Category Archives: Eng. Articles

Numerical Analysis 9th Burden Faires

Preface ix
1 Mathematical Preliminaries and Error Analysis 1
1.1 Review of Calculus 2
1.2 Round-off Errors and Computer Arithmetic 17
1.3 Algorithms and Convergence 32
1.4 Numerical Software 41
2 Solutions of Equations in One Variable 47
2.1 The Bisection Method 48
2.2 Fixed-Point Iteration 56
2.3 Newton’s Method and Its Extensions 67
2.4 Error Analysis for Iterative Methods 79
2.5 Accelerating Convergence 86
2.6 Zeros of Polynomials and Müller’s Method 91
2.7 Survey of Methods and Software 101
3 Interpolation and Polynomial Approximation 105
3.1 Interpolation and the Lagrange Polynomial 106
3.2 Data Approximation and Neville’s Method 117
3.3 Divided Differences 124
3.4 Hermite Interpolation 136
3.5 Cubic Spline Interpolation 144
3.6 Parametric Curves 164
3.7 Survey of Methods and Software 171
4 Numerical Differentiation and Integration 173
4.1 Numerical Differentiation 174
4.2 Richardson’s Extrapolation 185
4.3 Elements of Numerical Integration 193
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
vi Contents
4.4 Composite Numerical Integration 203
4.5 Romberg Integration 213
4.6 Adaptive Quadrature Methods 220
4.7 Gaussian Quadrature 228
4.8 Multiple Integrals 235
4.9 Improper Integrals 250
4.10 Survey of Methods and Software 256
5 Initial-Value Problems for Ordinary Differential
Equations 259
5.1 The Elementary Theory of Initial-Value Problems 260
5.2 Euler’s Method 266
5.3 Higher-Order Taylor Methods 276
5.4 Runge-Kutta Methods 282
5.5 Error Control and the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg Method 293
5.6 Multistep Methods 302
5.7 Variable Step-Size Multistep Methods 315
5.8 Extrapolation Methods 321
5.9 Higher-Order Equations and Systems of Differential Equations 328
5.10 Stability 339
5.11 Stiff Differential Equations 348
5.12 Survey of Methods and Software 355
6 Direct Methods for Solving Linear Systems 357
6.1 Linear Systems of Equations 358
6.2 Pivoting Strategies 372
6.3 Linear Algebra and Matrix Inversion 381
6.4 The Determinant of a Matrix 396
6.5 Matrix Factorization 400
6.6 Special Types of Matrices 411
6.7 Survey of Methods and Software 428
7 IterativeTechniques in Matrix Algebra 431
7.1 Norms of Vectors and Matrices 432
7.2 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 443
7.3 The Jacobi and Gauss-Siedel Iterative Techniques 450
7.4 Relaxation Techniques for Solving Linear Systems 462
7.5 Error Bounds and Iterative Refinement 469
7.6 The Conjugate Gradient Method 479
7.7 Survey of Methods and Software 495
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Contents vii
8 ApproximationTheory 497
8.1 Discrete Least Squares Approximation 498
8.2 Orthogonal Polynomials and Least Squares Approximation 510
8.3 Chebyshev Polynomials and Economization of Power Series 518
8.4 Rational Function Approximation 528
8.5 Trigonometric Polynomial Approximation 538
8.6 Fast Fourier Transforms 547
8.7 Survey of Methods and Software 558
9 Approximating Eigenvalues 561
9.1 Linear Algebra and Eigenvalues 562
9.2 Orthogonal Matrices and Similarity Transformations 570
9.3 The Power Method 576
9.4 Householder’s Method 593
9.5 The QR Algorithm 601
9.6 Singular Value Decomposition 614
9.7 Survey of Methods and Software 626
10 Numerical Solutions of Nonlinear Systems of
Equations 629
10.1 Fixed Points for Functions of Several Variables 630
10.2 Newton’s Method 638
10.3 Quasi-Newton Methods 647
10.4 Steepest Descent Techniques 654
10.5 Homotopy and Continuation Methods 660
10.6 Survey of Methods and Software 668
11 Boundary-Value Problems for Ordinary Differential
Equations 671
11.1 The Linear Shooting Method 672
11.2 The Shooting Method for Nonlinear Problems 678
11.3 Finite-Difference Methods for Linear Problems 684
11.4 Finite-Difference Methods for Nonlinear Problems 691
11.5 The Rayleigh-Ritz Method 696
11.6 Survey of Methods and Software 711
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
viii Contents
12 Numerical Solutions to Partial Differential
Equations 713
12.1 Elliptic Partial Differential Equations 716
12.2 Parabolic Partial Differential Equations 725
12.3 Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations 739
12.4 An Introduction to the Finite-Element Method 746
12.5 Survey of Methods and Software 760
Bibliography 763
Answers to Selected Exercises 773
Index 863About


