury.

    17. The volume of Jupiter is great enough to hold 1,300 Earths.

    18. The rotation of Jupiter is the fastest of any planet in the Solar System, making its days only 10 hours long.

    19. The large red spot on Jupiter is actually from a storm that has lasted over 300 years.

    Saturn click to collapse contents

    1. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest.

    2. Saturn was the god of agriculture in Roman mythology. Saturn is also the father of Jupiter, the king of the Roman gods.

    3. Saturn is flattened at the poles, due to a fast rotation on its axis.

    4. Saturn has 62 known moons, fifty-three have been named. Most of them are small in size.

    5. Saturn is not a peaceful planet. Storm winds race around the atmosphere at 800kmp/h.

    6. A year on Saturn is equal to 29.5 Earth Years.

    7. It is surrounded by a system of rings that stretch out into space for thousands of kilometres.

    8. A day on Saturn is equal to 10 hours and 14 minutes in Earth days.

    9. Diameter of Saturn is 119,871 km (74,500 miles).

    10. Saturn’s maximum distance from the Sun is 1.5 billion km (938 million miles).

    11. Saturn’s minimum distance from Earth is 1.2 billion km (746 million miles).

    12. Saturn has fourteen subdivisions of its rings, the widest is at 25,500 km, the B ring.

    13. Saturn’s rings are made primarily of “water ice” mixed with dust and other chemicals.

    14. Saturn has a small rocky core covered with liquid gas.

    15. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Saturn would be 108 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 1.08).

    16. The temperature on Saturn by the clouds is at -274° F.

    17. Titan is Saturn’s only moon that has an atmosphere, it is also bigger than Mercury.

    18. Saturn is the second largest planet in our solar system and is another gas giant.

    19. Saturn’s rings are made of water, ice, rocks, dust and other chemicals.

    20. Pioneer 11 did the first flyby of the planet in 1979. Since then, Voyager 1 was sent closer to Saturn and it took much higher quality photographs.

    21. Saturn has a very strong magnetic field which traps energy particles resulting in high levels of radiation.

    22. The day of the week, Saturday, is named after Saturn.

    Uranus click to collapse contents

    1. Uranus is named after the Greek god of the sky. Uranus was the husband of Gaia, the goddess of the Earth.

    2. It was discovered in December 13, 1781 by William Herschel, a German-born British astronomer.

    3. The orbital speed of Uranus is 6.6 km/sec (14,763 mi/hr).

    4. A year on Uranus is equal to 84.01 Earth Years (orbit around the sun).

    5. Uranus is the third largest planet in the Solar System.

    6. Uranus spins lying on its side (like a barrel), this is perhaps due to a large collision early in its formation.

    7. Uranus was the first planet discovered by telescope.

    8. Uranus is the coldest of the planets even though Neptune is located further from the Sun.

    9. Like Venus, Uranus spins from east to west, which is opposite from the spin of Earth.

    10. A day on Uranus is equal to a little more than 17 hours on Earth.

    11. Uranus maximum distance from the Sun is 3 billion km (1.88 billion miles).

    12. Uranus minimum distance from the Earth is 2.6 billion km (1.6 billion miles).

    13. The diameter of Uranus is 51,488 km (32,000 miles).

    14. The 27 moons of Uranus are named after characters created by William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope.

    15. The planet is the second least dense after Saturn.

    16. Uranus has 13 unique rings. They are named using Greek symbols and other numerical values: 1986U2R/ζ, 6, 5, 4, α, β, η, γ, δ, λ, ε, ν, and μ.

    17. If you weigh 100 lbs on earth, your weight on Uranus would be 89 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 0.89).

    18. Since Uranus takes 84 Earth years to go around the sun, this means that each of its poles is in daylight for 42 years and in darkness for the next 42.

    19. Uranium, the chemical element, is named after the planet Uranus by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, a German chemist, in 1789.

    20. Due to the fashion in which it spins, portions of Uranus can have nights that last over 40 years.

    Neptune click to collapse contents

    1. Neptune is the fourth largest planet in the Solar System.

    2. Neptune is a gaseous planet, composed of hydrogen, helium, methane, with traces of ammonia and water.

    3. Neptune suffers the most violent weather in our Solar System.

    4. Neptune is a large, water planet with a blue hydrogen-methane atmosphere and faint rings.

    5. In Roman mythology, Neptune is the god of the sea.

    6. Neptune has strong winds which is more than any other planet in the Solar System. Winds on Neptune can get up to 2,000 km/hour (1,200 miles/hour). “The Scooter” is a cloud that moves around Neptune about every 16 hours.

    7. The blue color of the planet is due to the absorption of red light by methane in the atmosphere.

    8. The orbital speed of Neptune is 5.4 km/second.

    9. The diameter of Neptune is 49,493 km.

    10. One Neptune day is equal to 16 hours in Earth time.

    11. One Neptune year is equal to 164.83 Earth Years.

    12. Neptune’s maximum distance from the Sun – 4.5 billion km (2.8 billion miles).

    13. Neptune’s minimum distance from Earth – 4.3 billion km (2.7 billion miles).

    14. Neptune has 13 moons, the largest of which is named Triton. The other moons are: Naiad, Thalassa, Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Proteus, Nereid, Halimede, Sao, Laomedeia, Neso, and Psamathe.

    15. Neptune has five main rings, they are named after the people who had been doing work on the planet; the rings are: Halle, Le Verrier, Lassell, Arago, and Adams.

    16. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Neptune would be 113 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 1.13).

    17. Neptune is the farthest planet from the Sun.

    18. Neptune was the very first planet to be located using mathematics rather than observation.

    19. The planet is never capable of being seen by the naked eye.

    20. Neptune is covered in thin wispy white clouds which stretch out around

    21. Neptune has 19 moons. planet is the second least dense after Saturn.et to it.

    22. Neptune is notorious for being the stormy planet. Sometimes winds can reach up to 1,240 miles per hour.

    23. Neptune emits its own heat at a rate of 2.7 times more than the energy that it absorbs from without.

    24. The planet is 30 times farther from the Sun that our planet is.

    Pluto click to collapse contents

    1. In 2006 Pluto was demoted to the status of dwarf planet.

    2. Pluto is the smallest dwarf planet in the Solar System, smaller than Earth’s Moon, and half the width of Jupiter’s moon, Ganymede.

    3. Pluto’s journey around the Sun takes 248 Earth years. This means that, since its discovery in 1930, it still has over 160 years to go until it has made a complete orbit around the Sun.

    4. The atmosphere of Pluto consists of nitrogen with some carbon monoxide and methane.

    5. Pluto orbits the Sun on a different plane than the 8 planets, going over them and below them.

    6. Pluto consists of rock with a very thick coating of ice.

    7. A day on Pluto is equivalent to Earth’s 6 days and 9 hours, meaning that it has the second slowest rotation in the Solar System (after Venus, which takes 243 days to turn on its axis).

    8. Pluto’s orbit is elliptical, meaning that it can come closer to the Sun than Neptune, but then go almost two billion kilometers further away from Neptune’s orbit.

    9. Pluto is too faint to be seen with the naked eye. When viewed through a telescope, it looks like a star.

    10. Pluto is cold: -233° C (-390° F), just 40° C (72° F) above absolute zero. At this temperature, all elements would be frozen except for neon, hydrogen, and helium.

    11. Pluto maximum distance from the Sun – 7.38 billion km (4.6 billion miles).

    12. Pluto’s minimum distance from Earth – 4.28 billion km (2.7 billion miles).

    13. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Pluto would be 7 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by .067).

    14. When gazing at the Sun from Pluto it would appear as a tiny bright start because the two are so far away from each other.

    15. According to some astronomers, Pluto used to be one of Neptune’s moons, but it somehow broke out of its orbit.

    16. Since being declassified as a planet, Pluto’s technical name is now 134340.

    Other Facts

    Other Facts

    Time click to collapse contents

    1. We use time to order events in the past, present and future. We also use it to make comparisons and measure the speed at which things move.

    2. If you wanted to measure time you could use a watch, clock, hourglass or even a sundial.

    3. A sundial is a tool that uses the position of the Sun to measure time, typically involving a shadow cast across a marked surface.

    4. The use of pendulums to accurately measure time was discovered by Galileo Galilei around 400 years ago. A pendulum is a free swinging weight hanging from a pivot.

    5. There are 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour and 24 hours in a day.

    6. Normal years have 365 days but a Leap year has 366. The Earth takes a little longer than 365 days to go around the Sun so we add an extra day in February every four years (with a few exceptions) to keep calendars and seasons aligned.

    7. 10 years is known as a decade, 100 years is known as a century and 1000 years is known as a millennium.

    8. Milliseconds, microseconds and nanoseconds are examples of very small units of time.

    9. Scientists believe the moon was used as a form of calendar as far back as 6000 years ago. Calendars have been changing ever since and are very accurate in modern times.

    10. Accurate clocks that measure hours, minutes and seconds have improved with the invention of sundials, water clocks, mechanical clocks, pendulums and hourglasses through to the digital displays and atomic clocks of today.

    11. Many places use daylight saving time (typically by putting clocks forward an hour) for longer daylight in the evenings.

    12. Different parts of the world are located in different time zones. This means that while you are having breakfast in the morning, someone in another part of the world is having dinner.

    13. Theories related to time have been put forward by famous scientists such as Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. You may have even heard of the term ‘spacetime’, a model in physics that joins space and time together.

    14. In terms of philosophy, time is difficult to define. Scientists and philosophers have disagreed on our understanding of time for many years. Some argue it is a ‘real’ part of the Universe while others argue it is just the way humans think, comparing events and putting them in sequence. It’s a little confusing but fun to think about, what do you think

    15. Some more questions to get your brain buzzing: Does time have a direction

    Sound click to collapse contents

    1. Sound comes from vibrations. These vibrations create sound waves which move through mediums such as air and water before reaching our ears.

    2. Our ears vibrate in a similar way to the original source of the vibration, allowing us to hear many different sounds.

    3. Dogs can hear sound at a higher frequency than humans, allowing them to hear noises that we can’t.

    4. Sound is used by many animals to detect danger, warning them of possible attacks before they happen.

    5. Sound can’t travel through a vacuum (an area empty of matter).

    6. The speed of sound is around 767 miles per hour (1,230 kilometres per hour).

    7. The loud noise you create by cracking a whip occurs because the tip is moving so fast it breaks the speed of sound!

    8. When travelling through water, sound moves around four times faster than when it travels through air.

    9. The scientific study of sound waves is known as acoustics.

    10. Although music can be hard to define, it is often described as a pleasing or meaningful arrangement of sounds.

    11. The sound of thunder is produced by rapidly heated air surrounding lightning which expands faster than the speed of sound.

    Light click to collapse contents

    1. In physics, light refers to electromagnetic radiation. The light we normally talk about in everyday life refers to the visible spectrum (the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that the human eye can see).

    2. Other animals can see parts of the spectrum that humans can’t. For example, a large number of insects can see ultraviolet (UV) light.

    3. UV light can be used to show things the human eye can’t see, coming in handy for forensic scientists.

    4. The wavelength of infrared light is too long to be visible to the human eye.

    5. Scientists study the properties and behaviors of light in a branch of physics known as optics.

    6. Isaac Newton observed that a thin beam of sunlight hitting a glass prism on an angle creates a band of visible colors that includes red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet (ROYGBIV). This occurred because different colors travel through glass (and other mediums) at different speeds, causing them to refract at different angles and separate from each other.

    7. Light travels very, very fast. The speed of light in a vacuum (an area empty of matter) is around 186,000 miles per second (300,000 kilometres per second).

    8. Light travels slower through different mediums such as glass, water and air. These mediums are given a refractive index to describe by how much they slow the movement of light. Glass has a refractive index of 1.5, meaning that lights travels through it at around 124,000 miles per second (200,000 kilometres per second). The refractive index of water is 1.3 while the refractive index of air is 1.0003, meaning that air only slightly slows down light.

    9. Light takes 1.255 seconds to get from the Earth to the Moon.

    10. Sunlight can reach a depth of around 80 metres (262 feet) in the ocean.

    11. One of the many things Italian scientist Galileo Galilei worked on was telescopes, producing telescopes with around 30x magnification in some of his later work. These telescopes helped him discover the four largest moons orbiting Jupiter (later named the Galilean satellites).

    12. Photosynthesis is a process that involves plants using energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into food.

    Energy click to collapse contents

    1. The word energy comes from the Greek word energeia.

    2. Most types of energy are either a form of kinetic energy or potential energy.

    3. Common examples include heat energy, elastic potential energy, chemical energy, sound energy, nuclear energy, geothermal energy and gravitational potential energy.

    4. Kinetic energy refers to the energy an object has because of its movement. A car in motion has kinetic energy, as does a basketball when you pass or shoot it.

    5. Energy can be transformed from one form to another. In lightning, electric potential energy transforms into light, heat and sound energy.

    6. The law of conservation of energy states that energy can only be transformed, it can’t be created or destroyed.

    7. You might have heard of Albert Einstein’s famous formula E = mc² (energy equals mass multiplied by the speed of light squared).

    8. Food contains chemical energy which is used by living organisms such as animals to grow and reproduce. Food energy is usually measured in calories or joules.

    9. Wind farms contain large numbers of wind turbines which are used to transform wind energy into a useful energy such as electricity. The use of wind power to generate electricity doubled between the years 2005 and 2008. More wind energy facts.

    10. The USA’s Mojave Desert is home to the world’s largest solar power plant. More solar power facts.

    11. The Three Gorges Dam in China is the world’s largest hydroelectric power station. More hydropower facts.

    12. Nuclear power produces around 13% of the world’s electricity. More nuclear power facts.

    13. Plants use energy from sunlight during an important process called photosynthesis.

    14. A person standing on a diving board above a swimming pool has gravitational potential energy.

    15. During chemical reactions, chemical energy is often transformed into light or heat.

    16. Stretched rubber bands and compressed springs are examples of elastic potential energy.

    Gravity click to collapse contents

    1. Objects with mass are attracted to each other, this is known as gravity.

    2. Gravity keeps Earth and the other planets in our solar system in orbit around the Sun. It also keeps the Moon in orbit around Earth.

    3. Tides are caused by the rotation of the Earth and the gravitational effects of the Moon and Sun.

    4. Because Mars has a lower gravity than Earth, a person weighing 200 pounds on Earth would only weigh 76 pounds on Mars.

    5. It is thought that Isaac Newton’s theories on gravity were inspired by seeing an apple fall from a tree.

    6. While Newton’s older law of universal gravitation is accurate in most scenarios, modern physics uses Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity to describe gravity.

    7. Acceleration of objects to due to the gravity on Earth is around 9.8 m/s2. If you ignore air resistance (drag) then the speed of an object falling to Earth increases by around 9.8 metres per second every second.

    8. The force of gravity 100 kilometres (62 miles) above Earth is just 3% less than at the Earth’s surface.

    9. The human body can handle increased g-forces as seen in activities such as dragster races, airplane acrobatics and space training. The highest known acceleration voluntarily experienced by a human is 46.2 g by g-force pioneer John Stapp.

    10. While formula one racing drivers may feel around 5 g’s under heavy braking, they can experience over 100 g’s if a crash causes them to decelerate extremely quickly over a very short distance.

    11. Some roller coasters have been known to include g-forces of around 4 to 6 g.

    Physics Facts

    Physics Facts

    1. Mass and inertia are the same thing. (Mass actually measures inertia – in kilogramsÂ… Much as monetary resources measures financial wealth – in dollars.)

    2. Weight (force of gravity) decreases as you move away from the earth by distance squared. (It decreases, but only approaches zero, never reaching it, even far beyond the solar system.)

    3. Weight (in newtons) is mass x acceleration (w = mg). Mass is not Weight! Mass is a scalar and measured in kilograms, weight is a force and a vector and measured in Newtons.

    4. Velocity can only be constant when the net force (and acceleration) is zero. (The velocity can be zero and not constant – for example when a ball, thrown vertically, is at the top of its trajectory.)

    5. Velocity, displacement [s], momentum, force (weight), torque, and acceleration are vectors.

    6. Speed, distance [d], time, length, mass, temperature, charge, power and energy (joules) are scalar quantities.

    7. The slope of the distance-time graph is velocity.

    8. The slope of the velocity-time graph is acceleration.

    9. The area under a velocity-time graph is distance.

    10. Magnitude is a term used to state how large a vector quantity is.

    11. At zero (0) degrees two vectors have a resultant equal to their sum. At 180 degrees two vectors have a resultant equal to their difference. From the minimum value (at 180) to the maximum value (at zero) is the total range of all the possible resultants of any two vectors.

    12. An unbalanced force must produce an acceleration and the object cannot be in equilibrium.

    13. If an object is not accelerating, it is in equilibrium and no unbalanced forces are acting.

    14. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the resultant vector.

    15. Momentum is conserved in all collision systems. Energy is conserved (in the KE of the objects) only if a collision is perfectly elastic.

    16. Mechanical energy is the sum of the potential and kinetic energy.

    17. UNITS: a = [m/sec2]; F = [kg•m/sec2] = Newton; work = PE = KE = [kg•m2/sec2] = Joule; Power = [kg•m2/sec3] = [Joules/sec] = Watt

    18. 1ev is a very small energy unit equal to 1.6 x 10-19 joules – used for small objects such as electrons. This is on the Reference Chart.

    19. Gravitational potential energy increases as height increases.

    20. Kinetic energy changes only if mass or velocity changes.

    21. Mechanical energy (PE + KE) does not change for a free falling mass or a swinging pendulum. (when ignoring air friction)

    22. A coulomb is charge, an amp is current [coulomb/sec] and a volt is potential difference [joule/coulomb].

    23. Short, fat, cold wires make the best conductors.

    24. Electrons and protons have equal amounts of charge (1.6 x 10-19 coulombs each – known as one elementary charge). This is on the Reference Chart.

    25. Adding a resistor in series increases the total resistance of a circuit.

    26. Adding a resistor in parallel decreases the total resistance of a circuit.

    27. All resistors in series have equal current (I).

    28. All resistors in parallel have equal voltage (V).

    29. If two similar charged spheres touch each other add the charges and divide by two to find the final charge on each sphere after they are separated.

    30. Insulators contain no electrons free to move.

    31. Ionized gases conduct electric current using positive ions, negative ions and electrons.

    32. Electric fields all point in the direction of the force on a positive test charge.

    33. Electric fields between two parallel plates are uniform in strength except at the edges.

    34. Millikan determined the charge on a single electron using his famous oil-drop experiment.

    35. All charge changes result from the movement of electrons not protons. (an object becomes positive by losing electrons)

    36. The direction of a magnetic field is defined by the direction a compass needle points. (The direction an isolated north pole would feel.)

    37. Magnetic fields point from the north to the south outside the magnet and south to north inside the magnet.

    38. Magnetic flux is measured in webers.

    39. Left hands are for negative charges and reverse answer for positive charges.

    40. The first hand rule deals with the B-field around a current bearing wire, the third hand rule looks at the force on charges moving in a B-field, and the second hand rule is redundant.

    41. Solenoids are stronger with more current or more wire turns or adding a soft iron core.

    42. Sound waves are longitudinal and mechanical.

    43. Light slows down, bends toward the normal and has a shorter wavelength when it enters a medium with a higher index of refraction (n).

    44. All angles in wave theory problems are measured to the normal.

    45. Blue light has more energy, a shorter wavelength and a higher frequency than red light (remember- ROYGBIV).

    46. The electromagnetic spectrum (radio, infrared, visible. Ultraviolet x-ray and gamma) are listed lowest energy to highest. They are all electromagnetic and travel at the speed of light (c = f ! l ).

    47. The speed (c) of all types of electromagnetic waves is 3.0 x 108 m/sec in a vacuum.

    48. As the frequency of an electromagnetic wave increases its energy increases (E = h ! f) and its wavelength decreases and its velocity remains constant as long as it doesn’t enter a medium with a different refractive index (i.e. optical density).

    49. A prism produces a rainbow from white light by dispersion. (red bends the least because it slows the least).

    50. Transverse wave particles vibrate back and forth perpendicular to the direction of the wave’s velocity. Longitudinal wave particles vibrate back and forth parallel to the direction of the wave’s velocity.

    51. Light wave are transverse (they, and all (and only)transverse waves can be polarized).

    52. The amplitude of a non-electromagnetic wave (i.e. water, string and sound waves) determines its energy. The frequency determines the pitch of a sound wave. Their wavelength is a function of its frequency and speed (v = f ! l ). Their speed depends on the medium they are traveling in.

    53. Constructive interference occurs when two waves are zero (0) degrees out of phase or a whole number of wavelengths (360 degrees.) out of phase.

    54. At the critical angle a wave will be refracted to 90 degrees. At angles larger than the critical angle, light is reflected not refracted.

    55. Doppler effect: when a wave source moves toward you, you will perceive waves with a shorter wavelength and higher frequency than the waves emitted by the source. When a wave source moves away from you, you will perceive waves with a longer wavelength and lower frequency.

    56. Double slit diffraction works because of diffraction and interference.

    57. Single slit diffraction produces a much wider central maximum than double slit.

    58. Diffuse reflection occurs from dull surfaces while regular (spectacular) reflection occurs from smooth (mirror-like) surfaces.

    59. Only waves show diffraction, interference and the polarization.

    60. The period of a wave is the inverse of its frequency (T = 1/f ). So waves with higher frequencies have shorter periods.

    61. Monochromatic light has one frequency.

    62. Coherent light waves are all in phase.

    63. In order to explain the photoelectric effect, Einstein proposed particle behavior for light (and all electromagnetic waves) with E = h f and KEmax = hf – Wo.

    64. A photon is a particle of light (wave packet).

    65. To preserve the symmetry of the universe, DeBroglie proposed wave behavior for particles ( l = h/mv). Therefore large fast moving objects (baseballs, rockets) have very short wavelengths (that are unobservable) but very small objects, particularly when moving slowly have wavelengths that can be detected in the behavior of the objects.

    66. Whenever charged particles are accelerated, electromagnetic waves are produced.

    67. The lowest energy state of a atom is called the ground state.

    68. Increasing light frequency increases the kinetic energy of the emitted photo-electrons in the photo-electric effect (KEmax = hf – Wo).

    69. As the threshold frequency increases for a photo-cell (photo emissive material) the work function also increases (Wo = h fo)

    70. Increasing light intensity increases the number of emitted photo-electrons in the photo-electric effect but not their KE (i.e. more intensity>more photons>more electrons emitted). This is the particle nature shown by light.

    71. Key to understanding trajectories is to separate the motion into two independent components in different dimensions – normally horizontal and vertical. Usually the velocity in the horizontal dimension is constant (not accelerated) and the motion in the vertical dimension is changing (usually with acceleration of g).

    72. Centripetal force and centripetal acceleration vectors are toward the center of the circle- while the velocity vector is tangent to the circle. (Centripetal means towards the center!)

    73. An object in orbit is not weightless – it is its weight that keeps it moving in a circle around the astronomical mass it is orbiting. In other words, its weight is the centripetal force keeping it moving in a circle.

    74. An object in orbit is in free fall – it is falling freely in response to its own weight. Any object inside a freely falling object will appear to be weightless.

    75. Rutherford discovered the positive nucleus using his famous gold-foil experiment.

    76. Fusion is the process in which hydrogen is combined to make helium.

    77. Fission requires that a neutron causes uranium to be split into middle size atoms and produce extra neutrons, which, in turn, can go on and cause more fissions.

    78. Radioactive half-lives are not effected by any changes in temperature or pressure (or anything else for that matter).

    79. One AMU of mass is equal to 931 meV of energy. (E = mc2). This is on the Reference Charts!

    80. Nuclear forces are very strong and very short-ranged.

    81. There are two basic types of elementary particles: Hadrons & Leptons (see Chart).

    82. There are two types of Hadrons: Baryons and Mesons (see Chart).

    83. The two types of Hadrons are different because they are made up of different numbers of quarks. Baryons are made up of 3 quarks, and Mesons of a quark and antiquark.

    84. Notice that to make long-lived Hadron particles quarks must combine in such a way as to give the charge of particle formed a multiple of the elementary charge.

    85. For every particle in the “Standard Model” there is an antiparticle. The major difference of an antipartcle is that its charge is opposite in sign. All antiparticles will anhililate as soon as they come in contact with matter and will release a great amount of energy.

    85. Notice that to make long-lived Hadron particles quarks must combine in such a way as to give the charge of particle formed a multiple of the elementary charge.

    86. Notice that the retention of the Energy Level Diagrams on the new charts implies that there will be questions on it. The units (eV) can be converted to Joules with the coversion given on the first Chart of the Regents Reference tables. And can be used with the formula (given under Modern Physics formulas) to calculate the energy absorbed or released when the electron changes levels.

    87. Because of differences in gravity, a 200 pound person would only weigh 76 pounds on Mars. More gravity facts.

    88. Electric eels can stun both predators and prey with electric shocks of around 500 volts. More electricity facts.

    89. Energy from food is usually measured in joules or calories. More energy facts.

    90. Light from the Earth takes just 1.255 seconds to reach the Moon. More light facts.

    91. Sound travels at a speed of around 767 miles per hour (1,230 kilometres per hour). More sound facts.

    92. When traveling at 80 kilometres per hour (50 miles per hour), cars use around half of their fuel just to overcome wind resistance.

    93. Water can work against gravity, moving up narrow tubes in a process called capillary action.

    94. A magnifying glass uses the properties of a convex shaped lens to magnify an image, making it easier to see.

    95. A scientist who studies physics is known as a physicist.

    96. Uranus is the only planet in our solar system that rolls on its side like a barrel, while Venus is the only planet that spins in the opposite direction to Earth.

    97. The fastest land animal in the world is the Cheetah, clocking a max speed of around 113 km per hour (70 mph).

    98. 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics was won by Albert Einstein for his work in the field of theoretical physics.

    National Testing service MCQS (General Science)

    👁‍🗨

    National Testing Service
    MCQS* (General Science)

    1. What is the body temperature of a normal man?
    A. 81.1oC
    B. 36.9oC
    C. 98.6oC
    D. 21.7oC
    2. Which of the following helps in clotting of blood?
    A. Vitamin B1
    B. Vitamin B2
    C. Vitamin D
    D. Vitamin K
    3.Total volume of blood in a normal adult human being is
    A. 5-6 liters★
    B. 3-4 liters
    C. 8-10 liters
    D. 10-12 liters
    4. Red blood corpuscles are formed in the
    A. Liver
    B. Bone marrow
    C. Kidneys
    D. Heart
    5. How many bones are there in an adult human being?
    A. 210
    B. 260
    C. 206
    D. 300
    *6. The pancreas secretes

    A. Insulin
    B. Bile juice
    C. Peptic juice
    D. None of these
    7. Tibia is a bone found in the
    A. Skull
    B. Arm
    C. Leg
    D. Face
    8. The largest part of the human brain is the
    A. Medulla oblongata
    B. Cerebellum
    C. Cerebrum
    D. None of these
    9. What is the main component of bones and teeth?
    A. Calcium carbonate
    B. Calcium phosphate
    C. Calcium sulphate
    D. Calcium nitrate
    10. The main constituent of hemoglobin is
    A. Chlorine
    B. Iron
    C. Calcium
    D. None of these
    11. The main function of the kidney is
    A. To control blood pressure
    B. To control body temperature
    C. To remove waste product from the body
    D. To help in digestion of food
    12. The function of hemoglobin is
    *A. Transportation of oxygen

    B. Destruction of bacteria
    C. Prevention of anemia
    D. Utilization of energy
    13. Which of the following glands secrete tears?
    A. Lachrymal
    B. Pituitary
    C. Thyroid
    D. Pancreas
    14. Which is the largest gland in the human body?
    A. Thyroid
    B. Liver
    C. Pancreas
    D. None of these
    15. Which is the largest organ in the human body?
    A. Liver
    B. Heart
    C. Skin
    D. Kidney
    16. A person of which of the following blood groups is called a universal donor?
    A. O
    B. AB
    C. A
    D. B
    17. Which gland in the human body is called the master gland?
    A. Pancreas
    B. Thyroid
    C. Pituitary
    D. Spleen
    18. How many bones are there in a newly born infant?
    A. 206
    B. 230
    C. 280
    D. 300
    19. Which of the following have maximum calorific value?
    A. Carbohydrates B. Fats
    C. Proteins D. Vitamins
    20. Which of the following vitamins promote healthy functioning of eyes in human beings?
    A. Vitamin B B. Vitamin C
    C. Vitamin A D. Vitamin D
    21. The average heartbeat per minute in a normal man is
    A. 50 B. 70*
    C. 80 D. 100
    22. A person with which of the following blood groups can receive blood of any group?
    A. A B. AB*
    C. B D. O
    23. Malaria is a disease which effects the
    A. Heart B. Lungs
    C. Spleen D. Kidneys
    24. Which of the following diseases is caused by virus?
    A. Small pox * B. Tuberculosis
    C. Malaria D. Cholera
    *25. Medulla oblongata is a part of human
    A. Heart *B. Brain

    C. Liver D. Sex organ
    26. Myopia is a disease connected with
    A. Ears *B. Eyes

    C. Lungs D. Brain
    27. Leukemia is a disease of the
    A. Lungs B. Blood
    C. Skin D. Nerves
    28. Short-sightedness can be corrected by using
    A. Convex lens B. Concave lens
    C. Convex-concave lens D. Concave-convex lens
    29. Trachoma is a disease of the
    A. Liver B. Eyes
    C. Lungs D. Kidneys
    30. Match the following
    Column I Column II
    A. Beriberi 1. Vitamin A
    B. Scurvy 2. Vitamin B
    *C. Rickets 3. Vitamin C

    D. Night Blindness 4. Vitamin D
    31. Typhoid and cholera are typical examples of
    A. Infectious diseases B. Air-borne disease
    *C. Water-borne disease
    D. None of these
    32. Pyorrhea is a disease of the
    A. Nose B. Gums
    C. Heart D. Lungs
    33. Lack of what causes diabetes.
    A. Sugar B. Insulin
    C. Calcium D. Vitamins
    34. Appendix is appendix is a part of
    A. Small intestine B. Large intestine
    C. Stomach D. Liver
    35. Match the following columns
    Column I Column II
    A. Cataract 1. Bones
    B. Jaundice 2. Eyes
    C. Diabetes 3. Liver
    D. Arthritis 4. Pancreas
    36. Bronchitis is a disease of which of the following organs?
    A. Blood B. Bladder
    C. Liver D. Respiratory tract
    37. ECG is used for the diagnosis of aliments of
    A. Brain B. Heart
    C. Kidneys D. Lungs
    38. Biopsy is done on
    A. Tissues taken from a dead body
    B. Tissues taken form a living body
    C. Blood from veins
    D. Blood from arteries
    39. Barium is used for
    A. Checking blood group
    B. X-ray of alimentary canal
    C. X-ray of brain
    D. None of these
    40. Dialysis is used for the treatment of
    A. Kidney failure B. Heart weakness
    C. Brain diseases D. None of these
    41. Insulin is injected into the intestines by
    A. Pancreas B. Liver
    C. Stomach D. Gall bladder
    42. Lock Jaw, i.e., difficulty in opening the mouth is a symptom of
    A. Cholera B. Plague
    C. Tetanus D. Diphtheria
    43. Which of the following pairs is incorrect?
    A. Plague-rats B. Rabies-dog
    C. Tapeworm-pig D. Poliomyelitis-monkey
    44. Match the following columns
    Column I Column II
    A. Air-borne 1. Tetanus
    B. Airborne 2. Tuberculosis
    C. Contact 3. Cholera
    D. Wound 4. Syphilis
    45. Ricketts is a disease of the
    A. Bones B. Tissue
    C. Muscles D. Blood
    46. Which of the following statements is correct
    A. Pulmonary artery carries pure blood
    B. Pulmonary artery carries impure blood
    C. Pulmonary vein carries impure blood
    D. None of these
    47. Lungs are situated in the
    A. Abdominal cavity
    B. Pericardial cavity
    C. Buccal cavity
    D. Thoracic cavity
    48. The human cell contains
    A. 44 chromosomes B. 48 chromosomes
    C. 46 chromosomes D. 23 chromosomes
    49. Enzymes help in
    A. Respiration B. Digestion of food
    C. Immune system D. Reproduction
    50. Food is normally digested in the
    A. Liver B. Stomach
    C. Small intestines D. Large intestines…s.vNational Testing Service
    MCQS* (General Science)
    1. What is the body temperature of a normal man?
    A. 81.1oC
    B. 36.9oC
    C. 98.6oC
    D. 21.7oC
    2. Which of the following helps in clotting of blood?
    A. Vitamin B1
    B. Vitamin B2
    C. Vitamin D
    D. Vitamin K
    3.Total volume of blood in a normal adult human being is
    A. 5-6 liters★
    B. 3-4 liters
    C. 8-10 liters
    D. 10-12 liters
    4. Red blood corpuscles are formed in the
    A. Liver
    B. Bone marrow
    C. Kidneys
    D. Heart
    5. How many bones are there in an adult human being?
    A. 210
    B. 260
    C. 206
    D. 300
    *6. The pancreas secretes

    A. Insulin
    B. Bile juice
    C. Peptic juice
    D. None of these
    7. Tibia is a bone found in the
    A. Skull
    B. Arm
    C. Leg
    D. Face
    8. The largest part of the human brain is the
    A. Medulla oblongata
    B. Cerebellum
    C. Cerebrum
    D. None of these
    9. What is the main component of bones and teeth?
    A. Calcium carbonate
    B. Calcium phosphate
    C. Calcium sulphate
    D. Calcium nitrate
    10. The main constituent of hemoglobin is
    A. Chlorine
    B. Iron
    C. Calcium
    D. None of these
    11. The main function of the kidney is
    A. To control blood pressure
    B. To control body temperature
    C. To remove waste product from the body
    D. To help in digestion of food
    12. The function of hemoglobin is
    *A. Transportation of oxygen

    B. Destruction of bacteria
    C. Prevention of anemia
    D. Utilization of energy
    13. Which of the following glands secrete tears?
    A. Lachrymal
    B. Pituitary
    C. Thyroid
    D. Pancreas
    14. Which is the largest gland in the human body?
    A. Thyroid
    B. Liver
    C. Pancreas
    D. None of these
    15. Which is the largest organ in the human body?
    A. Liver
    B. Heart
    C. Skin
    D. Kidney
    16. A person of which of the following blood groups is called a universal donor?
    A. O
    B. AB
    C. A
    D. B
    17. Which gland in the human body is called the master gland?
    A. Pancreas
    B. Thyroid
    C. Pituitary
    D. Spleen
    18. How many bones are there in a newly born infant?
    A. 206
    B. 230
    C. 280
    D. 300
    19. Which of the following have maximum calorific value?
    A. Carbohydrates B. Fats
    C. Proteins D. Vitamins
    20. Which of the following vitamins promote healthy functioning of eyes in human beings?
    A. Vitamin B B. Vitamin C
    C. Vitamin A D. Vitamin D
    21. The average heartbeat per minute in a normal man is
    A. 50 B. 70*
    C. 80 D. 100
    22. A person with which of the following blood groups can receive blood of any group?
    A. A B. AB*
    C. B D. O
    23. Malaria is a disease which effects the
    A. Heart B. Lungs
    C. Spleen D. Kidneys
    24. Which of the following diseases is caused by virus?
    A. Small pox * B. Tuberculosis
    C. Malaria D. Cholera
    *25. Medulla oblongata is a part of human
    A. Heart *B. Brain

    C. Liver D. Sex organ
    26. Myopia is a disease connected with
    A. Ears *B. Eyes

    C. Lungs D. Brain
    27. Leukemia is a disease of the
    A. Lungs B. Blood
    C. Skin D. Nerves
    28. Short-sightedness can be corrected by using
    A. Convex lens B. Concave lens
    C. Convex-concave lens D. Concave-convex lens
    29. Trachoma is a disease of the
    A. Liver B. Eyes
    C. Lungs D. Kidneys
    30. Match the following
    Column I Column II
    A. Beriberi 1. Vitamin A
    B. Scurvy 2. Vitamin B
    *C. Rickets 3. Vitamin C

    D. Night Blindness 4. Vitamin D
    31. Typhoid and cholera are typical examples of
    A. Infectious diseases B. Air-borne disease
    *C. Water-borne disease
    D. None of these
    32. Pyorrhea is a disease of the
    A. Nose B. Gums
    C. Heart D. Lungs
    33. Lack of what causes diabetes.
    A. Sugar B. Insulin
    C. Calcium D. Vitamins
    34. Appendix is appendix is a part of
    A. Small intestine B. Large intestine
    C. Stomach D. Liver
    35. Match the following columns
    Column I Column II
    A. Cataract 1. Bones
    B. Jaundice 2. Eyes
    C. Diabetes 3. Liver
    D. Arthritis 4. Pancreas
    36. Bronchitis is a disease of which of the following organs?
    A. Blood B. Bladder
    C. Liver D. Respiratory tract
    37. ECG is used for the diagnosis of aliments of
    A. Brain B. Heart
    C. Kidneys D. Lungs
    38. Biopsy is done on
    A. Tissues taken from a dead body
    B. Tissues taken form a living body
    C. Blood from veins
    D. Blood from arteries
    39. Barium is used for
    A. Checking blood group
    B. X-ray of alimentary canal
    C. X-ray of brain
    D. None of these
    40. Dialysis is used for the treatment of
    A. Kidney failure B. Heart weakness
    C. Brain diseases D. None of these
    41. Insulin is injected into the intestines by
    A. Pancreas B. Liver
    C. Stomach D. Gall bladder
    42. Lock Jaw, i.e., difficulty in opening the mouth is a symptom of
    A. Cholera B. Plague
    C. Tetanus D. Diphtheria
    43. Which of the following pairs is incorrect?
    A. Plague-rats B. Rabies-dog
    C. Tapeworm-pig D. Poliomyelitis-monkey
    44. Match the following columns
    Column I Column II
    A. Air-borne 1. Tetanus
    B. Airborne 2. Tuberculosis
    C. Contact 3. Cholera
    D. Wound 4. Syphilis
    45. Ricketts is a disease of the
    A. Bones B. Tissue
    C. Muscles D. Blood
    46. Which of the following statements is correct
    A. Pulmonary artery carries pure blood
    B. Pulmonary artery carries impure blood
    C. Pulmonary vein carries impure blood
    D. None of these
    47. Lungs are situated in the
    A. Abdominal cavity
    B. Pericardial cavity
    C. Buccal cavity
    D. Thoracic cavity
    48. The human cell contains
    A. 44 chromosomes B. 48 chromosomes
    C. 46 chromosomes D. 23 chromosomes
    49. Enzymes help in
    A. Respiration B. Digestion of food
    C. Immune system D. Reproduction
    50. Food is normally digested in the
    A. Liver B. Stomach
    C. Small intestines D. Large intestines..