This well-respected text gives an introduction to the theory and application of modern numerical approximation techniques for students taking a one- or two-semester course in numerical analysis. With an accessible treatment that only requires a calculus prerequisite, Burden and Faires explain how, why, and when approximation techniques can be expected to work, and why, in some situations, they fail. A wealth of examples and exercises develop students’ intuition, and demonstrate the subject’s practical applications to important everyday problems in math, computing, engineering, and physical science disciplines. The first book of its kind built from the ground up to serve a diverse undergraduate audience, three decades later Burden and Faires remains the definitive introduction to a vital and practical subject.


Features and Benefits

  • Virtually every concept in the text is illustrated by examples, and reinforced by more than 2500 class-tested exercises ranging from elementary applications of methods and algorithms to generalizations and extensions of the theory.
  • The exercise sets include many applied problems from diverse areas of engineering, as well as from the physical, computer, biological, and social sciences.
  • The algorithms in the text are designed to work with a wide variety of software packages and programming languages, allowing maximum flexibility for users to harness computing power to perform approximations. The book’s companion website offers Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB worksheets, as well as C, FORTRAN, Java, and Pascal programs.
  • The design of the text gives instructors flexibility in choosing topics they wish to cover, selecting the level of theoretical rigor desired, and deciding which applications are most appropriate or interesting for their classes.