    **National Testing Service
    MCQS
    (General Science)
    1. What is the body temperature of a normal man?
    A. 81.1oC
    B. 36.9oC
    C. 98.6oC
    D. 21.7oC
    2. Which of the following helps in clotting of blood?
    A. Vitamin B1
    B. Vitamin B2
    C. Vitamin D
    D. Vitamin K
    3.Total volume of blood in a normal adult human being is
    A. 5-6 liters★
    B. 3-4 liters
    C. 8-10 liters
    D. 10-12 liters
    4. Red blood corpuscles are formed in the
    A. Liver
    B. Bone marrow
    C. Kidneys
    D. Heart
    5. How many bones are there in an adult human being?
    A. 210
    B. 260
    C. 206
    D. 300
    *6. The pancreas secretes

    A. Insulin
    B. Bile juice
    C. Peptic juice
    D. None of these
    7. Tibia is a bone found in the
    A. Skull
    B. Arm
    C. Leg
    D. Face
    8. The largest part of the human brain is the
    A. Medulla oblongata
    B. Cerebellum
    C. Cerebrum
    D. None of these
    9. What is the main component of bones and teeth?
    A. Calcium carbonate
    B. Calcium phosphate
    C. Calcium sulphate
    D. Calcium nitrate
    10. The main constituent of hemoglobin is
    A. Chlorine
    B. Iron
    C. Calcium
    D. None of these
    11. The main function of the kidney is
    A. To control blood pressure
    B. To control body temperature
    C. To remove waste product from the body
    D. To help in digestion of food
    12. The function of hemoglobin is
    *A. Transportation of oxygen

    B. Destruction of bacteria
    C. Prevention of anemia
    D. Utilization of energy
    13. Which of the following glands secrete tears?
    A. Lachrymal
    B. Pituitary
    C. Thyroid
    D. Pancreas
    14. Which is the largest gland in the human body?
    A. Thyroid
    B. Liver
    C. Pancreas
    D. None of these
    15. Which is the largest organ in the human body?
    A. Liver
    B. Heart
    C. Skin
    D. Kidney
    16. A person of which of the following blood groups is called a universal donor?
    A. O
    B. AB
    C. A
    D. B
    17. Which gland in the human body is called the master gland?
    A. Pancreas
    B. Thyroid
    C. Pituitary
    D. Spleen
    18. How many bones are there in a newly born infant?
    A. 206
    B. 230
    C. 280
    D. 300
    19. Which of the following have maximum calorific value?
    A. Carbohydrates B. Fats
    C. Proteins D. Vitamins
    20. Which of the following vitamins promote healthy functioning of eyes in human beings?
    A. Vitamin B B. Vitamin C
    C. Vitamin A D. Vitamin D
    21. The average heartbeat per minute in a normal man is
    A. 50 B. 70*
    C. 80 D. 100
    22. A person with which of the following blood groups can receive blood of any group?
    A. A B. AB*
    C. B D. O
    23. Malaria is a disease which effects the
    A. Heart B. Lungs
    C. Spleen D. Kidneys
    24. Which of the following diseases is caused by virus?
    A. Small pox * B. Tuberculosis
    C. Malaria D. Cholera
    *25. Medulla oblongata is a part of human
    A. Heart *B. Brain

    C. Liver D. Sex organ
    26. Myopia is a disease connected with
    A. Ears *B. Eyes

    C. Lungs D. Brain
    27. Leukemia is a disease of the
    A. Lungs B. Blood
    C. Skin D. Nerves
    28. Short-sightedness can be corrected by using
    A. Convex lens B. Concave lens
    C. Convex-concave lens D. Concave-convex lens
    29. Trachoma is a disease of the
    A. Liver B. Eyes
    C. Lungs D. Kidneys
    30. Match the following
    Column I Column II
    A. Beriberi 1. Vitamin A
    B. Scurvy 2. Vitamin B
    *C. Rickets 3. Vitamin C

    D. Night Blindness 4. Vitamin D
    31. Typhoid and cholera are typical examples of
    A. Infectious diseases B. Air-borne disease
    *C. Water-borne disease
    D. None of these
    32. Pyorrhea is a disease of the
    A. Nose B. Gums
    C. Heart D. Lungs
    33. Lack of what causes diabetes.
    A. Sugar B. Insulin
    C. Calcium D. Vitamins
    34. Appendix is appendix is a part of
    A. Small intestine B. Large intestine
    C. Stomach D. Liver
    35. Match the following columns
    Column I Column II
    A. Cataract 1. Bones
    B. Jaundice 2. Eyes
    C. Diabetes 3. Liver
    D. Arthritis 4. Pancreas
    36. Bronchitis is a disease of which of the following organs?
    A. Blood B. Bladder
    C. Liver D. Respiratory tract
    37. ECG is used for the diagnosis of aliments of
    A. Brain B. Heart
    C. Kidneys D. Lungs
    38. Biopsy is done on
    A. Tissues taken from a dead body
    B. Tissues taken form a living body
    C. Blood from veins
    D. Blood from arteries
    39. Barium is used for
    A. Checking blood group
    B. X-ray of alimentary canal
    C. X-ray of brain
    D. None of these
    40. Dialysis is used for the treatment of
    A. Kidney failure B. Heart weakness
    C. Brain diseases D. None of these
    41. Insulin is injected into the intestines by
    A. Pancreas B. Liver
    C. Stomach D. Gall bladder
    42. Lock Jaw, i.e., difficulty in opening the mouth is a symptom of
    A. Cholera B. Plague
    C. Tetanus D. Diphtheria
    43. Which of the following pairs is incorrect?
    A. Plague-rats B. Rabies-dog
    C. Tapeworm-pig D. Poliomyelitis-monkey
    44. Match the following columns
    Column I Column II
    A. Air-borne 1. Tetanus
    B. Airborne 2. Tuberculosis
    C. Contact 3. Cholera
    D. Wound 4. Syphilis
    45. Ricketts is a disease of the
    A. Bones B. Tissue
    C. Muscles D. Blood
    46. Which of the following statements is correct
    A. Pulmonary artery carries pure blood
    B. Pulmonary artery carries impure blood
    C. Pulmonary vein carries impure blood
    D. None of these
    47. Lungs are situated in the
    A. Abdominal cavity
    B. Pericardial cavity
    C. Buccal cavity
    D. Thoracic cavity
    48. The human cell contains
    A. 44 chromosomes B. 48 chromosomes
    C. 46 chromosomes D. 23 chromosomes
    49. Enzymes help in
    A. Respiration B. Digestion of food
    C. Immune system D. Reproduction
    50. Food is normally digested in the
    A. Liver B. Stomach
    C. Small intestines D. Large intestines…s.vNational Testing Service
    MCQS* (General Science)
    1. What is the body temperature of a normal man?
    A. 81.1oC
    B. 36.9oC
    C. 98.6oC
    D. 21.7oC
    2. Which of the following helps in clotting of blood?
    A. Vitamin B1
    B. Vitamin B2
    C. Vitamin D
    D. Vitamin K
    3.Total volume of blood in a normal adult human being is
    A. 5-6 liters★
    B. 3-4 liters
    C. 8-10 liters
    D. 10-12 liters
    4. Red blood corpuscles are formed in the
    A. Liver
    B. Bone marrow
    C. Kidneys
    D. Heart
    5. How many bones are there in an adult human being?
    A. 210
    B. 260
    C. 206
    D. 300
    *6. The pancreas secretes

    A. Insulin
    B. Bile juice
    C. Peptic juice
    D. None of these
    7. Tibia is a bone found in the
    A. Skull
    B. Arm
    C. Leg
    D. Face
    8. The largest part of the human brain is the
    A. Medulla oblongata
    B. Cerebellum
    C. Cerebrum
    D. None of these
    9. What is the main component of bones and teeth?
    A. Calcium carbonate
    B. Calcium phosphate
    C. Calcium sulphate
    D. Calcium nitrate
    10. The main constituent of hemoglobin is
    A. Chlorine
    B. Iron
    C. Calcium
    D. None of these
    11. The main function of the kidney is
    A. To control blood pressure
    B. To control body temperature
    C. To remove waste product from the body
    D. To help in digestion of food
    12. The function of hemoglobin is
    *A. Transportation of oxygen

    B. Destruction of bacteria
    C. Prevention of anemia
    D. Utilization of energy
    13. Which of the following glands secrete tears?
    A. Lachrymal
    B. Pituitary
    C. Thyroid
    D. Pancreas
    14. Which is the largest gland in the human body?
    A. Thyroid
    B. Liver
    C. Pancreas
    D. None of these
    15. Which is the largest organ in the human body?
    A. Liver
    B. Heart
    C. Skin
    D. Kidney
    16. A person of which of the following blood groups is called a universal donor?
    A. O
    B. AB
    C. A
    D. B
    17. Which gland in the human body is called the master gland?
    A. Pancreas
    B. Thyroid
    C. Pituitary
    D. Spleen
    18. How many bones are there in a newly born infant?
    A. 206
    B. 230
    C. 280
    D. 300
    19. Which of the following have maximum calorific value?
    A. Carbohydrates B. Fats
    C. Proteins D. Vitamins
    20. Which of the following vitamins promote healthy functioning of eyes in human beings?
    A. Vitamin B B. Vitamin C
    C. Vitamin A D. Vitamin D
    21. The average heartbeat per minute in a normal man is
    A. 50 B. 70*
    C. 80 D. 100
    22. A person with which of the following blood groups can receive blood of any group?
    A. A B. AB*
    C. B D. O
    23. Malaria is a disease which effects the
    A. Heart B. Lungs
    C. Spleen D. Kidneys
    24. Which of the following diseases is caused by virus?
    A. Small pox * B. Tuberculosis
    C. Malaria D. Cholera
    *25. Medulla oblongata is a part of human
    A. Heart *B. Brain

    C. Liver D. Sex organ
    26. Myopia is a disease connected with
    A. Ears *B. Eyes

    C. Lungs D. Brain
    27. Leukemia is a disease of the
    A. Lungs B. Blood
    C. Skin D. Nerves
    28. Short-sightedness can be corrected by using
    A. Convex lens B. Concave lens
    C. Convex-concave lens D. Concave-convex lens
    29. Trachoma is a disease of the
    A. Liver B. Eyes
    C. Lungs D. Kidneys
    30. Match the following
    Column I Column II
    A. Beriberi 1. Vitamin A
    B. Scurvy 2. Vitamin B
    *C. Rickets 3. Vitamin C

    D. Night Blindness 4. Vitamin D
    31. Typhoid and cholera are typical examples of
    A. Infectious diseases B. Air-borne disease
    *C. Water-borne disease
    D. None of these
    32. Pyorrhea is a disease of the
    A. Nose B. Gums
    C. Heart D. Lungs
    33. Lack of what causes diabetes.
    A. Sugar B. Insulin
    C. Calcium D. Vitamins
    34. Appendix is appendix is a part of
    A. Small intestine B. Large intestine
    C. Stomach D. Liver
    35. Match the following columns
    Column I Column II
    A. Cataract 1. Bones
    B. Jaundice 2. Eyes
    C. Diabetes 3. Liver
    D. Arthritis 4. Pancreas
    36. Bronchitis is a disease of which of the following organs?
    A. Blood B. Bladder
    C. Liver D. Respiratory tract
    37. ECG is used for the diagnosis of aliments of
    A. Brain B. Heart
    C. Kidneys D. Lungs
    38. Biopsy is done on
    A. Tissues taken from a dead body
    B. Tissues taken form a living body
    C. Blood from veins
    D. Blood from arteries
    39. Barium is used for
    A. Checking blood group
    B. X-ray of alimentary canal
    C. X-ray of brain
    D. None of these
    40. Dialysis is used for the treatment of
    A. Kidney failure B. Heart weakness
    C. Brain diseases D. None of these
    41. Insulin is injected into the intestines by
    A. Pancreas B. Liver
    C. Stomach D. Gall bladder
    42. Lock Jaw, i.e., difficulty in opening the mouth is a symptom of
    A. Cholera B. Plague
    C. Tetanus D. Diphtheria
    43. Which of the following pairs is incorrect?
    A. Plague-rats B. Rabies-dog
    C. Tapeworm-pig D. Poliomyelitis-monkey
    44. Match the following columns
    Column I Column II
    A. Air-borne 1. Tetanus
    B. Airborne 2. Tuberculosis
    C. Contact 3. Cholera
    D. Wound 4. Syphilis
    45. Ricketts is a disease of the
    A. Bones B. Tissue
    C. Muscles D. Blood
    46. Which of the following statements is correct
    A. Pulmonary artery carries pure blood
    B. Pulmonary artery carries impure blood
    C. Pulmonary vein carries impure blood
    D. None of these
    47. Lungs are situated in the
    A. Abdominal cavity
    B. Pericardial cavity
    C. Buccal cavity
    D. Thoracic cavity
    48. The human cell contains
    A. 44 chromosomes B. 48 chromosomes
    C. 46 chromosomes D. 23 chromosomes
    49. Enzymes help in
    A. Respiration B. Digestion of food
    C. Immune system D. Reproduction
    50. Food is normally digested in the
    A. Liver B. Stomach
    C. Small intestines D. Large intestines..
    👁‍🗨

    Fb.com/Adeel.i.Niazi

    BREAKING NEWS – PUTIN EXPOSES OBAMA’S PAID ISIS MERCENARIES IN MIDDLE EAST AND SYRIA!

    THE MARSHALL REPORT

    PUTIN2504DCFD00000578-2924718-image-a-4_1422131925338

    UPDATED OCTOBER 3, 2015

    In a press conference at the Valdai Discussion Club 2014 in answer to a question to a United States Journalist, President Vladimir Putin addressed his concerns regarding the US and their role in the middle east and ISIS. Although the film footage of the press conference has been banned, Live leaks released a copy of the press conference to the public. The words of Putin are transcribed below word for word from the video originally provided by  Inessa S.

    The press and mainstream news has been avoiding this information. It is a scathing , diplomatic account of Russia’s position on the politic behavior and actions in the middle east regarding Syria and ISIS, as well as a reprimand to our press who have failed to do their job.

    Putin’s complete oration to the US Journalists:

    First point. I never said that I view the US as a threat to our…

    View original post 1,017 more words

    TAZKIYA (PURIFICATION OF THE SOUL) – QUOTES, ARTICLES AND ANECDOTES

    TAZKIYA (PURIFICATION OF THE SOUL) – QUOTES, ARTICLES AND ANECDOTES

    Extracts from speeches and writings of Scholars on Islamic Spirituality and Purification of the Soul!

    The most blessed Qalb which got the highest expansion and elevation

    -Dr. Rafiq Ahmed

    In the human history the most blessed Qalb which Allah Ta’ala selected for the highest purification, expansion and elevation was that of Muhammad-ur-Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

    Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’ân:

    أَلَمْ نَشْرَحْ لَكَ صَدْرَكَ

    “Have We not expanded thee thy breast?”. ( 94:1)

    The breast is symbolically the seat of knowledge and the highest feelings of love and affection. It is the treasure house in which are stored the jewels of that quality of human character, which is divine. The Holy Prophet’s (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) human nature had been purified, expanded and elevated, so that he became the mercy for all the creation.

    The Qalb of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) which is the most blessed got the highest Divine Light and he utilised the capabilities of Qalb to its maximum. All the latent faculties of Qalb got the highest illumination by the Divine Light and thus Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) attained the highest spiritual understanding and nearness to the ultimate Reality.

    The Qur’ân is the Attribute of Allah Ta’ala and that the Attributes of Allah Ta’ala are immense and ultimate. Nothing in this universe had the capability of receiving this Divine Revelation. The Qalbs of all the men except that of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) could not attain this spiritual height which was necessary for being capable of receiving this divine revelation i.e., the Qur’ân. The Qalb of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) being the most blessed had this capability. It is said that if Allah Ta’ala would have sent this revelation directly to this universe, it would have got burnt down to ashes.

    Allah Ta’ala had decided to express His divine revelation, He created this capability in the most blessed Qalb of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

    Allah Ta’ala refers to this the most blessed Qalb of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) as follows:

    وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنْزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ () نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ () عَلَى قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنْذِرِينَ ()

    “Verily this is a revelation from the Lord of the worlds. With it came down the truthful spirit To thy heart that thou mayest admonish.” (26:192-194)

    Qalb signifies not only the seat of affection, but also seat of memory and understanding. The process of inspiration is indicated by the impression of the divine message on the inspired one’s heart, memory and understanding from which it was promulgated in human speech to the world.

    It is said that Jalaal of the Divine Revelation was tolerated and absorbed by the Qalb of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) which alone is the most blessed and when it was expressed through the blessed tongue of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) it is was Jamaal only, which the rest of the humanity and this universe could tolerate.

     The Seal of Prophethood

    The humanity reached its peak in the most distinguished self of Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). The Divine Light and knowledge was attained to its maximum possible limit by him. In other words, the quintessence of all the creation was achieved. Every Messenger of Allah Ta’ala was predominantly the seat of expression of one of the Attributes of Allah Ta’ala, but the greatest and the last Messenger of Allah Ta’ala, Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) was the seat of the expression of all the Attributes of Allah Ta’ala . This way he completed the chain of Messengers and put a seal on the Prophethood. He utilised the faculties of Qalb to the utmost and got the Divine Light of the highest degree. He received the Divine revelation—the Qur’ân, therefore, no room was left for any other person to go higher than this and no deficiency was left in the level of knowledge that could be achieved by any human being.

    Allah Ta’ala certifies this seal of prophethood by Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) in the Qur’ân as:

    مَا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِنْ رِجَالِكُمْ وَلَكِنْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا

    “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala and the seal of prophets and Allah Ta’ala has full knowledge of all things”. (33:40)

    Latent Qualities of a Man’s Qalb-Dr. Rafiq Ahmed

    Allah Ta’ala says

    وَإِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِنْ بَنِي آدَمَ مِنْ ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَأَشْهَدَهُمْ عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ ألَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ قَالُوا بَلَى شَهِدْنَا أَنْ تَقُولُوا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّا كُنَّا عَنْ هَذَا غَافِلِينَ

    “When thy Lord drew forth from the children of Adam from their loins-their descendants and made them testify concerning themselves (Saying)”Am I not your lord (Who cherishes and sustains you) ? They said: Yea! We do testify (this) lest Ye should say on the Day of Judgment of this we were never mindful.” (7:172)

    This verse provides an ample evidence of the fact that Allah Ta’ala has inculcated in the genes of a man the capacity necessary to recognize the Oneness of Allah Ta’ala, His supreme authority and the only Sustainer and Cherisher of the World. It is only after this highest spiritual capability given to Adam and his sons that Allah Ta’ala asked them to testify this.

    There have been great men in the Islamic history like Zunun-Misri (RA) etc. who vividly recollected this day of covenant as if it had happened just that day itself. Zunun-Misri (RA), when asked if he remembered the covenant used to say:

    “The scene of that Covenant is still in front of my eyes, the sound of those words is still ringing in my ears as if it has happened today itself.”

    Since man, with all his excellences, is forgetful as well, so Allah Ta’ala sent His Messengers (AS) to this world to remind the mankind of this covenant which is already in its genes. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said in a hadith:

    “every child is born on the nature of Islam. His parents make him Jew, Christian or worshiper of fire”. (Bukhâri & Muslim Sharief)

    The latent qualities of man’s Qalb in the light and darkness

    Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’ân:

    أَفَمَنْ شَرَحَ اللَّهُ صَدْرَهُ لِلْإِسْلَامِ فَهُوَ عَلَى نُورٍ مِنْ رَبِّهِ فَوَيْلٌ لِلْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ مِنْ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ أُولَئِكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ

    “Is one whose heart Allah Ta’ala has opened to Islam, so that he received light from Allah Ta’ala. (No better than one hard hearted)? Woe to those whose hearts are hardened against the remembrance, of Allah Ta’ala! They are manifestly wandering (in error)”. (39:22)

    It  is patently clear that knowledge of these things has been given to man and that he has been selected for the expression of all the Attributes of Allah Ta’ala and thus we have also come to know that man was busy in Mushahidah Haq in  Aalam-i-Arwah and that he has recognised and testified that Allah Ta’ala is his Sustainer, his Cherisher and One and the Only one Lord worth worshipping. When man is born and comes to this universe, these all qualities remain latent or concealed in him. In the verses of the Qur’ân quoted above, (Is one whose heart Allah Ta’ala has opened to Islam, so that he has received light from Allah Ta’ala? Allah Ta’ala again refers to these qualities of heart (Qalb). Those who receive the Divine Light, their latent qualities of Qalb get awakened and enlightened and thus become manifested. Their Qalb starts functioning in the presence of this Divine Light and becomes Muslim i.e., they understand the Qur’ân and recognise their Creator, Sustainer and Cherisher, Allah Ta’ala the Almighty and the Exalted.

    Those who do not receive this Divine Light,  their latent qualities of Qalb do not get manifested, they remain in darkness and in the process their Qalb fails to function and hence neither understand the Qur’ân nor recognise their Creator, Sustainer, Cherisher, Allah Ta’ala the Almighty and the Exalted. Allah Ta’ala calls these hearts as hardened. They remain in darkness and fail to expand their spiritual understanding and to receive Allah Ta’ala’s Light. They travel in opposite direction. Just as there is spiritual progress for those who seek Allah Ta’ala, on the other hand there is more and more spiritual retrogression for those who close their hearts to Allah Ta’ala. Their hearts get hardened, and they allow less and less Allah Ta’ala’s Grace to penetrate within. But it is obvious that they flounder on the way and cannot walk with the firm steps of those whose hearts abound in faith.

    It is, therefore, well said: Hardened hearts are the most hated things near Allah Ta’ala. Allah Ta’ala taught us this Dua in the Qur’ân:

    رَبَّنَا لَا تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ رَحْمَةً إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْوَهَّابُ

    “O Lord! they say, let not our hearts deviate. Now after Thou has guided us, But grant us mercy from Thee. For Thou art the grantor of bounties without measure.” (3:8)

    What is Qalb?-part 2

    What is Qalb?-part 2
    Allah Ta’ala invited His beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) to the highest point of humanity, the highest peak which was possible for a human being to reach but which was possible only for the greatest of the greats i.e., our beloved Prophet Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). This was the highest status which is commonly known as Mairaj (Rasulullah’s (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) midnight ascension). The capability given to the human heart (Qalb) was utilized to its maximum by the sacred Qalb-i-Mubarak of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) for knowing the Ultimate Reality—the Almighty Allah Ta’ala. When Allah Ta’ala mentioned this highest achievement of man, He again used the word ‘Heart’.

    مَا كَذَبَ الْفُؤَادُ مَا رَأَى

    “The (Prophet’s) heart in no way falsified that which he saw.” (53:11)

    This again indicates that the highest perception of the ultimate Reality i.e., Allah Ta’ala was achieved again by the same instrument i.e., Qalb. In the another Qur’ânic verse, Allah Ta’ala says:

    إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَذِكْرَى لِمَنْ كَانَ لَهُ قَلْبٌ أَوْ أَلْقَى السَّمْعَ وَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ

    “ Verily in this is a message for any that has a heart and understanding or who gives ear and is a witness.” (50:37)

    Here Allah Ta’ala clearly declares that to understand the message of the Qur’ân and to get benefit from this immense treasure, one needs to have a Qalb. Here one may say that everybody has a heart, then why does not every body understand the Qur’ân? The answer is that one needs a pure and live heart (i.e., Qalb) which can utilise its special capability of perceiving the Attributes of Allah Ta’ala and can unfold the curtain which otherwise obscures the view from the real meaning of the Qur’ânic message. Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’ân:

    فَمَنْ يُرِدِ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَهْدِيَهُ يَشْرَحْ صَدْرَهُ لِلْإِسْلَامِ وَمَنْ يُرِدْ أَنْ يُضِلَّهُ يَجْعَلْ صَدْرَهُ ضَيِّقًا حَرَجًا كَأَنَّمَا يَصَّعَّدُ فِي السَّمَاءِ كَذَلِكَ يَجْعَلُ اللَّهُ الرِّجْسَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

    “ Those who Allah Ta’ala willeth to guide, He openeth their breast to Islam. Those whom He willeth to leave straying- He maketh their breast close and constricted As if they had to climb up to the skies, thus Doth Allah Ta’ala lay abomination on those who refuse to believe” (6:125)

    In this verse Allah Ta’ala has linked His bestowing of guidance to somebody with opening of his breast for Islam. Since breast is the seat of Qalb, so its opening is the opening of Qalb for Islam. This process has been described as the enlightening of the heart with the Eternal Light. As Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) while explaining the above mentioned Qur’ânic verse says:

    “Ibn-Masood (RA) narrated that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) recited ( the above mentioned verse) “ those whom Allah Ta’ala willeth to guide, He openeth their breast to Islam” then Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said when the light  (External) enters the breast it opens. He was asked, is there any sign by which this (Eternal Light) can be appreciated? he said,“ yes forsaking the world of deception and inclination towards the eternal world (Hereafter) and preparation for death.” (Mishkat)

    In this Hadith, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), has clearly pointed out that enlightening of the heart with the Eternal Light means the opening of the heart. From the Aayat quoted above and the Hadith the inference can easily be derived that it is the enlightened heart (Qalb} that gets the guidance of Allah Ta’ala and can, therefore, perceive the Truth and the ultimate Reality. Now the question arises if the heart is not enlightened by this Eternal Light, then what?

    Zulmat and Nur (Darkness and Light)

    The opposite of the Light is Darkness. The Qur’ân has mentioned these as Nur and Zulmat respectively.

    The heart which is not illuminated by the Eternal Light is said to be in darkness or  blind as Allah Ta’ala says in the  Qur’ânic verse, already quoted, that their (external) eyes are not blind but their hearts are blind. This darkness of heart (Qalb) is called Zulmat whereas the Eternal Light which enlightens the heart is called Nur. Allah Ta’ala reveals this in the Qur’ân:

    اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُخْرِجُهُمْ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَوْلِيَاؤُهُمُ الطَّاغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُمْ مِنَ النُّورِ إِلَى الظُّلُمَاتِ أُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

    “ Allah Ta’ala is the protector of those who have faith: From the depths of darkness He leads them forth into light.” (2:257)

    Now if we recapitulate the Qur’ânic revelations and the saying of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) already quoted in the previous lines, we can easily come to the conclusion that the function of the Qalb is to perceive the Divine Attributes, appreciate the Ultimate Reality and to understand the message of the Qur’ân. If the Qalb is plunged into darkness, then obviously it is deprived of these functions and will be as good as dead. So, when a person has his Qalb in the depths of darkness, he cannot know the Truth, cannot understand the significance of the eternal life, cannot achieve Ma’ârifat of Allah Ta’ala and cannot even smell the fragrance of the meaning of the Qur’ân, not to speak of tasting and assimilating it. This person is like a frog in a well that is totally unaware of the vastness of this universe, as this frog thinks that the well in which it lives is the only world.

    In medical terms, we are aware of two states of mind, conscious and subconscious states. Normally, in the majority of people the major portion of mind remains in subconscious state and only a little portion attains conscious state or else one can say that the major portion of mind remains in darkness and only a little portion gets enlightened. It is the conscious portion of mind that is utilised by man, therefore, the major portion of his mind remains un-utilised.

    If one talks of neuro-anatomy and physiology of human brain, the modern medical science has yet succeeded in knowing the anatomy and physiology of only few centres of brain, a tip of an iceberg.  The mystery of tremendous ocean of the brain potential remains unexplored to the scientists of Medicine even today.

    The same does not hold true about the great muslim research scholars. As Allah Ta’ala took them from the depths of darkness forth into the light which enlightened their subconscious state, converting that into conscious state. With this enlightenment their ratio of conscious state and sub-conscious state got reversed, their conscious state of mind  became so powerful that it gave them immense vision which could penetrate all the curtains that otherwise lie between the Reality and the Mind and between, the Qalb and the external eyes.

    What is Qalb (Heart) & What is it’s Islamic significance? by Dr Rafiq Ahmed

    In man, Allah Ta’ala has created human heart as the best and chief Organ and the Qur’ân labels it as Qalb. As Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) says:

    ألا إنّ حِمَى اللَّهِ في أرْضِهِ مَحَارِمُهُ ألا وإنّ في الجَسَدِ مُضْغَةً إذا صَلَحَتْ صَلَحَ الجَسدُ كُلُّهُ وإذا فَسَدَتْ فَسَدَ الجَسَدُ كُلُّهُ ألا وهْيَ القَلبُ

    “Indeed there is a piece of flesh in the human body, if it stays alright, the whole body stays alright, if it  goes  astray, the whole body goes astray. Listen with open ears: that is Qalb”. (Bukhâri Sharief)

    What is Qalb

    It is necessary to mention here that the word Qalb is not synonymous with the human heart which consists of muscular and connective tissues filled with some venous and arterial blood that we see in the left side of the chest, but as per the definition given in “Jalalain” (an authentic commentary of the Holy Qur’ân): Qalb is an instrument which has been given the capability of perceiving the divine Attributes.

    القلب وهو مشرق اللطيفة الإنسانية و يطلق على نفس اللطيفة النورانية الربانية العالمة التي هي مهبطة الأنوار إلهية الصمدانية وبها يكون الإنسان إنساناً و بها يستعد الكتاب الأوامر و اجتناب  الزواجر و هي خلاصة تولدت من الروح الروحاني و يعبر عنها الحكيم بالنفس الناطقة و لكونها هدف سهام القهر و الطف و المظهر الجمال و منشأ البسط و القبض و مبدأ المحو و الصحو و منبع الأخلاق المرضية و الأحوال الردية و كثير من الناس ذهب إلا أن تلك مضغة هي محل علم و قيل أنه في الدماغ و قيل أنه مشترك بينهما و بني ذالك على إثبات الحواس الباطنية و الكلام فيها مشهور و من راجع وجدانه أدرك أن بين الدماغ و القلب رابطة معنوية و مراجعة سرية لا ينكرها من كان له قلب أو ألقى السمع و هو شهيد (روح المعاني)

    Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’ân:

    فَمَنْ يُرِدِ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَهْدِيَهُ يَشْرَحْ صَدْرَهُ لِلْإِسْلَامِ

    ‘Those whom He willeth to guide – He openeth their breast to ‘Islam”. (6:125)

    This opening up of the breast, which is the seat of the Qalb, has been linked with understanding of guidance from Allah Ta’ala  .

    Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) says in a Hadith:

    “My eyes sleep, my heart does not sleep”. (Mishkat Sharief)

    Rasulullah further says  in a Hadith:

    “lndeed, a Ghain (a sort of veil) is put on my heart and indeed I ask Istigfar (repentance) to Allah Ta’ala 100 times a day.” (Muslim Sharief)

    It is because of this Istigfar that these veils were getting lifted and the Qalb-i-Mubarak (blessed heart) of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) continued to receive higher and higher states of the Divine Knowledge.

    Shah Wali-Ullah Muhaddith Delhvi (RA) says:

    “Qalb is that thing by which man loves and hates.”

    This means according to Shah Sahib Qalb is the seat of love and hatred.

    In other words we have different instruments for knowing different things, for example, we have thermometer to help us know the temperature of a human body, sphygmomanometer is there to tell us the blood pressure of a person. So what instrument Allah Ta’ala has created in this universe with which one can perceive Him, get His Ma’ârifat and has the capability of receiving and perceiving the rays of the Attributes of Allah Ta’ala. You have got the answer that it is the Qalb. Since it is closely associated with the human heart so the two are usually thought to be synonymous and both words are usually used for describing the same thing, though there is a difference as already explained. It is in view of this greatness and extraordinary important function of the human heart that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) once caught the edge of the outer curtain of Khana-Ka’aba and said:

    “O Khanah  Ka‘abah you are indeed great but the Qalb (Heart) of a Mumin (True believer) is greater than you” (Ibn Majah Sharief)

    In this Hadith, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) is referring to the greatness of the human heart. This greatness of the human heart is only because of its most important function i.e., Ma’ârifat-i-Ilâhiyah. It is because of this function which makes it king of the rest of the organs (Ra’eesul Aadha).

    Allah Ta’ala confirms this function of heart or Qalb by saying in the Qur’ân:

    أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَتَكُونَ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ يَعْقِلُونَ بِهَا أَوْ آذَانٌ يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا فَإِنَّهَا لَا تَعْمَى الْأَبْصَارُ وَلَكِنْ تَعْمَى الْقُلُوبُ الَّتِي فِي الصُّدُورِ

    “Do they not travel through the land, so that their hearts (and minds) may thus learn wisdom and their ears may thus learn to hear. Truly it is not the eyes that are blind but the hearts which are in their breasts.” (22:46)

    This statement of the Qur’ân clearly reveals that it is only the heart that can perceive the Reality. These external eyes, which have a limited range of vision, cannot see the Reality. These can only see the coarse things and not the benign things. The range of the vision of heart i.e., inner vision, is infinite. The range of the vision of external eyes is no comparison to it.

    GOOD CHARACTER

    Good character is an attribute of the Master of the Messengers (SAWS)
    and the best of the works of the veracious [Siddīqīn], and is in
    reality half of religion. It is from the fruits of the spiritual struggles of

    the God-fearing, and the efforts of the worshippers. Base (bad) character is

    a lethal poison, a fatal destroyer, and a humiliating debaser—manifest

    vileness, and filth that distances one from the sanctuary of the

    Lord of the worlds. It makes the one characterized by it of the devils,

    and it is the open door to the burning fire of Allāh, that “Leaps up

    over the hearts (of men),” (Qur’ān 104:7). Good character, on the

    other hand, is the open door to the bounties of the Gardens and

    proximity to the Merciful. Base character is a sickness of the heart

    and a disease of the lower self. It is a sickness that endangers the

    ever-lasting life. Therefore, it is necessary to pay utmost attention

    to it, even more than outward sickness.

    Character traits are attributes of the self by which it leans to

    either beauty or ugliness. Complete outward beauty is not possible

    through the beauty of the eyes alone, without the nose, mouth, and

    cheeks. Rather, it is necessary that all these be beautiful. Similarly,

    inward beauty requires four essential elements. And good character

    is completed through an appropriate balance and temperance of

    these elements. These elements are: knowledge, anger, passion, and

    justice between the other three elements.

    -Shaykh Zafar Usmani

    ADVICES regarding evil glances on non-Mahrams

    Casting evil glances at beautiful faces is a filthy and polluted act.

    One evil glance causes several spiritual diseases even though it may be for only one minute.

    No taste can match the joy experienced when one sacrifices every breath for Allah’s sake.

    In old age potency diminishes, but desires and passion remain virile,at the same time ability to combat the nafs weakens.

    Some people desire to acquire Allah’s pleasure but refuse to sacrifice any of their pleasures and desires.

    Due to constant striving, the heart is nutured, and fertile to absorb the rays of Hidayat and Wilayat (sainthood).

    Controlling the gaze creates a lustre (nur) within the heart which quickly manifests on the face of such a person.

    In proportion to the severity of the urge and desire to commit sin, will be the degree of nur created, on suppressing this urge.

    One lustful gaze leads to another, just as one sin leads to another and one good deed to another.

    Some people claim their total helplessness with regard to controlling the gaze, its a deception of shaytaan.

    Ask Allah Ta’ala to muster ones courage to leave all sins.

    -MOULANA HAKEEM AKHTAR (D.B.)

    O slave of Allah! Know that you are a wayfarer (salik) seeking your Lord

    O slave of Allah! Know that you are a wayfarer (salik)seeking your Lord and ultimately
    one day you would meet Him, as said in a tradition: Whoever hopes to meet God

    should know that the time of the meeting will come. And you should know that God, the

    Exalted, by His perfect Might and Wisdom has destined two journeys for the Children

    of Adam. One of them is involuntary (qahri), and the other one is voluntary (ikhtiyari).

    As to the involuntary journey, the starting point is the father’s loins (sulb); the second

    stage is the mother’s womb; the third stage is the physical world; and the fourth stage

    is that of the grave, which is either a garden out of the gardens of paradise or is a pit

    out of the pits of hell. The fifth stage is the Day of Resurrection, which is equal to fifty

    thousand years of this world. After that stage you will reach your eternal home and

    attain the real abode – that is, the abode of peace (dar al-salam)and the paradise of

    security and peace, in case you are among the felicitous and the friends of the Haqq;

    or your home will be the abode of fire and torture, if, God forbid, you should be among

    the wretched and the enemies of the Haqq, as Allah has said: “On the Day of

    Resurrection a group will be in paradise and a group in hell.” Every breath that you

    take is a step towards the stage of death. Every day of your life is equal to a parsang.

    Each month is like a stage (marhalah)and each year like a station (manzil). Your

    journey is like the movement of the sun and the moon – yet you are oblivious of this

    journey and movement – and in your ignorance and forgetfulness you have failed to

    make ready and equip yourself properly for the station (manzil)of the grave and the

    onward journey to the station of the Day of Resurrection and your eternal and real

    home.