click Here to download

About the Text
This book was written for a sequence of courses on the theory and application of numerical
approximation techniques. It is designed primarily for junior-level mathematics, science,
and engineering majors who have completed at least the standard college calculus sequence.
Familiarity with the fundamentals of linear algebra and differential equations is useful, but
there is sufficient introductory material on these topics so that courses in these subjects are
not needed as prerequisites.
Previous editions of Numerical Analysis have been used in a wide variety of situations.
In some cases, the mathematical analysis underlying the development of approximation
techniques was given more emphasis than the methods; in others, the emphasis was reversed. The book has been used as a core reference for beginning graduate level courses
in engineering and computer science programs and in first-year courses in introductory
analysis offered at international universities. We have adapted the book to fit these diverse
users without compromising our original purpose:
To introduce modern approximation techniques; to explain how, why, and when they
can be expected to work; and to provide a foundation for further study of numerical
analysis and scientific computing.
The book contains sufficient material for at least a full year of study, but we expect many
people to use it for only a single-term course. In such a single-term course, students learn
to identify the types of problems that require numerical techniques for their solution and
see examples of the error propagation that can occur when numerical methods are applied.
They accurately approximate the solution of problems that cannot be solved exactly and
learn typical techniques for estimating error bounds for the approximations. The remainder
of the text then serves as a reference for methods not considered in the course. Either the
full-year or single-course treatment is consistent with the philosophy of the text.
Virtually every concept in the text is illustrated by example, and this edition contains
more than 2600 class-tested exercises ranging from elementary applications of methods
and algorithms to generalizations and extensions of the theory. In addition, the exercise
sets include numerous applied problems from diverse areas of engineering as well as from
the physical, computer, biological, economic, and social sciences. The chosen applications
clearly and concisely demonstrate how numerical techniques can be, and often must be,
applied in real-life situations.
A number of software packages, known as Computer Algebra Systems (CAS), have
been developed to produce symbolic mathematical computations. Maple®, Mathematica®,
and MATLAB® are predominant among these in the academic environment, and versions
of these software packages are available for most common computer systems. In addition,
Sage, a free open source system, is now available. This system was developed primarily
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
x Preface
by William Stein at the University of Washington, and was first released in February 2005.
Information about Sage can be found at the site .
Although there are differences among the packages, both in performance and price, all can
perform standard algebra and calculus operations.
The results in most of our examples and exercises have been generated using problems
for which exact solutions are known, because this permits the performance of the approximation method to be more easily monitored. For many numerical techniques the error
analysis requires bounding a higher ordinary or partial derivative, which can be a tedious
task and one that is not particularly instructive once the techniques of calculus have been
mastered. Having a symbolic computation package available can be very useful in the study
of approximation techniques, because exact values for derivatives can easily be obtained. A
little insight often permits a symbolic computation to aid in the bounding process as well.
We have chosen Maple as our standard package because of its wide academic distribution and because it now has a NumericalAnalysis package that contains programs that
parallel the methods and algorithms in our text. However, other CAS can be substituted with
only minor modifications. Examples and exercises have been added whenever we felt that
a CAS would be of significant benefit, and we have discussed the approximation methods
that CAS employ when they are unable to solve a problem exactly.
Algorithms and Programs
In our first edition we introduced a feature that at the time was innovative and somewhat
controversial. Instead of presenting our approximation techniques in a specific programming
language (FORTRAN was dominant at the time), we gave algorithms in a pseudo code that
would lead to a well-structured program in a variety of languages. The programs are coded
and available online in most common programming languages and CAS worksheet formats.
All of these are on the web site for the book:∼faires/Numerical-Analysis/ .
For each algorithm there is a program written in FORTRAN, Pascal, C, and Java. In addition,
we have coded the programs using Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB. This should ensure
that a set of programs is available for most common computing systems.
Every program is illustrated with a sample problem that is closely correlated to the text.
This permits the program to be run initially in the language of your choice to see the form
of the input and output. The programs can then be modified for other problems by making
minor changes. The form of the input and output are, as nearly as possible, the same in
each of the programming systems. This permits an instructor using the programs to discuss
them generically, without regard to the particular programming system an individual student
chooses to use.
The programs are designed to run on a minimally configured computer and given in
ASCII format for flexibility of use. This permits them to be altered using any editor or word
processor that creates standard ASCII files (commonly called “Text Only” files). Extensive
README files are included with the program files so that the peculiarities of the various
programming systems can be individually addressed. The README files are presented
both in ASCII format and as PDF files. As new software is developed, the programs will
be updated and placed on the web site for the book.
For most of the programming systems the appropriate software is needed, such as a
compiler for Pascal, FORTRAN, and C, or one of the computer algebra systems (Maple,
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Preface xi
Mathematica, and MATLAB). The Java implementations are an exception. You need the
system to run the programs, but Java can be freely downloaded from various sites. The best
way to obtain Java is to use a search engine to search on the name, choose a download site,
and follow the instructions for that site.
New for This Edition
The first edition of this book was published more than 30 years ago, in the decade after major
advances in numerical techniques were made to reflect the new widespread availability of
computer equipment. In our revisions of the book we have added new techniques in order
to keep our treatment current. To continue this trend, we have made a number of significant
changes to the ninth edition.
• Our treatment of Numerical Linear Algebra has been extensively expanded, and constitutes one of major changes in this edition. In particular, a section on Singular Value
Decomposition has been added at the end of Chapter 9. This required a complete rewrite
of the early part of Chapter 9 and considerable expansion of Chapter 6 to include necessary material concerning symmetric and orthogonal matrices. Chapter 9 is approximately
40% longer than in the eighth edition, and contains a significant number of new examples
and exercises. Although students would certainly benefit from a course in Linear Algebra
before studying this material, sufficient background material is included in the book, and
every result whose proof is not given is referenced to at least one commonly available
• All the Examples in the book have been rewritten to better emphasize the problem to
be solved before the specific solution is presented. Additional steps have been added to
many of the examples to explicitly show the computations required for the first steps of
iteration processes. This gives the reader a way to test and debug programs they have
written for problems similar to the examples.
• A new item designated as an Illustration has been added. This is used when discussing a
specific application of a method not suitable for the problem statement-solution format
of the Examples.
• The Maple code we include now follows, whenever possible, the material included in
their NumericalAnalysis package. The statements given in the text are precisely what is
needed for the Maple worksheet applications, and the output is given in the same font
and color format that Maple produces.
• A number of sections have been expanded, and some divided, to make it easier for instructors to assign problems immediately after the material is presented. This is particularly
true in Chapters 3, 6, 7, and 9.
• Numerous new historical notes have been added, primarily in the margins where they
can be considered independent of the text material. Much of the current material used in
Numerical Analysis was developed in middle of the 20th century, and students should be
aware that mathematical discoveries are ongoing.
• The bibliographic material has been updated to reflect new editions of books that we
reference. New sources have been added that were not previously available.
As always with our revisions, every sentence was examined to determine if it was phrased
in a manner that best relates what is described.
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
xii Preface
A Student Solutions Manual and Study Guide (ISBN-10: 0-538-73351-9; ISBN-13: 978-0-
538-73351-9) is available for purchase with this edition, and contains worked-out solutions
to many of the problems. The solved exercises cover all of the techniques discussed in the
text, and include step-by-step instructions for working through the algorithms. The first two
chapters of this Guide are available for preview on the web site for the book.
Complete solutions to all exercises in the text are available to instructors in secure,
customizable online format through the Cengage Solution Builder service. Adopting instructors can sign up for access at Computation results
in these solutions were regenerated for this edition using the programs on the web site to
ensure compatibility among the various programming systems.
A set of classroom lecture slides, prepared by Professor John Carroll of Dublin City
University, are available on the book’s instructor companion web site at http://www.cengage.
com/math/burden. These slides, created using the Beamer package of LaTeX, are in PDF
format. They present examples, hints, and step-by-step animations of important techniques
in Numerical Analysis.