    But the voluntary journey is of two kinds: one is the journey of the souls and the hearts

    toward the Almighty and All-powerful King of the world. The second is a physical

    journey (safar jismani)in the earth of God.

    -Adab al-Suluk: A Treatise on Spiritual Wayfaring by Shaykh Najm al-Din Kubr

    What is Qalb?

    What is Qalb? part-12: Suhbat of Ahlullah

    Suhabat (Company) of Ahl-e-Dil as a Cause of Revivification of Qalb
    (Whole hearts are the receiving stations of the Divine Light)

    Allah Ta’ala says in Qur’ân:

    يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَكُونُوا مَعَ الصَّادِقِينَ

    “O Believers! remain with the truthful”. (9:119)

    The Qalb also needs watering as the land needs rain. The water of Qalb are the words of pious people and company of  the Ulema. How is it possible that one’s dead and dry heart will get revived in the company of such people? Remember that the Nafs and the Shaitân are two things which cause opacity of Qalb by way of sins. The Shaitân’s origin is fire. So, a person has two kinds of fires with him, one is the fire of his baser self (Nafs) and other is the fire of Satan (Shaitân), the smoke of these fires is blackening his Qalb all the time. When a person sits in the company of the pious Muttaqi people who have got their hearts purified and enlightened by the Noor of Allah Ta’ala the Tajalliyaat of Allah Ta’ala that are always falling on their hearts change the condition of this person miraculously. When they talk, this divine light i.e., Noor mixes up with their words and when they utter such words from their mouth, they penetrate deep into the sincere listener’s heart and revivify it. The fire of Shaitân and that of his baser self gets extinguished by the Noor of the hearts of these pious people.

    One can observe this light (Noor) when he goes to such a pious man who advises him to offer Salâh regularly or to tell the truth. This person after returning from starts offering Salâh regularly. This person was knowing it already that Salâh is compulsory and should be offered, or that one should tell the truth but still he was not doing so. What has happened by a simple sentence of this pious man that now this person has started offering prayers? Again, the same thing, he was very well knowing that Salâh should be offered but his baser self i.e., Nafs and Shaitân were very strong and were not allowing him to do so. When he remained in the company of a pious person for some moments, the Noor emanating from his heart extinguished the fire of Shaitân, so he could easily overpower Shaitân and Nafs and thus started offering Salâh and acquired the habit of telling the truth.

    If one wants to do good deeds which he already knows, it is obligatory for him to sit in the company of Sâlihîn (the pious people).

    Suhbat-i-Sâlihîn is a very exalted thing in this world. It is said that there are many advantages to remain in solitude, but one of the biggest disadvantage of this is that in it Suhbat-i-Sâlihîn is not available and such people lose the blessings of their pious company. One of the reasons mentioned for the Iblees becoming Mardood (condemned) is that he was avoiding the company of Noori angels when he was living with them and was proud of his worship.

    Allah Ta’ala ordered Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam),

    وَاصْبِرْ نَفْسَكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُمْ بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ

    “And keep yourself content with those who call on their Lord morning and evening, seeking His face”. (18:28)

    Though Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) was always in the company of Allah Ta’ala but this Aayat was still revealed for the teaching of Ummah.

    Effects of good company (Suhabat)

    حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ يَحْيَى التَّمِيمِىُّ وَقَطَنُ بْنُ نُسَيْرٍ – وَاللَّفْظُ لِيَحْيَى – أَخْبَرَنَا جَعْفَرُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ إِيَاسٍ الْجُرَيْرِىِّ عَنْ أَبِى عُثْمَانَ النَّهْدِىِّ عَنْ حَنْظَلَةَ الأُسَيِّدِىِّ قَالَ – وَكَانَ مِنْ كُتَّابِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- قَالَ – لَقِيَنِى أَبُو بَكْرٍ فَقَالَ كَيْفَ أَنْتَ يَا حَنْظَلَةُ قَالَ قُلْتُ نَافَقَ حَنْظَلَةُ قَالَ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ مَا تَقُولُ قَالَ قُلْتُ نَكُونُ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- يُذَكِّرُنَا بِالنَّارِ وَالْجَنَّةِ حَتَّى كَأَنَّا رَأْىَ عَيْنٍ فَإِذَا خَرَجْنَا مِنْ عِنْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- عَافَسْنَا الأَزْوَاجَ وَالأَوْلاَدَ وَالضَّيْعَاتِ فَنَسِينَا كَثِيرًا قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ فَوَاللَّهِ إِنَّا لَنَلْقَى مِثْلَ هَذَا. فَانْطَلَقْتُ أَنَا وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ حَتَّى دَخَلْنَا عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- قُلْتُ نَافَقَ حَنْظَلَةُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ. فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- « وَمَا ذَاكَ ». قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ نَكُونُ عِنْدَكَ تُذَكِّرُنَا بِالنَّارِ وَالْجَنَّةِ حَتَّى كَأَنَّا رَأْىَ عَيْنٍ فَإِذَا خَرَجْنَا مِنْ عِنْدِكَ عَافَسْنَا الأَزْوَاجَ وَالأَوْلاَدَ وَالضَّيْعَاتِ نَسِينَا كَثِيرًا. فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- « وَالَّذِى نَفْسِى بِيَدِهِ إِنْ لَوْ تَدُومُونَ عَلَى مَا تَكُونُونَ عِنْدِى وَفِى الذِّكْرِ لَصَافَحَتْكُمُ الْمَلاَئِكَةُ عَلَى فُرُشِكُمْ وَفِى طُرُقِكُمْ وَلَكِنْ يَا حَنْظَلَةُ سَاعَةً وَسَاعَةً ». ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ.

    Hanzala Usayyidi, who was amongst the scribes of Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). reported: I met Abu Bakr. He said: How are you? He (Hanzala) said: Hanzala has turned to be a hypocrite. He (Abu Bakr) said: Hallowed be Allah, what are you saying? Thereupon he said: I say that when we are in the company of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) we ponder over Hell-Fire and Paradise as if we are seeing them with our very eyes and when we are away from Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) we attend to our wives, our children, our business; most of these things (pertaining to After-life) slip out of our minds. Abu Bakr said: By Allah, I also experience the same. So I and Abu Bakr went to Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and said to him: Allah’s Messenger, Hanzala has turned to be a hypocrite. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: What has happened to you? I said: Allah’s Messenger, when we are in your company, we are reminded of Hell-Fire and Paradise as if we are seeing them with our own eyes, but whenever we go away from you and attend to our wives, children and business, much of these things go out of our minds. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: By Him in Whose Hand is my life, if your state of mind remains the same as it is in my presence and you are always busy in remembrance (of Allah), the Angels will shake hands with you in your beds and in your paths but, Hanzala, time should be devoted (to the worldly affairs) and time (should be devoted to prayer and meditation). He (the Holy Prophet) said this thrice.

    From this incident many lessons are derived but I will confine myself to my topic only that is in the Suhabat of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), the Sahâbah were experiencing strange things which they lacked in his absence. Sahâbah Al-Kiram said that they noticed dramatic change in themselves after the departure of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) from the world so soon that they had not even finished the burial ceremony of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the clay of the grave was still sticking to their hands.

    Effects of bad company (Suhabat)

    Once Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) was reciting Qur’ân- i-Sharief in Salâh while he was Imâm of Sahâbahh-Kirâm (RA). During the course of recitation of the Qur’ân, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) experienced some difficulty in reciting. After the completion of Salâh (prayer), Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) turned towards the Sahâbah (RA) and said,

    “What has happened to the people that they are joining the Salâh (prayer) without proper Wudhu(ablution).” (Mishkat Sharief)

    Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) had come to know {through the intuition) that a person had joined the congregational Salâh without proper Wudhu and the effect of this was experienced by Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) in the form of difficulty in recitation of the Qur’ân. You can imagine that the effect of the company of a person who had not made the Wudhu properly was such that it even effected Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), who was the most perfect of the mankind. From this one can easily judge how one’s Qalb must be getting ruined in the company of bad people who are always engaged in the disobedience of Allah Ta’ala. May Allah Ta’ala protect us.

    What is Qalb? part-11: following the Sunnah

     Following of Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam)

    as a cause of revivification of Qalb. -Dr. Rafiq Ahmed

    This is one of the most important causes of revivification of Qalb. Blessed are those who understand it and follow it from the core of their hearts. Earlier on it was comprehensively proved that if you want to get rid of the darkness of Qalb and to enlighten it with the Noor of the Qur’ân, you have to connect your Qalb with the power house of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

    Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’ân:

    قُلْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ

    “Say:(O Muhammad)! “If you do love Allah Ta’ala, follow me: Allah Ta’ala will love you and forgive you your sins, for Allah Ta’ala is oft-forgiving, most merciful.” (3:31)

    In this verse Allah Ta’ala declares that if you want My (i.e, Allah Ta’ala’s) love, you have only one way out, that is to follow Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). You know, the Qur’ân is the precious treasure of Allah Ta’ala. He will bestow this treasure only to those whom He loves. In other words, first we have to behave in such a way so that one becomes beloved of Allah Ta’ala, otherwise how can you expect His blessings, particularly a blessing like that of Al-Qur’ân. Allah Ta’ala has not left this for us to think how can we make Him happy. He has been kind enough to tell us well in advance as to what is the thing which He expects from us so that He may love us and subsequently bestow upon us His unlimited blessings, best of which is the Qur’ân. He says that He will love those who follow Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

    Unfortunately, these days so called modern Muslims, who are highly influenced by the apparently glittering west, think that following Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) is unnecssary and orthodox.

    Allah Ta’ala says:

    لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِيهِمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ

    “Indeed, ye have in the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala an excellent exemplar”. (60:6)

    Allah Ta’ala says that the best example for you is the life of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and the so called modern Muslims of today by their deeds if not by their belief, say that the best way is the western way of life. How can these people understand the divine message of the Qur’ân? The Qur’ân is guidance for those who fear Allah Ta’ala and abstain from sins.

    Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’ân:

    ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِلْمُتَّقِينَ

    “It is Guidance sure, without doubt, to those who fear Allah Ta’ala”. (2:2)

    One who fears Allah Ta’ala, will not displease Him. From the above verse (3:31) it is clear that Allah Ta’ala will not be pleased with somebody who does not follow Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

    How can following of Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) help in understanding the Qur’an

    Every aspect of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) is full of Noor, whether it be his pious Rooh (spirit) or his life or his words or deeds. He was not a Noor for himself only. Allah Ta’ala says that He has sent him as Noor (to mankind). Unfortunate are those who are devoid of this Noor and blessed are those who are cherishing this wealth.

    When a Mu’min (believer) acts according to the Sunnah (tradition) of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), each such deed carries a Noor with it which illuminates and enlightens the Qalb of the doer of this deed, which has been done strictly as per Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). These are called Anwaar-i-Sunnan. Say for example, a person has to take his meals, he takes his meals as per Sunnah—washing both of his hands before eating, recites Bismillah, lays the Dastaarkhan (sheet), takes the food from front side of the plate etc. He does this with the Niyyat that these are the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and that Allah Ta’ala likes him to follow Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). Now, one person takes his meals but does not do these things and does not make this Niyyat and the other person takes his meals according to the Sunnah. Both take meals, yet there is a great difference between the two. Both get energies for their bodies from the food, but the second person who takes the meals as per Sunnah gets Roohani (spiritual) energy as well. This person with Roohani (spiritual) energy is better placed for understanding the Qur’ân than the first one. From this example one must have understood how following of Sunnah is necessary for Tazkiya and how the deeds not as per Sunnah can deprive a person from Tazkiya. Here it may be understood that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) says that the Dua of such a person is not accepted by Allah Ta’ala who takes Haraam food. Here again this Haraam food spoils the Qalb thus depriving the blessings of Dua to shower upon this person.

    This thing is so easy to understand as it has very simple reasoning but unfortunately the Qaloob (hearts) of majority of Muslims have got so much darkened and lifeless that they fail to understand this simple fact as to how can following of the Sunnah help in imbibing the Divine guidance. These days there are thousands of libraries, millions of books, hundreds of journals, advanced audio visual methods of propagating Islam and countless conferences and other Islamic congregation held everywhere. Islamic history reveals that in earlier centuries these things were not available in plenty. All the same earlier Muslims were qualitatively far superior to the modern Muslims. If you measure it by using the modern yardstick then the situation should have been reverse i.e., with the modern advances which are providing more and more information easily to a Muslim, should have been qualitatively better but it is not so. It is simply because today’s Muslim, highly overawed and greatly influenced by the western culture, thinks that he can become a good Muslim and can understand the Qur’ân by using the modern audio visual aids of propagation and by reading too many books even if his actions and lifestyle is totally western and against the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

    Hadhrat Imâm Malik (RA) used to say that this Ummah cannot regain its glory unless it adopts the same means which were adopted by earlier Muslims i.e., Sahâbah al-Kirâm (RA) and Taaba’een. The secret of success and the source of the knowledge was the Sunnah of Rasullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

    Tuesday, February 14, 2012

    What is Qalb? part-10: Remembrance of Death

    Remembrance of death and sense of accountability as a cause of revivification of Qalb

    Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said that:

     Qalb gets rusted. He was asked by his companions y as to how can this rust be removed from the Qalb. Rasulullahe replied, the rust of the Qalb can be removed by two things viz; remembrance of death and recitation of the Qur’ân. (Baihaqi)

    Remembrance of death plays a very effective role in purifying the heart. Allah Ta’ala has created man as a very wonderful creature. Despite having excellent qualities, man has also some characteristics contrary to excellent and one of them is negligence. It would have been very difficult for man to commit a sin if this negligence would not have existed. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) says that a Mumin (true believer) does not remain a Mumin during the time he steals or indulges in adultery .There is a consensus among the scholars (Ulema-e-Haq) that one does not become a Kaafir (disbeliever) by committing a grave sin. But the above mentioned Hadith states that a Mumin does not remain Mumin during the time he steals or commits adultery. Commentators of Hadith have given the explanation that it is impossible to commit disobedience of Allah Ta’ala in the presence of Imaan. In other words we can say that when a Mu’min commits a grave sin, his Imaan is present but he becomes negligent about it. It is during this period of negligence that he dares to commit disobedience of Allah Ta’ala. Prerequisite of Imaan is that one has firm belief that Allah Ta’ala is always watching and is always present wherever one may be. In presence of such a firm belief, how can a Mu’min dare to commit a sin? Obviously it is his negligence which makes him to commit a sin resulting in rusting of his Qalb. Unfortunately most of the Muslims today spend their whole lives under the dark clouds of this negligence (Gaflat). This negligence is the root cause of deteriorating condition of the present day Muslims and their unawareness about the treasures of the glorious Qur’ân. It has been many times stated that the instrument for understanding the Qur’ân is the Qalb and that the sins committed cause rusting of the Qalb and hence depriving it of its ability to understand the Qur’ân. Here we can understand that a Mu’min commits a sin when he is negligent of the basic belief of Imaan that Allah Ta’ala is seeing, is present and that he has to appear before Him for accountability on the Day of Judgment.

    Since Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) has been the most kind to his Ummah, he (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) has very kindly taught the Muslims that if they want to get rid of the rust on their Qaloob in order to get it revived, they should constantly remember death in abundance. Every one of us must have experienced the softening of heart on the death of any of our close relative. One experiences a strange change in his heart. Man is such a negligent creature that he even forgets this absolute reality of death which he witnesses now and then. This negligence is indeed horrible. This negligence hardens his Qalb and he gets busy with mundane affairs to such an extent that his Qalb loses all its excellences. The death of some near and dear one reminds him of the short life span of this world life and the everlasting life in the Hereafter. At the same time death makes him to remind the horrifying incidents which he has to experience after death. It makes him to remind that he has to leave his children, wife, parents and other relations who are most dear to him and for whom he is working day in and day out. It makes him remind the luxurious bungalows and all its luxurious decorative things will remain behind and won’t accompany him in the grave. These painful thoughts definitely soften the hardened hearts.

    Distant hopes

    One of the important causes as well as the effect of the negligence is development of distant hopes.

    Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) says in a Hadith:

    “I fear two things that may overcome you, first—obedience of the desires of Nafs (self) and second—the distant hopes (Tooli-Amal)”. (Mishkat Sharief)

    Satan (Shaitân) takes full advantage of this quality of negligence of a man and involves him in distant hopes. The distant hopes mean that a person thinks in his inner thoughts of great ambitious plans which he hopes may get fulfilled in the coming decades, but at the same time forgetting that the present day may be his last day. He enjoys the thoughts of these future plans (in air) least realizing that he is wasting his time and that Satan (Shaitân) and his self (Nafs) are keeping him away from the Reality.

    When Imâm Ghazzali (RA) wrote the chapter of “Akhlaaqi-Razeelah — ‘Despicable Morals’” in his famous book “Ihya-ul-Uloom”, he kept this bad quality of distant hopes on number one in the list of human despicable morals. When I read this in the early years of my life, I got surprised to see this at the top of the list and other bad qualities like pride, jealousy, greed, back biting etc below it. I could not understand it at that time, but later on as I gained some experience, I had no words to praise the depth of Ilm (know-ledge), this great man of Islam (Imâm Ghazzali R.A) was having as he has rightly placed this on number one. I could also appreciate by the grace of Allah Ta’ala, that this bad disease of distant hopes ruins a Muslim. A person who gets this disease of distant hopes, is always having false hopes about his future, lives in a fool’s paradise. These distant hopes keep him away from Allah Ta’ala, and from the real life—The Hereafter. He remains busy in materialistic things least realizing that they are not going to last. He gets no time to explore the treasures of the Holy Qur’ân. He boasts of his worldly status, worldly knowledge and worldly gains. He is like a person who constructs a huge beautiful building on a bridge, feels proud of it and takes rest in that building very comfortably. He is satisfied and fell secure in this building. Suddenly a strong wave arises from the river, strikes against the bridge and engulfs it and this man’s false paradise. Then this person realizes that every thing in this world was a nightmare. He wakes up to the realities at a time when it is too late and of no use to him.

    Most of us know the story of Shaikh Chilly. He becomes a very rich man in a few minutes and marries a very beautiful lady in his thoughts while carrying a tin of oil on his head (as he was a very poor porter). He gets lost in his thoughts feeling so much joy that he shakes his head in happiness and the tin of oil falls down and collapses and all his hopes are dashed to ground. We laugh at him whenever we narrate this incident, but if we go a little deeper in ourselves with sincerity, most of us will definitely find that we are no different than Shaikh Chilly. We will find out that we too also think like Shaikh Chilly. Then what is the difference? There appears to be no difference. May Allah Ta’ala make all of us to understand this point and cure us of this fatal disease of Tooli Amal. The ultimate result of both these despicable morals i.e., distant hopes and negligence is the cause of the rusting of the Qalb. This rusted Qalb remains blind to the realities revealed in the Qur’ân. The remedy lies in the remembrance of death. A person who remember death cannot think of distant hopes and cannot afford to be negligent of his basic duties which include knowing Allah Ta’ala, His Messenger (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and understanding of the Qur’ân.