Secrets Unraveled: Managing a High Traffic WordPress Site

A couple of days ago, we looked into how you can drive more web traffic to your WordPress website, so this isn’t it. We also ventured into starting your own freelance business with WordPress, so this isn’t that as well. In today’s post, we will not show you how to start a WordPress business or drive more traffic. Instead, we will take you through a step by step guide on setting up your WordPress site for when you finally hit the pot of gold as far as traffic goes. This we do in a bid to ascertain that your site doesn’t break when you start getting more and more visitors. Enjoy and don’t leave without sharing your thoughts in the comment section at the end.

Here’s a quick breakdown of this serving:

  • How to prepare WordPress for high traffic
  • Case study of high traffic WordPress sites and… What do they do to make good of the high numbers?
  • Essential plugins and tools for high traffic WordPress Sites (Juicy)
  • Acquiring WordPress traffic (uh-oh, we just said we won’t be going into traffic generation but just had to, because, well, we’re talking traffic)

How to Prepare Your WordPress Site for High Traffic


Out of the box, WordPress is built scalable, allowing it to adapt to any task, hard or simple, and/or any amount of traffic you throw at it. But there are a couple of considerations you have to keep in mind when scaling for more traffic to ensure your site is performing at its best. What are these considerations?

Processor & Memory Limitations

To have your WordPress site online, you need a capable web server. You need sufficient server resources to run your site without hassles. Two server resources you absolutely need are adequate processor power and memory. Now, high levels of traffic can be incredibly taxing to your web server, which in turn causes your site to slow down or break.

Which is exactly what we don’t want happening, especially when you’re receiving tens of millions of visits and page views. What to do? Firstly, ensure your web host has the server resources required to provide sufficient memory and processor power. And since WordPress runs on MySQL and PHP, make sure your host provides the latest stable versions of these platforms to create a favorable environment in which to run your WordPress site.