    How to remember death

    Every night when you go to bed, switch off the lights, close your eyes, when it is absolutely calm in the room, start thinking about death as this — it may be my last night, I may not get up from my bed tomorrow. What will happen then? My children, wife and parents etc will remain behind. All my property will remain behind. My clothes will be taken off. I will be helpless in the hands of few people who will wash my body. I will wrapped up in a simple white cloth (Kafan). I will then be put in a closed box (Taboot) and buried in the darkness of the grave. The grave will be closed and I will be alone there. Nakeer and Munkar—the two angels) will come and will question me. What will be my fate that time? What will be my fate on the Day of Judgment and so on and so forth.

    lnsha-Allah Ta’ala after a few days only one will appreciate the softening of his heart which one needs for understanding the Qur’ân.

    What is Qalb? part-9: Causes of Ihya of the Qalb

    Causes of Revivification (Ihya) and Enlightenment of Qalb- Dr Rafiq Ahmed

    1. Firm faith in Allah Ta’ala.

    2. Avoidance of pollution of Qalb by the filth of sins.

    3. Remembrance of Allah Ta’ala.

    4. Recitation of the Quran with Aadâb (etiquettes and pre-requisites).

    5. Remembrance of Death and sense of accountability on the day of Judgement.

    6. Following of the Sunnah (Tradition) of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) strictly.

    7. To have the noble company and the guidance of Ahle-Dil (whose hearts are receiving-stations of the Divine Light).

    1. Firm faith in Allah Ta’ala

    This has already been described to some extent. This is the first and the foremost prerequisite for revivification and satisfaction of heart. The darkest and biggest stain which ruins the capability of pure and live heart is Kufr (not believing in Allah Ta’ala and His Messenger).

    Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) described such a heart as dead. Such a dead heart can neither appreciate nor enjoy the ultimate Reality. It is also unaware of its most pitiable and miserable condition, hence feels false happiness which is illusory with no comparison to the real one.

    1. Avoidance of pollution of Qalb by the filth of sins

    If a piece of wood is taken near the fire, it will burn, whether one intends to burn it or not. Similarly, when one commits a sin, it stains the heart and makes it impure whether he wishes it or not. If a person misuses his eyes, i.e., gazes at those ladies whom he is not allowed to look at as per Shariah, even without bad intentions, will cause a stain on his Qalb, thus making it impure. Similarly if a person talks ill about others, this will ruin his heart. These sins are like cyanide, anybody taking it will die, whether he intends to die or not. Those people whose spiritual sense of smell (extra sensory perception of smell) is functioning do feel the awful bad (repugnantly foul) smell of sins. The angels having much finer perception of things feel the foul smell of sins, hence most of the angels of mercy leave the company of such a person and curse him.

    A great man in Islamic History Hadhrat Imâm Abu Haniefah (RA) had such an inner vision that he could see the sins of people which were getting washed off from them while performing ablution (Wudhu). He therefore decreed that the water falling down from the parts of body being washed during Wudhu, is not pure. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said in a Hadith that Allah Ta’ala does not see towards the external appearance of people but towards their hearts and their intentions. When hearts are impure and filled with filth, they cannot receive the pure Eternal Light (Nur) necessary for understanding the divine revelation—the Holy Qur’ân and for perceiving the ultimate Reality.

    After having firm faith in Allah Ta’ala, it is imperative to avoid all sins, major or minor, in order to protect the capability of Qalb to understand the Qur;an. One may read thousands of books including great commentaries of the Qur’ân, he cannot even smell the fragrance of the purest Divine revelation of al-Qur’ân.

    1. Remembrance of Allah Ta’ala (Zikrullah):

    Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) says in a Hadith that:

     “The Qalb which is in the remembrance of Allah Ta’ala is live and the Qalb which is careless of it is as good as dead”. (Bukhâri & Muslim Sharief)

    Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’ân:

    فَوَيْلٌ لِلْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ مِنْ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ أُولَئِكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ

    “Woe to those whose hearts are hardened against the remembrance of Allah Ta’ala! They are manifestly wandering (in error)!” (39:22)

    Hafiz Ibn Taymiya (RA) says that Zikrullah is so much necessary for heart as water is necessary for fish. Imagine the condition of a fish without water. It has already been mentioned that the receptors for appreciating the divine light and the Ultimate Reality are in the Qalb and that they get fogged by the sins, and totally blocked by the dark clouds of Kufr (Atheism). To remove this fog or dark clouds from the receptors of Qalb one needs two things:

    1) Irrigation by the water of Zikr.

    2) Heat of Muhabbat (Love).

    One needs these two things in the same way as one needs them for a tree from which one wants to have fruits. The tree to flourish and to bear fruit, needs enough irrigation and the sunlight.

    what is Qalb? part-8 : Locks upon the Qalb

     Locks Upon the Qalb

    Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’ân:

    أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ أَمْ عَلَى قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَا

    “ Do they not then earnestly seek to understand the Qur’ân, or is that there are locks upon their hearts ?” (47:24)

    Allah Ta’ala has sent an immense treasure to man in the form of the Qur’ân. Allah Ta’ala wants man to earnestly seek to understand this Divine revelation and to do justice to his own capabilities which Allah Ta’ala has bestowed upon him. It is in this context that Allah Ta’ala pities those who do not seek to understand the Qur’ân. The failure to understand the Qur’ân has been attributed to the locks upon their hearts in this verse of the Qur’ân.

    It is the duty of everybody to know the essence and reality of these locks? And secondly to try his level best to scrutinize the condition of his Qalb and see if it is not locked.

    Qalb is capable of seeking the secrets of heavens

    Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: ” If the Satan would not have been roaming around the hearts of men, they would have been able to see the angels (and the secrets) of heavens.” (Baihaqi Sharief)

    It is this haziness caused by the Satan on the plain mirror of the Qalb that obscures it from viewing the Realities. Otherwise this mirror of Qalb, if kept clean or got cleaned, has the capability to view those things which remain hidden. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) further says: “When a person is born, an angel and a Satan are posted on his Qalb, the angel invites him towards righteousness while Satan towards evil deeds.” (Tirmidhi Sharief)

    If a person follows the directions of the angel, his Satan becomes weak. On the other hand if a person follows the direction of the Satan, it becomes very strong and causes thick clouds on his Qalb. By following the Satan one commits sins. We have already quoted a hadith in which Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) says that sins cause dark stains on heart. Correlating the two we can infer that these are the sins which cause darkness or haziness on the Qalb. This darkness blocks the receptors of the Qalb which were to perceive the Reality. When these receptors fail to do so i.e., to perceive the Reality, we can say that these receptors of Qalb have got locked.

    After knowing a little bit about these locks, now we can understand the meaning and significance of this DUA (prayer) in which Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

    اللهم افتح قلوبنا بذكرك

    “O Allah Ta’ala! open the locks of our hearts by (the grace of) your remembrance”.

    Allah Ta’ala is Nur (Divine Light), His Attributes posses Nur and His name is full of Nur. When a Mumin (True Believer) remembers Him by His name, its Nur enters his Qalb and illuminates and enlightens it. The receptors of Qalb which had been in darkness of sins and in the grip of Satan receive the Divine Light which overcomes this darkness and also forces the Satan to vacate from this enlightened Qalb. The receptors of this Qalb start functioning and thereby it gets revived. Now we can understand this Qur’ânic verse well:

    الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَتَطْمَئِنُّ قُلُوبُهُمْ بِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ أَلَا بِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ تَطْمَئِنُّ الْقُلُوبُ

    “Those who believe and whose hearts find satisfaction in the remembrance of Allah Ta’ala for without doubt in the remembrance of Allah Ta’ala do the hearts find the satisfaction.” (13:28)

    What is Qalb? Part-7: What destroys the Qalb?

    What destroys the highest inherent capabilities of Qalb

    عَنْ أَبِى هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- قَالَ : إِنَّ الْمُؤْمِنَ إِذَا أَذْنَبَ كَانَتْ نُكْتَةٌ سَوْدَاءُ فِى قَلْبِهِ فَإِنْ تَابَ وَنَزَعَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ صُقِلَ قَلْبُهُ فَإِنْ زَادَ زَادَتْ فَذَلِكَ الرَّانُ الَّذِى ذَكَرَهُ اللَّهُ فِى كِتَابِهِ ( كَلاَّ بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ)

    Abu Huriarah (RA) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) has said: “Indeed when a man commits sin, there occurs a black stain on his heart. Then if he repents and asks forgiveness (from Allah Ta’ala) his heart gets cleaned and if he commits more sins, that black stain increases in size till it covers the whole heart. It is that cover of impure (sins), which has been called Ra’an (rust), which Allah Ta’ala mentions in the verse No. (83:14)” (Ibn Majah)

    كَلَّا بَلْ رَانَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ

    “By no means! But on their hearts is the stain of the (ill) which they do”. (83:14)

    The heart of man, as created by Allah Ta’ala is pure and unsullied. When a man does an evil deed, it makes a stain on his heart. But on repentance or forgiveness, this stain gets washed off. If such a person doesn’t repent or is not forgiven, this stain deepens as well as spreads more and more, until his heart is sealed and eventually he dies a spiritual death. These are such stains which prevent the heart from perceiving truths which are otherwise obvious to enlightened hearts.

    Allah Ta’ala says

    خَتَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَى سَمْعِهِمْ وَعَلَى أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

    “AlIah hath set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing and on their eyes is a veil, Great is the chastisement They (incur). (2: 7)

    Pure heart is like a mirror. If it is free from these evil stains, it has the ability to receive and reflect the Divine Light which penetrates the veils lying between the Reality and the eyes. But if this mirror of Qalb (Divine) is stained with evil deeds, it gets sullied and hence unable to receive this light. It loses its function and becomes as good as dead. This dead state of Qalb is here referred to in Aayat (2:7) as a seal, as if their hearts have been sealed.

    The biggest and the darkest stain on Qalb is caused by Kufr (not believing in Allah Ta’ala and His Messenger—Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) )

    This evil almost completely darkens the Qalb and one can say it gets completely sealed or shut off from the Reality.

    In case of believers the ratio of the stain on Qalb and the evil deeds is directly proportional. More the evil deeds, more the stains and vice versa. If a believers do not desist from these kind of deeds and remains adamant on the evil deeds of major significance, there is every apprehension that his heart may also get sealed which he may not be even knowing.

    May Allah Ta’ala protect our hearts from this disease- Aamin.

    Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’ân:

    فَبِمَا نَقْضِهِمْ مِيثَاقَهُمْ وَكُفْرِهِمْ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَقَتْلِهِمُ الْأَنْبِيَاءَ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ وَقَوْلِهِمْ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ بَلْ طَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهَا بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

    “(They have incurred divine displeasure): In that they broke their covenant. That they rejected the signs of Allah Ta’ala; that they slew the Messenger in defiance of right; that they said, “ Our hearts are the wrappings” Nay, Allah Ta’ala hath set the seal on their hearts for their blasphemy, And little is it they believe”.(4:155)

    أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ أَمْ عَلَى قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَا

    “Do they not then Earnestly seek to understand The Qur’ân, or is that there are Locks upon their Hearts.” (47:24)

    Because of these serious evils, Allah Ta’ala sets the seal on their hearts so that they no more deserve the Divine Light and divine pleasure. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) , says that: “The hardened heart (the heart which is stained and darkened) is disliked by Allah Ta’ala the most.”

    What is Qalb? part-6

    Qalb—The seat of faculty of understanding and knowledge

    Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’ân:

    وَلَقَدْ ذَرَأْنَا لِجَهَنَّمَ كَثِيرًا مِنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنْسِ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ لَا يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ آذَانٌ لَا يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا أُولَئِكَ كَالْأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ أُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ

    “ Many are the jinns and men we have made for Hell. They have hearts where-with they understand not, eyes wherewith they see not and ears wherewith they hear not. They are like cattle -nay more misguided: for they are heedless (of warning)”. (7:179)

    Here Allah Ta’ala once again clearly reveals that the seat of faculty of understanding is Qalb and those who do not make use of this faculty, they are as good as cattle.

    Rabeea Al-Jurashi (RA) quotes Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) as saying:

     “An angel came to him and said, “Let your eyes sleep, let your ears hear but your Qalb (heart) remain awakned”. (Mishkaat Sharief)

    This is a vast subject, I would like to conclude it in the light of the Qur’ânic revelations and Ahâdith which I have quoted, the following conclusions become quite crystal clear to us:

    1. Qalb is the seat of faculty of understanding and divine knowledge.

    2. Qalb is the instrument which has been specially devised for receiving and appreciating the eternal light.

    3. For proper understanding of the Qur’ân, a pure, live and properly functioning Qalb is needed.

    4. The spiritual jewels have been kept hidden in darkness in the Qalb.

    5. Blind Qalb can neither attain any spiritual height nor know the Reality.

    6. To bring Qalb out of darkness so that it can utilise its higher faculties, a light is needed.

    7. The light can be had from one and the only lamp and that is Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) .

    8. In other words we can say understanding of the Qur’ân is the function of Qalb which is illuminated and the enlightened by the light of the lamp of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) , which makes it capable of receiving eternal light necessary for unraveling the spiritual truths.

    What is Qalb (Heart) & What is it’s Islamic significance? by Dr Rafiq Ahmed

    In man, Allah Ta’ala has created human heart as the best and chief Organ and the Qur’ân labels it as Qalb. As Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) says:

    ألا إنّ حِمَى اللَّهِ في أرْضِهِ مَحَارِمُهُ ألا وإنّ في الجَسَدِ مُضْغَةً إذا صَلَحَتْ صَلَحَ الجَسدُ كُلُّهُ وإذا فَسَدَتْ فَسَدَ الجَسَدُ كُلُّهُ ألا وهْيَ القَلبُ

    “Indeed there is a piece of flesh in the human body, if it stays alright, the whole body stays alright, if it  goes  astray, the whole body goes astray. Listen with open ears: that is Qalb”. (Bukhâri Sharief)

    What is Qalb

    It is necessary to mention here that the word Qalb is not synonymous with the human heart which consists of muscular and connective tissues filled with some venous and arterial blood that we see in the left side of the chest, but as per the definition given in “Jalalain” (an authentic commentary of the Holy Qur’ân): Qalb is an instrument which has been given the capability of perceiving the divine Attributes.

    القلب وهو مشرق اللطيفة الإنسانية و يطلق على نفس اللطيفة النورانية الربانية العالمة التي هي مهبطة الأنوار إلهية الصمدانية وبها يكون الإنسان إنساناً و بها يستعد الكتاب الأوامر و اجتناب  الزواجر و هي خلاصة تولدت من الروح الروحاني و يعبر عنها الحكيم بالنفس الناطقة و لكونها هدف سهام القهر و الطف و المظهر الجمال و منشأ البسط و القبض و مبدأ المحو و الصحو و منبع الأخلاق المرضية و الأحوال الردية و كثير من الناس ذهب إلا أن تلك مضغة هي محل علم و قيل أنه في الدماغ و قيل أنه مشترك بينهما و بني ذالك على إثبات الحواس الباطنية و الكلام فيها مشهور و من راجع وجدانه أدرك أن بين الدماغ و القلب رابطة معنوية و مراجعة سرية لا ينكرها من كان له قلب أو ألقى السمع و هو شهيد (روح المعاني)

    Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’ân:

    فَمَنْ يُرِدِ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَهْدِيَهُ يَشْرَحْ صَدْرَهُ لِلْإِسْلَامِ

    ‘Those whom He willeth to guide – He openeth their breast to ‘Islam”. (6:125)

    This opening up of the breast, which is the seat of the Qalb, has been linked with understanding of guidance from Allah Ta’ala  .

    Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) says in a Hadith:

     “My eyes sleep, my heart does not sleep”. (Mishkat Sharief)

    Rasulullah further says  in a Hadith:

     “lndeed, a Ghain (a sort of veil) is put on my heart and indeed I ask Istigfar (repentance) to Allah Ta’ala 100 times a day.” (Muslim Sharief)

    It is because of this Istigfar that these veils were getting lifted and the Qalb-i-Mubarak (blessed heart) of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) continued to receive higher and higher states of the Divine Knowledge.

    Shah Wali-Ullah Muhaddith Delhvi (RA) says:

    “Qalb is that thing by which man loves and hates.”

    This means according to Shah Sahib Qalb is the seat of love and hatred.

    In other words we have different instruments for knowing different things, for example, we have thermometer to help us know the temperature of a human body, sphygmomanometer is there to tell us the blood pressure of a person. So what instrument Allah Ta’ala has created in this universe with which one can perceive Him, get His Ma’ârifat and has the capability of receiving and perceiving the rays of the Attributes of Allah Ta’ala. You have got the answer that it is the Qalb. Since it is closely associated with the human heart so the two are usually thought to be synonymous and both words are usually used for describing the same thing, though there is a difference as already explained. It is in view of this greatness and extraordinary important function of the human heart that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) once caught the edge of the outer curtain of Khana-Ka’aba and said:

    “O Khanah  Ka‘abah you are indeed great but the Qalb (Heart) of a Mumin (True believer) is greater than you” (Ibn Majah Sharief)

    In this Hadith, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) is referring to the greatness of the human heart. This greatness of the human heart is only because of its most important function i.e., Ma’ârifat-i-Ilâhiyah. It is because of this function which makes it king of the rest of the organs (Ra’eesul Aadha).

    Allah Ta’ala confirms this function of heart or Qalb by saying in the Qur’ân:

    أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَتَكُونَ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ يَعْقِلُونَ بِهَا أَوْ آذَانٌ يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا فَإِنَّهَا لَا تَعْمَى الْأَبْصَارُ وَلَكِنْ تَعْمَى الْقُلُوبُ الَّتِي فِي الصُّدُورِ

    “Do they not travel through the land, so that their hearts (and minds) may thus learn wisdom and their ears may thus learn to hear. Truly it is not the eyes that are blind but the hearts which are in their breasts.” (22:46)

    This statement of the Qur’ân clearly reveals that it is only the heart that can perceive the Reality. These external eyes, which have a limited range of vision, cannot see the Reality. These can only see the coarse things and not the benign things. The range of the vision of heart i.e., inner vision, is infinite. The range of the vision of external eyes is no comparison to it.

    What is Qalb?-part 2

    What is Qalb?-part 2
    Allah Ta’ala invited His beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) to the highest point of humanity, the highest peak which was possible for a human being to reach but which was possible only for the greatest of the greats i.e., our beloved Prophet Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). This was the highest status which is commonly known as Mairaj (Rasulullah’s (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) midnight ascension). The capability given to the human heart (Qalb) was utilized to its maximum by the sacred Qalb-i-Mubarak of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) for knowing the Ultimate Reality—the Almighty Allah Ta’ala. When Allah Ta’ala mentioned this highest achievement of man, He again used the word ‘Heart’.