Speaking of MySQL, did you know you can rig your MySQL settings to permit many simultaneous database connections? Oh yeah you can. It’s called replication, which – among other things – ensures users won’t encounter the “connection timed out” error when accessing your busy site. On top of that, you can improve MySQL performance by proper indexing, and using query caching. Further, you can create a read-only slave of your master database in order to separate read requests from insert/update queries, which results in a faster and sturdier environment for your high traffic WordPress site.

But as a beginner, this might sound all too alien to you, which is why the Core WordPress team built the HyperDB plugin to help you out. If you’re one bit curious, HyperDB, “…is an advanced database class that supports replication, failover, load balancing and partitioning.” It’s the kind of solution you need when your traffic numbers start racking up. Moving on…

Burst Data

Some web hosts will allow you to exceed a pre-set transfer speed limit – something known as bursting data – when demand for yout content is high. Some servers are automatically configured to allow this service. Other web hosts will charge you for the service, while others don’t have the service at all. It’s your duty to check with your service provider.

Limit Graphics and WordPress Plugins

Let’s assume your WordPress site calls upon five graphics and four WordPress template files to create the design of your site. For 1,000 web visitors, these files will be loaded 9,000 times resulting in a huge demand on your site. WordPress plugins are called by your theme as well, and to function, they make queries to your database. This just means the more plugins you have, the more the database queries, and the heavier the activity on your server. What to do?

  • Reduce the number of graphics needed to create the design of your WordPress site. You can do this by eliminating unnecessary graphics, and editing your style.css and template files.
  • Turn off WordPress plugins that you can live without even if it’s for the few days you have a spike in traffic. Look into hard-coding some of the features you need directly into your theme.

Use a Content Delivery Network (CDN)

To avoid traffic overages (exceeding your allotted bandwidth) and maximize the performance of your WordPress site, you should consider using a content delivery network aka CDN. This way, your site’s files are served from a data center closest to the web visitor. This reduces load on your server significantly since copies of your files are stored on multiple data centers around the globe.

When there is a huge demand for your content, your server won’t be the absolute receiving end of the spike in traffic – CDN servers will act a shield. There are many pay-as-you-go CDN solutions out there, so you ought to set up in no time. If you have no idea where to start, we recommend CloudFlare (a personal favorite) and MaxCDN.

Upgrade to Better Web Hosting

Sure enough, shared web hosting is great for new blogs with low levels of traffic. This, however, will become a problem when your traffic increases to tens of thousands of views per day. If you’re currently on a shared hosting plan and you notice poor performance when you have traffic spikes, consider migrating to VPS. If you’re facing traffic problems with your VPS plan, migrate to a dedicated server and so on and so forth.

There are a couple of managed WordPress hosting companies out there that offer you great managed WordPress hosting packages. They include WPEngine, Flywheel and Media Temple among others. These companies provide a whole range of features from automatic updates and backups, CDN, caching layers, top-of-the-drawer security, dedicated infrastructure and great support among others. The prices may not be beginner-friendly, but for the peace of mind and the assortment of awesome features you get, they are worthy every single penny.

Use a Caching Plugin

A caching plugin could be the tool that saves your site from collapse when the number of visitors go up, up and up. How so? Glad you asked. A caching plugin usually creates HTML versions of your pages, which reduces the number of times WordPress needs to invoke PHP to serve pages. With a great caching plugin, you can increase the speed of your WordPress site, while shielding yourself from the negative effects of a downtime.

You want to go for a caching plugin that supports features such as page caching, database caching, CDN and minification just to mention a few. Great examples of awesome caching plugins include W3 Total Cache, Varnish Cache, and WP Super Cache among others.

Take Advantage of Service-Oriented Architecture

Most basic hosting plans will host your WordPress site and MySQL database on a single machine. Unfortunately, this kind of configuration favors not resiliency or site speed when your traffic spikes. What to do?

You can split your WordPress into multiple parts, and serve each separately. What does that even mean? (So sticky) By taking advantage of a service-oriented setup, you will take more load, run faster, and easily identify stress-points that need ironing out. Here’s an example of service-oriented architecture:

  • MySQL database to host your master/slave WordPress database
  • Nginx/Varnish proxy layer to handle all initial request from users
  • Nginx/Apache2 web server to handle page rendering and site administration
  • Image server or CDN to serve media files

Note, the above set up is just an illustration, yours may be different depending on your needs. With a great architecture in place, you can scale in/out any layer independently depending on your traffic levels. All the same, don’t sweat the details, if you don’t understand service-oriented architecture, please consult your web service provider for instructions on how to set up your design.

Case Study: High Traffic WordPress Sites


In this section, we will quickly look at some high traffic WordPress sites, and how they cope with high volumes of traffic. First, here’s the list of the candidates that made it to our case study today. Oh by the way, they pull the kind of stats that we only dream of:

Now, let’s see how they cope with huge amounts of traffic.

Hot Air

After only 48 hours of launching, Mark Jaquith – the developer behind HotAir – had to migrate the site to a new server. Guess he didn’t anticipate so much growth in such a short period. And in order to keep up with the growing traffic, Mark invested in a CDN to deliver static content, a proactive caching solution, and a load balancer with multiple web backends. HotAir uses VaultPress for backups (and so do we – it’s pretty awesome), Google Analytics for the dets, News beat, chart beat and WordPress stats (for more dets).

Digital Trends

Digital Trends is no longer the baby it was at launch. With over 33 million pages views each month, it’s one of the fastest growing WP-powered site considering it started with about 1 million uniques per month. Here’s what Tom Willmot, the guy who brought us Digital Trends, has to say:

When I started work on the website, there were some pretty big performance sinks in the code base that needed ironing out…Coding well plus some persistent object caching are enough to begin with.

That’s right, clean your code kids. Moving on.


Unlike the other companies we are reviewing in this section, Slashgear had a scalability plan in place when they launched. Their plan was to grow their traffic by 30% each year. The only problem? Their plan did not account for sudden traffic spikes. You’re reading this part because their threshold was exceeded every time Apple made a huge announcement. The result? The site would struggle to keep up with the demand.

So how did Slashgear handle the upsurges? Firstly, they added Amazon EC2 to their infrastructure. They hosted the website over at SoftLayer, a dedicated cloud web host (much like Cloudways cloud hosting options). Then they adopted the Disqus comment system, which took the comment load off their servers. They have powerful caching in place, and advises you to use a trial-and-error method to set up your WordPress site.

The Next Web

The Next Web was launched when there were few large WordPress sites. As such, they weren’t really prepared for the sharp spike in traffic. All the same, they adapted and learned along the way. When the traffic shot up, Arjen Schat and Pablo Roman had to work fast. Went to work and found Memcached for heavy queries, Munin for monitoring and Varnish as a reverse proxy. They use W3 Total Cache and WPVarnish as well. (zing) started as on shared hosting but they were immediately kicked out because – high traffic. They moved to VPS hosting but were kicked out once again. So they moved to dedicated server and incorporated a CDN but that wouldn’t cut it. Finally, they settled on load-balanced servers and threw CDN to the mix.

With a service-oriented architecture, has survived high traffic levels since November 2011 with zero hassles. They use tools such as W3 Total Cache, WP Widget Cache, Plugin Output Cache, Recent Posts, Recent Comments and Similar Posts, Clean Options and WordPress Sphinx search plugin. They’ve adopted a responsive design to cater to mobile visitors.