    مَا كَذَبَ الْفُؤَادُ مَا رَأَى

    “The (Prophet’s) heart in no way falsified that which he saw.” (53:11)

      This again indicates that the highest perception of the ultimate Reality i.e., Allah Ta’ala was achieved again by the same instrument i.e., Qalb. In the another Qur’ânic verse, Allah Ta’ala says:

    إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَذِكْرَى لِمَنْ كَانَ لَهُ قَلْبٌ أَوْ أَلْقَى السَّمْعَ وَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ

    “ Verily in this is a message for any that has a heart and understanding or who gives ear and is a witness.” (50:37)

    Here Allah Ta’ala clearly declares that to understand the message of the Qur’ân and to get benefit from this immense treasure, one needs to have a Qalb. Here one may say that everybody has a heart, then why does not every body understand the Qur’ân? The answer is that one needs a pure and live heart (i.e., Qalb) which can utilise its special capability of perceiving the Attributes of Allah Ta’ala and can unfold the curtain which otherwise obscures the view from the real meaning of the Qur’ânic message. Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’ân:

    فَمَنْ يُرِدِ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَهْدِيَهُ يَشْرَحْ صَدْرَهُ لِلْإِسْلَامِ وَمَنْ يُرِدْ أَنْ يُضِلَّهُ يَجْعَلْ صَدْرَهُ ضَيِّقًا حَرَجًا كَأَنَّمَا يَصَّعَّدُ فِي السَّمَاءِ كَذَلِكَ يَجْعَلُ اللَّهُ الرِّجْسَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

    “ Those who Allah Ta’ala willeth to guide, He openeth their breast to Islam. Those whom He willeth to leave straying- He maketh their breast close and constricted As if they had to climb up to the skies, thus Doth Allah Ta’ala lay abomination on those who refuse to believe” (6:125)

    In this verse Allah Ta’ala has linked His bestowing of guidance to somebody with opening of his breast for Islam. Since breast is the seat of Qalb, so its opening is the opening of Qalb for Islam. This process has been described as the enlightening of the heart with the Eternal Light. As Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) while explaining the above mentioned Qur’ânic verse says:

    “Ibn-Masood (RA) narrated that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) recited ( the above mentioned verse) “ those whom Allah Ta’ala willeth to guide, He openeth their breast to Islam” then Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said when the light  (External) enters the breast it opens. He was asked, is there any sign by which this (Eternal Light) can be appreciated? he said,“ yes forsaking the world of deception and inclination towards the eternal world (Hereafter) and preparation for death.” (Mishkat)

    In this Hadith, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), has clearly pointed out that enlightening of the heart with the Eternal Light means the opening of the heart. From the Aayat quoted above and the Hadith the inference can easily be derived that it is the enlightened heart (Qalb} that gets the guidance of Allah Ta’ala and can, therefore, perceive the Truth and the ultimate Reality. Now the question arises if the heart is not enlightened by this Eternal Light, then what?

    Zulmat and Nur (Darkness and Light)

    The opposite of the Light is Darkness. The Qur’ân has mentioned these as Nur and Zulmat respectively.

    The heart which is not illuminated by the Eternal Light is said to be in darkness or  blind as Allah Ta’ala says in the  Qur’ânic verse, already quoted, that their (external) eyes are not blind but their hearts are blind. This darkness of heart (Qalb) is called Zulmat whereas the Eternal Light which enlightens the heart is called Nur. Allah Ta’ala reveals this in the Qur’ân:

    اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُخْرِجُهُمْ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَوْلِيَاؤُهُمُ الطَّاغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُمْ مِنَ النُّورِ إِلَى الظُّلُمَاتِ أُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

    “ Allah Ta’ala is the protector of those who have faith: From the depths of darkness He leads them forth into light.” (2:257)

    Now if we recapitulate the Qur’ânic revelations and the saying of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) already quoted in the previous lines, we can easily come to the conclusion that the function of the Qalb is to perceive the Divine Attributes, appreciate the Ultimate Reality and to understand the message of the Qur’ân. If the Qalb is plunged into darkness, then obviously it is deprived of these functions and will be as good as dead. So, when a person has his Qalb in the depths of darkness, he cannot know the Truth, cannot understand the significance of the eternal life, cannot achieve Ma’ârifat of Allah Ta’ala and cannot even smell the fragrance of the meaning of the Qur’ân, not to speak of tasting and assimilating it. This person is like a frog in a well that is totally unaware of the vastness of this universe, as this frog thinks that the well in which it lives is the only world.

    In medical terms, we are aware of two states of mind, conscious and subconscious states. Normally, in the majority of people the major portion of mind remains in subconscious state and only a little portion attains conscious state or else one can say that the major portion of mind remains in darkness and only a little portion gets enlightened. It is the conscious portion of mind that is utilised by man, therefore, the major portion of his mind remains un-utilised.

    If one talks of neuro-anatomy and physiology of human brain, the modern medical science has yet succeeded in knowing the anatomy and physiology of only few centres of brain, a tip of an iceberg.  The mystery of tremendous ocean of the brain potential remains unexplored to the scientists of Medicine even today.

    The same does not hold true about the great muslim research scholars. As Allah Ta’ala took them from the depths of darkness forth into the light which enlightened their subconscious state, converting that into conscious state. With this enlightenment their ratio of conscious state and sub-conscious state got reversed, their conscious state of mind  became so powerful that it gave them immense vision which could penetrate all the curtains that otherwise lie between the Reality and the Mind and between, the Qalb and the external eyes.

    What is Qalb-part-3: Latent Qualities of a Man’s Qalb

    Latent Qualities of a Man’s Qalb-Dr. Rafiq Ahmed

     Allah Ta’ala says

    وَإِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِنْ بَنِي آدَمَ مِنْ ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَأَشْهَدَهُمْ عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ ألَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ قَالُوا بَلَى شَهِدْنَا أَنْ تَقُولُوا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّا كُنَّا عَنْ هَذَا غَافِلِينَ

    “When thy Lord drew forth from the children of Adam from their loins-their descendants and made them testify concerning themselves (Saying)”Am I not your lord (Who cherishes and sustains you) ? They said: Yea! We do testify (this) lest Ye should say on the Day of Judgment of this we were never mindful.” (7:172)

    This verse provides an ample evidence of the fact that Allah Ta’ala has inculcated in the genes of a man the capacity necessary to recognize the Oneness of Allah Ta’ala, His supreme authority and the only Sustainer and Cherisher of the World. It is only after this highest spiritual capability given to Adam and his sons that Allah Ta’ala asked them to testify this.

    There have been great men in the Islamic history like Zunun-Misri (RA) etc. who vividly recollected this day of covenant as if it had happened just that day itself. Zunun-Misri (RA), when asked if he remembered the covenant used to say:

    “The scene of that Covenant is still in front of my eyes, the sound of those words is still ringing in my ears as if it has happened today itself.”

    Since man, with all his excellences, is forgetful as well, so Allah Ta’ala sent His Messengers (AS) to this world to remind the mankind of this covenant which is already in its genes. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said in a hadith:

     “every child is born on the nature of Islam. His parents make him Jew, Christian or worshiper of fire”. (Bukhâri & Muslim Sharief)

    The latent qualities of man’s Qalb in the light and darkness

    Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’ân:

    أَفَمَنْ شَرَحَ اللَّهُ صَدْرَهُ لِلْإِسْلَامِ فَهُوَ عَلَى نُورٍ مِنْ رَبِّهِ فَوَيْلٌ لِلْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ مِنْ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ أُولَئِكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ

    “Is one whose heart Allah Ta’ala has opened to Islam, so that he received light from Allah Ta’ala. (No better than one hard hearted)? Woe to those whose hearts are hardened against the remembrance, of Allah Ta’ala! They are manifestly wandering (in error)”. (39:22)

    It  is patently clear that knowledge of these things has been given to man and that he has been selected for the expression of all the Attributes of Allah Ta’ala and thus we have also come to know that man was busy in Mushahidah Haq in  Aalam-i-Arwah and that he has recognised and testified that Allah Ta’ala is his Sustainer, his Cherisher and One and the Only one Lord worth worshipping. When man is born and comes to this universe, these all qualities remain latent or concealed in him. In the verses of the Qur’ân quoted above, (Is one whose heart Allah Ta’ala has opened to Islam, so that he has received light from Allah Ta’ala? Allah Ta’ala again refers to these qualities of heart (Qalb). Those who receive the Divine Light, their latent qualities of Qalb get awakened and enlightened and thus become manifested. Their Qalb starts functioning in the presence of this Divine Light and becomes Muslim i.e., they understand the Qur’ân and recognise their Creator, Sustainer and Cherisher, Allah Ta’ala the Almighty and the Exalted.

    Those who do not receive this Divine Light,  their latent qualities of Qalb do not get manifested, they remain in darkness and in the process their Qalb fails to function and hence neither understand the Qur’ân nor recognise their Creator, Sustainer, Cherisher, Allah Ta’ala the Almighty and the Exalted. Allah Ta’ala calls these hearts as hardened. They remain in darkness and fail to expand their spiritual understanding and to receive Allah Ta’ala’s Light. They travel in opposite direction. Just as there is spiritual progress for those who seek Allah Ta’ala, on the other hand there is more and more spiritual retrogression for those who close their hearts to Allah Ta’ala. Their hearts get hardened, and they allow less and less Allah Ta’ala’s Grace to penetrate within. But it is obvious that they flounder on the way and cannot walk with the firm steps of those whose hearts abound in faith.

    It is, therefore, well said: Hardened hearts are the most hated things near Allah Ta’ala. Allah Ta’ala taught us this Dua in the Qur’ân:

    رَبَّنَا لَا تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ رَحْمَةً إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْوَهَّابُ

    “O Lord! they say, let not our hearts deviate. Now after Thou has guided us, But grant us mercy from Thee. For Thou art the grantor of bounties without measure.” (3:8)

    What is Qalb? part-5: The most blessed Qalb!

    The most blessed Qalb which got the highest expansion and elevation

    -Dr. Rafiq Ahmed

    In the human history the most blessed Qalb which Allah Ta’ala selected for the highest purification, expansion and elevation was that of Muhammad-ur-Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

    Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’ân:

    أَلَمْ نَشْرَحْ لَكَ صَدْرَكَ

    “Have We not expanded thee thy breast?”. ( 94:1)

    The breast is symbolically the seat of knowledge and the highest feelings of love and affection. It is the treasure house in which are stored the jewels of that quality of human character, which is divine. The Holy Prophet’s (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) human nature had been purified, expanded and elevated, so that he became the mercy for all the creation.

    The Qalb of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) which is the most blessed got the highest Divine Light and he utilised the capabilities of Qalb to its maximum. All the latent faculties of Qalb got the highest illumination by the Divine Light and thus Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) attained the highest spiritual understanding and nearness to the ultimate Reality.

    The Qur’ân is the Attribute of Allah Ta’ala and that the Attributes of Allah Ta’ala are immense and ultimate. Nothing in this universe had the capability of receiving this Divine Revelation. The Qalbs of all the men except that of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) could not attain this spiritual height which was necessary for being capable of receiving this divine revelation i.e., the Qur’ân. The Qalb of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) being the most blessed had this capability. It is said that if Allah Ta’ala would have sent this revelation directly to this universe, it would have got burnt down to ashes.

    Allah Ta’ala had decided to express His divine revelation, He created this capability in the most blessed Qalb of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

    Allah Ta’ala refers to this the most blessed Qalb of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) as follows:

    وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنْزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ () نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ () عَلَى قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنْذِرِينَ ()

    “Verily this is a revelation from the Lord of the worlds. With it came down the truthful spirit To thy heart that thou mayest admonish.” (26:192-194)

    Qalb signifies not only the seat of affection, but also seat of memory and understanding. The process of inspiration is indicated by the impression of the divine message on the inspired one’s heart, memory and understanding from which it was promulgated in human speech to the world.

    It is said that Jalaal of the Divine Revelation was tolerated and absorbed by the Qalb of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) which alone is the most blessed and when it was expressed through the blessed tongue of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) it is was Jamaal only, which the rest of the humanity and this universe could tolerate.

     The Seal of Prophethood

     The humanity reached its peak in the most distinguished self of Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). The Divine Light and knowledge was attained to its maximum possible limit by him. In other words, the quintessence of all the creation was achieved. Every Messenger of Allah Ta’ala was predominantly the seat of expression of one of the Attributes of Allah Ta’ala, but the greatest and the last Messenger of Allah Ta’ala, Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) was the seat of the expression of all the Attributes of Allah Ta’ala . This way he completed the chain of Messengers and put a seal on the Prophethood. He utilised the faculties of Qalb to the utmost and got the Divine Light of the highest degree. He received the Divine revelation—the Qur’ân, therefore, no room was left for any other person to go higher than this and no deficiency was left in the level of knowledge that could be achieved by any human being.

    Allah Ta’ala certifies this seal of prophethood by Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) in the Qur’ân as:

    مَا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِنْ رِجَالِكُمْ وَلَكِنْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا

    “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala and the seal of prophets and Allah Ta’ala has full knowledge of all things”. (33:40)

    Five things for true remembrance of Allah-Part-3

    Star 4. Remembering the Torment and Wrath.

    In order to fully remember Allah., we must remember His torment and wrath. It is not befitting of a believer to live his life thinking that Allah’s statements of punishment do not apply to him. Allah characterizes believers that they fear him. They do not fear Him because he is an intimidating God. They fear Him because they know He is Just and they are deserving of His punishment. In actuality they fear His torment but not Him personally. Scholars said when believers enter Jannah their love to Allah increases because they see Him and their fear ends because they receive total security. A believer does not fully remember Allah unless he remembers His statements of punishment and retribution. Allah wants us to know that He is severe in punishment.
    {و اتقوا الله واعلموا أن الله شديد العقاب}

    2:196 {protect yourselves from Allah and know that Allah is Severe in punishment.}
    اعلموا أن الله شديد العقاب} الأنفال

    8:25 {know that Allah is severe in punishment.}

    اعلموا أن الله غفور رحيم و اعلموا أن الله شديد العقاب} المائدة

    5:98 {Know that Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. And Know that Allah is severe in punishment.}

    إن ربك سريع العقاب و إنه لغفور رحيم} الأنعام 165
    6: 165 {Your lord is quick in punishment and He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.}

    نبئ عبادي أني أنا الغفور الرحيم و أن عذابي هو العذاب الأليم} الحجر

    15: 49-50 {Inform my slaves that I am the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful. And my torment is indeed the most painful torment.}
    Believers who know the magnitude of Allah punishment stay way from disobeying Allah

    {قل إني أخاف إن عصيت ربي عذاب يوم عظيم}

    6:15 {Say: I fear the torment of a great day, if my Lord I disobey.}

    This statement reflects how the mind-set of a believer should be. Whenever evil desires within a believer instigate him/her to do something sinful, or wherever the glitter of life entices a believer to a sinful practice, this Quranic truth should pop up to his mind’s screen.
    Many people program their minds that when they are about to do something sinful to send the following message to their mind screen:
    Do not worry, be happy, go ahead, because your God is Forgiving and Merciful.

    This is not the correct message at this time.
    The correct message is the one that stops the sinful practice, not the one that encourages the sinful practice. Thus, a believer does not fully remember Allah unless he remembers His punishment.

    Five things for true remembrance of Allah- Part-1

    TO TRULY REMEMBER ALLAH, WE MUST REMEMBER FIVE MATTERS:
    (Taken from Abu Nour’s article)
    One must remember all those five in order to be a five star believer

    1. Remembering Allah’s names and attributes.

    In order to remember Allah, we must remember His names and attributes which entails collecting them, call Allah by them, praise Allah by them and modeling our selves after them.

    a-Collecting Allah’s names
    Allah said:

    قل ادعو الله أو ادعوا الرحمن إياً ما تدعوا فله الأسماء الحسنى

    17:110{Say: Call upon Allah or call upon Him, the Most Beneficent (Allah), by whatever name you invoke Him, for Him belong the most beautiful names.}

    Allah’s Messenger said:
    [ إن لله تسعة وتسعين اسماً مائة إلا واحدا من أحصاها دخل الجنة]

    [Ninety nine names, hundred but one, belongs to Allah. Whoever collects them enters Jannah.]

    In another statement, he said

    [من حفظها دخل الجنة]

    [Whoever preserves, memorizes, them enter Jannah]

    Collecting Allah’s names depends upon doing four things:

    • memorize them.

    • understand their meanings.

    • comprehend their implications on your conduct.

    • monitor your behavior based on your belief in them.

    b- Praying through Allah’s names

    Allah says:

    {ولله الأسماء الحسنى فدعوه بها}

    7:180 {The Beautiful Names (the Perfect Names) are Allah’s, so call Him by them.}

    A person who invokes Allah should choose from His names the one that matches his request. If one wants guidance, he should use the name Alhaadee (the Guide). Likewise, if one wants forgiveness, he should use the name Alghafoor (the Forgiver)

    c- Praising Allah with His names

    For each name there is a unique way to praise Allah. The guided person is the one who Allah shows how to praise Him through all of His Names.

    d- Modeling one’s character

    Which means a person models himself after Allah’s attributes. When it comes to believing in Allah’s Names and attributes, a believer must clear his creed from any thoughts that Allah’s attributes resemble the attributes of the created order. A great deal of theological mistakes results from assuming that the conditions, limits, and bounds of our finite feeble existence apply to Allah. Allah’s nature is exclusive to Him. No one shares with Him His nature or resembles Him. In order to safeguard us from anthropomorphism, interpretation of divine attributes in terms of human characteristics, Allah said:

    42:11{Nothing resembles Him.}

    With this conviction being strongly fastened to our understandings, I say a person who remembers Allah should try to implement the likes of Allah’s attributes in himself. When a person successfully installs the like of Allah’s attributes in himself, this attribute will draw him nearer than ever to His Lord, and make him the object of the Divine love.
    That does not mean a person can resemble Allah in His attributes because they are exclusive to Him. However, one ought to try and cultivate the likes of Allah’s attributes in him.
    Allah is Merciful and loves the merciful.
    Allah is knowledgeable and loves those who are knowledgeable.
    Allah is Just and loves the just.
    Allah is Beautiful and loves those who beautify themselves by obeying His Commands.
    Allah is The Forgiver and loves those who forgive.
    And, Allah is generous and loves the generous.

    The point is that Allah loves His attributes, thus the most beloved to Him among His slaves are those who inculcate in themselves the attributes that He loves.
    And the most disliked among His slaves are those characterized with the attributes that do not fit them or that Allah dislikes.
    Some of Allah’s attributes are suitable for humans to have the likes of them, and some are not. The attributes that are not consistent with our status as slaves of Allah, are not suitable for us such as Pride and Majesty. The presence of these attributes in humans is oppression.

    العزة إزاري و الكبرياء ردائي وفي روايه و العظمة ردائي فمن نازعني واحد منها احرقته بالنار      أحمد

    [Glory is my lower garment and pride is my upper garment, in another narration, majesty is my upper garment who every tries to acquire one of them I burn him in the fire.]
    However, the attributes of Mercy, Kindness, and Generosity are consistent with our status as slaves of the Greatest. Thus having such attributes qualify us to receive Allah’s love.
    In order to remember Allah, we must remember His names and attributes which entails collecting them, call Allah by them, praise Allah by them and modeling our selves after them.

    Five things for true remembrance of Allah- Part-2

    Star 2. Remembering Allah’s Statements of orders and prohibition.

    In order to remember Allah, we must remember Allah’s statements of commands and prohibition.
    In proportion to how much a believer lives up to Allah’s commandments, he would be able to fight off temptation.
    Allah wants you to be happy, satisfied, and content.
    When you carry out Allah’s commands you capitalize on the opportunity to be the best you can be.
    Happiness is the result of carrying out Allah’s commands.
    Satisfaction is the product of carrying out Allah’s commands.
    A tasteful life is the reward of carrying out Allah’s commands.
    The more a person implements Allah’s commands in his life, the more satisfying and tasteful his life will be. The less a person implements Allah’s commands in his life, the less satisfying and tasteful his life will be. As an aid to devotion, a person must know that Allah’s commands bring good to him in this life and the Hereafter; and Allah’s prohibition safeguards him from harmful matters, theologies, and practices.
    Allah, the Merciful One, did not prohibit things as a measure of punishment or deprivation but rather as a measure of protection from harm, and a shield from evil that safeguards us from destruction.
    Star 3. Remembering Allah’s Bounties and Blessings.
    In order to remember Allah, we must remember His bounties. He said

    {ياأيها الناس اذكروا نعمت الله عليكم}

    35:3 {O man kind remember Allah’s bounties on you.}

    Remembering Allah’s bounties means to remember that Allah is the giver of all bounties. This mind set gives a believer an opportunity to be successful.
    Allah said:

    { فذكروا آلآء الله لعلكم تفلحون}

    7:69 {Thus remember Allah’s bounties upon you that you may be successful.}

    Allah told us in the Quran that remembering Him brings success.
    { واذكروا الله كثيراً لعلكم تفلحون}

    62:10 {Remember Allah much that you may be successful.}

    Remembering Allah’s bounties blows on the heart like a fresh summer breeze that awakens and kindles Allah’s love in the heart of the one who is bounty-conscious.

    The spiritually perfect Salaah (prayer)- (Imam Ghazali)

    States Conducive to Perfecting The Life in Prayer (Inner Dimensions of Salaah)
    These qualities can be expressed in many ways, but they are well summed up in six words, namely: awareness; understanding; reverence; awe; hope; shame.

    Awareness

    By conscious awareness we mean that state in which one’s mind and feelings are in no way distracted from what one is doing and saying. Perception is united with action and speech. Thoughts do not wander. When the mind remains attentive to what one is doing, when one is wholeheartedly involved, and when nothings makes one heedless, that is when one has achieved conscious awareness.

    Understanding

    Understanding the meaning of one’s words is something that goes beyond awareness, for one may be conscious of making an utterance, yet not be aware of the meaning of that utterance. What we mean by understanding, therefore, is an awareness that also includes comprehension of the meaning of one’s utterance. People differ in this respect, not sharing a common understanding of the Koran and the glorifications.
    How many subtleties of meaning we have come to understand in the course of ritual prayer! Things that had never occurred to us before.
    It is in this context that prayer becomes a deterrent to indecency and mischief, for the understanding it brings is a positive obstacle to vice.

    Reverence

    As for reverence, this is something beyond both awareness and understanding. A man may address his servant in full awareness of his speech, and understanding the meaning of his words, yet without reverence, for reverence is an additional element.

    Awe

    As for awe, it is over and above reverence. In fact, it represents a kind of fear that grows out of the latter. Without experiencing fear, one will not stand in awe. There is an ordinary fear of things we find repugnant, like scorpions or bad temper, but this is not called awe. What we call awe is the kind of fear we have of a mighty king. Awe is the kind of fear induced by a sense of majesty.

    Hope

    As for hope, this is unquestionably something else again. There are many who revere some king or other, and who are in awe of him or afraid of his power, yet do not hope to be rewarded by him. In our prayers, however, we must hope for the reward of Allah, High Exalted; just as we fear His punishment for our faults.

    Shame

    As for shame, it is something additional to all the rest, for it is based on the realization of one’s deficiencies and the apprehension of sin. It is quite possible to conceive of reverence, fear and hope, without this element of shame.

    (From Imam Ghazali’s Ihya ul uloom)

    Leaving good deeds due to fear (doubt) of Riya

    The catastrophies of Riya (show off) are great. One should exert much to save one’s self from these calamities. But this should be remembered that this is also one of the ways of shaitan (satan) hijacking our niyyah and making us to leave the good deeds

    (Aamal-e-Saliha) by putting an apprehension (waswasa) in our mind that we should not do a (particular) deed otherwise we will commit the (sin of) Riya. At this time one should reply the shaitan (while taking the note of this apprehension which shaitan has put in his mind) that the Riya takes place only when our aim is to show our deeds to Makhlooq so that they become pleased and when we enjoy this idea (that people are seeing our good deeds and they are becoming pleased with us). On the contrary, our condition is such that we consider this thing bad and want to get rid of it (whether it goes or not), then how is it Riya? After saying this, one should engage oneself with good deeds (Aamal-e-Saliha), one should not care even least about these apprehensions and evil suggestions (of shaitan).

    You will experience these apprehensions few times

    but then shaitan will get tired and will run away shamefully.

    Maulana  Alhaafiz Imdad-Ullah (RA) used to say:”Riya does not remain always Riya, firstly it is Riya, then it becomes a habit, and from habit it becomes Ibaadat and Ikhlas. “

    It means that we should not bother about the Riya which

    gets committed without any purpose and should not leave the Aamal-e-Saliha because of this.

    -Taken from Furu-ul-Iman by Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA)

    The one common goal of all and the only way to achieve it!

    I have tried to find one goal which everyone would agree to be excellent and worthy of being striven after. I have found one only: to be free from anxiety. When I reflected upon it, I realized that not only do all agree in valuing it and desiring it, but I also perceived that, despite their many different passions and aspirations and preoccupations and desires, they never make the slightest gesture unless it is designed to drive anxiety far away. One man loses his way, another comes close to going wrong, finally another is successful – but he is a rare man, and success is rare, [O, all-knowing God].
    Dispelling anxiety is a goal upon which all nations agree from the time when the Almighty created the world until the day when this world will pass away and be followed by the Day of Judgment – and their actions are directed to this goal alone. In the case of every other objective there will always be some people who do not desire it.
    For example, some people are not religious and do not take eternity into account.
    There are some who by nature and inclination prefer obscurity to fame [the obscurity of satisfied passion].
    There are some who have no interest in amassing a fortune, preferring abstinence to ownership; this was the case with many of the Prophets. God’s peace be upon them – and those who followed their example, ascetics and philosophers. There are some who by nature dislike sensual pleasures and scorn those who seek after them, such as those men we have just mentioned, and who prefer to lose a fortune rather than gain one. Some prefer ignorance to knowledge, in fact most of the people that you see in the street are like this. These are the objectives of people who have no other aim in life. Nobody in the whole world, from the time of its creation until its end, would deliberately choose anxiety, and would not desire to drive it far away.

    When I had arrived at this great piece of wisdom, when I had discovered this amazing secret, when Allâh the Almighty had opened the eyes of my mind [spirit] to see this great pleasure, I began to search for the way which would truly enable me to dispel anxiety, that precious goal desired by every kind of person, whether ignorant or scholarly, good or evil. I found it in one place alone, in the action of turning towards God the Almighty and Powerful, in pious works performed with an eye to eternity.

    Thus the only reason that someone chases after riches is to dispel the anguish of poverty. The only reason that someone seeks fame is to dispel the anxiety of seeing someone else outdo him. The only reason that someone chases after pleasures is to dispel the anxiety of missing them. The only reason someone chases after knowledge is to dispel the anxiety of being ignorant about something.

    People enjoy listening to other people’s conversation and gossip only because it dispels the anxiety of being alone and isolated. People eat, drink, make love, wear clothes, play games, build a shelter, mount a horse, go for a walk, only in order to avoid the reverse of all these actions and every other kind of anxiety.
    In all the actions listed here, anyone who pauses to reflect will see that anxieties inevitably occur, such as problems which arise in the course of the action, the impossibility of performing the impossible, the fleeting nature of any achievements, and the inability to enjoy something because of some difficulty. There are also bad consequences which arise from every success: fear of one’s rival, attacks by the jealous, theft by covetous, loss to an enemy, not to mention criticism, sin and such things. On the other hand, I have found that actions performed with an eye on eternity are free from * every kind of * fault, free from every stain, and a true means of dispelling anxiety. I have found that the man who is striving for eternity may be sorely tested by bad fortune on his way but does not worry; on the contrary, he is glad, because the trial to which he is subjected gives rise to hope, which aids him in his endeavour and sets him the more firmly on the path towards his true desire. I have found that, when he finds his way blocked by an obstacle, he does not worry, because it is not his fault, and he did not choose the actions that he will have to answer for. I have seen such a man be glad, when others have wished evil upon him, and be glad when has undergone some trial, and be glad, always [living] in a permanent state of joy while others are permanently the opposite. You should therefore understand that there is only one objective to strive for, it is to dispel anxiety; and only one path leads to this, and that is the service of the Most High God. Everything else is misguided and absurd.

    Do not use your energy except for a cause more noble than yourself. Such a cause cannot be found except in * Almighty * God Himself!

    Taken from: Al-Akhlâq wa’l-Siyar By Ibn Hazm al-Andaloosee

    Salaah of the spiritually awakened!- (Hikam Ibn Ata’illah)

    “Namaaz-e-Haqeeqi (True Salaah) purifies the heart from the pollution of ghairullah (things other than Allah) and opens up the door of spiritual mysteries (asraar). Namaaz is the substratum
    (mahl) for secret discussion and the abode of love and sincerity. During Namaaz
    the fields of the heart expand for spiritual mysteries and the stars of celestial
    light (Anwaar) dazzle therein.”- Hikam Ibn Ata’illah 

    Commentary-
    The hearts of the chosen servants of Allah are perpetually absorbed in His remembrance. However, association with people and tending to natural needs produce a kind of ghaflat (carelessness) and a relationship with beings other than Allah. As a result, the hearts become contaminated. But when they engross themselves in Namaaz, their hearts are cleansed of the foreign pollution. The Divine Perception is then again restored to their hearts in accordance with their respective ranks.
    When the foreign veils are removed from their hearts, thus eliminating the impediments, the doors of hidden Divine Mysteries and the secrets of Divine Knowledge open up on their hearts during Namaaz. Thus, their Namaaz becomes the substratum for communion with their Rabb. Their hearts becomes imbued with sincerity and love, leaving no room whatever for anything besides Allah.
    Their hearts expand for the intake of Divine Mysteries. There remains then not the slightest vestige of fear or constriction in their hearts. For these illustrious servants, anwaar (celestial illumination) glitter like stars in their Namaaz. They perceive this illumination with the eyes of the heart.
    Every Mu’min should strive to perform such Namaaz (as described above).
    -Taken from Ikmalus-shiyam

    SEEK ONLY ALLAH’S PLEASURE IN WHATEVER YOU DO!

    SEEK ONLY ALLAH’S PLEASURE IN WHATEVER YOU DO!
    Your devotion to your own self and to your family is a reflection of your ignorance. I do not say that you leave your family and go to the mountains for meditation. But I only ask you to look after your children to attain Allah’s pleasure, that is, do not love them to serve your ardent desires but do it to please Allah. Give respite to your desire and seek the Mercy and nearness of Allah. Your work should not be for your happiness or others but it should be to please Allah.

    Because the glory of Allah in all situations is pure of infidelity. The deeds of sin are returned to the infidels and thrown at their faces, and the deeds of the faithful are accepted by Allah. Remember! Divine worship is a pure deed.

    And Allah commands those who wish to attain His proximity, they should do noble deeds and should not associate any one with Allah in worship.
    -Shaykh Syed Ahmed Rifai RA (Al Burhan al Muaiyad p 101).

    Gaining The Attention of Allah

    Gaining The Attention of Allah

    Hazrat Shaykh Maulana Mohammed Nabeel Ahmed Khan Sahib

    “One thing that a person should do is try to gain the focus and attention of Allah Ta’ala upon themselves. If they have that, then they have everything. If they don’t have that, they can have everything, but yet it amounts to nothing. To gain His attention, we should try to resemble Rasulullah (S) as much as possible. This should be the ultimate goal of a person. In doing so, there are a few things in which if a person does, the rest of the deen becomes easy for him:

    1) Proper recitation of the Qur’an.

    In order to develop a Ta’alluq with Allah Ta’ala, one needs to know what Allah Ta’ala is saying and to have Him speak to them. Qur’an is the speech of Allah, so one must make sure that they know how to recite it properly. This can be done by finding a person who knows and learning from them, even if they have to start from the very beginning. In the methodology that we follow, one of the main things is that everything has to be perfect, and the thing that deserves the most perfection is the Qur’an. It comes in a Hadith that “Allah Ta’ala likes that the Qur’an be recited in the manner that it was revealed.” By reciting it properly, we are firstly doing something that Allah Ta’ala likes, and secondly following a sunnah. It can become very easy to put this off, but ask yourself, are you too busy to take out time for the Book of Allah? Recitation of the Qur’an is the first step in developing a relationship with Allah. Apart from learning how to recite the Qur’an, a person should take out time to understand what is in the Qur’an. This should be done under the supervision of an appropriate scholar of Deen. A person must make sure that they have a proper relationship with the Qur’an, and that it should be appropriately recited and understood.

    2) Keeping a full beard.

    Once a person establishes a relationship with the word of Allah Ta’ala, Allah needs a reason to continue the conversation because He can also very easily take the tawfeeq away. One should resemble Rasulullah (S) as much as he can because the more they do that, the more they become beloved in Allah’s sight. One of the ways of doing this is to grow the beard a fist length from all sides. A person may say that they are not pious enough to grow a beard, but one should do it anyways. Beards are not meant for pious people, beards are meant for men. A male lion will always have a beard- it is a sign of manliness. For those men who don’t have one, they need to decide their gender or lack thereof. Nabi (S) said that “My Lord Allah commanded me to grow my beard and shorten my mustache.” A person without a beard is in a state of perpetual sin until he grows his beard out. For females, in order to get the same reward, they should develop an atmosphere in which people do have beards. Develop that attitude in which the environment becomes such that it changes the rules. With those men whom you are allowed to have a relationship with, slip it in here and there. Another way for them to practice this particular aspect of the sunnah is to apply the concept of hijab. Because a woman who covers herself properly tolerates many discomforts, the reward may be the same if not more.

    3) Uncovering the ankles.

    Males should keep their ankles uncovered from the top down. If one desires their ankles to be covered, they can cover them from the bottom up, eg: with socks. There are four punishments for three different people, the first of whom is the one who covers his ankles. Allah Ta’ala wont speak to them, look at them, or purify them and they will have a great punishment. Nabi (S) said “Whatever is covering the ankles will be in the fire.” If your feet are in jahannam, the rest of your body will also be there.

    4) Guard the gaze.

    The other things are things that affect us externally. But we also have things that effect us internally, we have pathways into our hearts. So the main thing a person should do is guard their gaze. This is such a delicate matter, that Allah Ta’ala didn’t even deem it appropriate to address it Himself. He addresses Rasulullah (S) to, “Tell the believing men that they should lower their gazes and guard their private parts.” as well as the believing women. If you guard your gaze, then you won’t be involved in the second part of the ayat which involves any haraam act with the private parts. If you don’t guard your gaze, then you will. The easy way to get away from it is to just learn to lower your gaze. If you can’t lower your gaze, then sit in the company of those who do and eventually it will rub off on you. A person must have the attitude that “Look, I need to do this. I dont care if I die, I’ll die,” in order to live their lives properly. Nabi (S) says “May Allah Ta’ala’s curse be on the one who looks and is looked at.” It doesn’t matter whether it is a girl or a guy, if you put yourself in that situation then it’s your fault. Allah Ta’ala then says that, “This is the purest for you” and then at the end, “Allah knows exactly what you do.” He knows exactly how one looks, how they walk, what the intention is, and where the mind is going, etc. There is no escaping Allah Ta’ala. Just stay away from it and you won’t have these issues. If a person learns to be content with whatever Allah has given them then they won’t worry about other things. But if all of a sudden a person is driving on the road and they see other nice cars and worry about what other people are driving, then what’s going to happen? They’re going to crash and burn.

    5) Protecting the heart.

    This is a very broad and general point, but nonetheless it is still important. It is that a person needs to make sure that there is nothing, but Allah Ta’ala in their heart. When you take out everything else from your heart, then Allah Ta’ala will come in. Allah Ta’ala’s ghayrah is unlimited, He won’t enter a heart when there are other things in it. However, any permissable type of love (for your mother, husband, wife, etc) is included in the love of Allah Ta’ala because you love those people because Allah Ta’ala tells you to. But at the end, a real believer, his love for Allah is more. You can love anything you want but more love should be for Allah Ta’ala. Allah Ta’ala won’t enter a heart that hasn’t been broken in. In a Hadith Qudsi, Allah says “I am with the broken hearted.” That means that a person will yearn for Allah to enter their heart so much that it actually hurts them. Allah Ta’ala enters the heart in that manner.

    Every single thing that has been mentioned requires some level of exertion. Some require a lot, some require less, but nonetheless they all require some exertion. A person cannot gain any closeness to Allah Ta’ala without putting in some time and effort. Allah Ta’ala doesn’t come automatically without going through any difficulties. For example, look at the Prophets. Every Nabi went through problems because when Allah Ta’ala loves a person, then He sends problems their way. Rasulullah (S) said that “Whoever loves me, poverty will come to them like a flood.” Not just poverty, but difficulties as well. The people whom Allah Ta’ala loves the most are the Ambiyaa, and “The people who have had it the worst in terms of difficulties are the prophets, then those who resemebled the prophets, and those who resemble them.” We see people going through problems and difficulties, but understand there is also a type of enjoyment they feel while going through it that nobody else knows unless they have tasted it themselves. It is like one who enjoys spicy food. On the outside, one may be tearing up and feeling pain and onlookers may wonder why they are eating it. But the person eating, they know the enjoyment they are getting from it and they don’t want to stop. A person who for the sake of Allah does these things, then they don’t want to stop even though there are many opportunites in which they can.

    The easiest way to get everything that was mentioned is to be in the company of those who are pious. If a person doesn’t have that then they haven’t even tasted a drop of the Ma’arifat of Allah Ta’ala. Those who have no touch with the Ahle-Taqwa, they haven’t even tasted a droplet of the Ma’arifat of Allah Ta’ala because if they don’t even know the creation of Allah then how are they supposed to know Allah Ta’ala Himself? Keep the company of the righteous and then you won’t have to worry about bad company. Those friends who do not want to see you become a better person are not really your friends, they are your enemies.

    We only have one life to live, so make the most of it. This isn’t all of Deen, but if a person does these few hard things, then everything else will come easily. It is just that simple. If it was something that was impossible, then Allah Ta’ala wouldn’t have told us to do it in the first place.

    Allah Ta’ala grant us all the tawfeeq to bring these things within our lives and to really become an embodiment of the sunnah Rasulullah (S). Ameen!