Essential Plugins + Tools for High Traffic WordPress Sites

We have sprinkled this post with quite a number of plugins, tools and solutions meant for high traffic WordPress sites. As such, this section will just summarize the resources you might want to utilize:

  1. High traffic compatible hosting solution (such as WPEngine, Cloudways, etc.)
  2. Improved website caching (with W3 Total CacheWP Super CacheVarnish CacheMemcached and WP Widget Cache)
  3. Better comment management (Disqus
  4. CDN for improved performance (CloudFlare CDN & MaxCDN are both great)
  5. Frequent & reliable website backups (VaultPress, BackWPup, BackupBuddy etc.)
  6. Analytics & tracking tools (like MuninWordPress Stats, and Google Analytics)

Obviously you don’t have to use any of these, but they are helpful tools and resources that can make managing a high traffic website much more, well, manageable.

Acquiring WordPress Traffic

Perhaps you are a beginner without much traffic. Perhaps you’re reading this post to prepare for scalability unlike most of the people in our case study. While it’s great to be prepared, best would be to build your WordPress-based business and learn along the way. That’s the best way to learn. After all, experience is the best teacher. For your business to flourish though, you’ll first need to get more traffic to your WordPress site. Here’s a quick word by Mike to keep your motivated:

Creating a high traffic WordPress site is not as complicated as many would have you believe. Sure, it takes a lot of testing, failing and starting all over again, but once you get the hang of it, you’ll regret why you didn’t start earlier. – Mike Wallagher, How to Promote Your Blog and Get More Traffic.

At the end of the day…

Surviving traffic spikes and/or running a high traffic WordPress site shouldn’t intimidate you. In essence, you should enjoy the high traffic, and work towards growing your business. How do you manage traffic on your WordPress site? Had problems related to high traffic on your WordPress site? Please share your experiences with us in the comment section below. Adios!

  • Published on: September 11, 2015
  • Under: WordPress Tipss.

How to Make Money with WordPress


How to Make Money with WordPress.

Most webmasters will start building websites with WordPress purely for fun; however, after a while they may want to take their hobby more seriously and look for a way to make money from their website.

Now, most of you reading this will already have some basic knowledge of the WordPress platform, and we could all use a little extra cash, right?

Today I want to introduce some of the best ways you can make money using WordPress.

Developing Themes

One of WordPress’ main strengths is that it allows just about anyone to throw together a great looking website using one of the many themes available. The themes are built by developers, so WordPress users won’t necessarily need any technical knowledge themselves.

There’s a thriving collection of free themes available in the WordPress repository – 2,760 as of today – but WordPress users are increasingly turning to premium themes. Premium themes are often higher quality, feature-rich, and come with more customization options than the free themes available.

If you have the skills required to develop your own theme, you could cash in on this by developing your own WordPress theme(s). Because the theme is responsible for the appearance of a WordPress website, anyone capable of building great looking themes will be in very high demand – and this can be highly lucrative!

Some developers prefer to market their themes themselves, selling themes from their own website. They might charge visitors for a single theme, but increasingly, developers like to bundle their themes into a collection; they then charge customers a recurring monthly/yearly fee to access the lot – this is known as a WordPress club.

Other developers prefer to list their themes on a marketplace. Competition is high, but there is also a guaranteed stream of visitors, so the developer doesn’t have to worry about driving traffic to their website. ThemeForest is the most popular marketplace, with 4,522 WordPress themes currently available, and themes selling for around the $30 to $60 mark.

If you offer your theme exclusively on ThemeForest, they will take a cut of between 12.5% and 37.5% depending on the quantity of themes you sell. If you want to offer your theme elsewhere, too, they will take a 55% cut.

If you design great themes you can quickly build a name for yourself – and therefore an income – whichever route you go. WordPress clubs offer the potential for recurring income, but the sheer volume of traffic to the ThemeForest marketplace makes it highly lucrative. Some of the theme developers on ThemeForest do very well for themselves – top developers earn over $20,000 per month.

Developing Plugins

Like themes, plugins are another reason WordPress has become the go-to CMS for beginner and expert webmasters alike.

Plugins can be quickly and easily installed on your website, and generally support a very specific on-site function — for example, social sharing icons.

WordPress plugin developers are highly skilled programmers who are generally very good at identifying and solving problems. If there is something about the WordPress platform you don’t like, or you are struggling to find an existing plugin to add a specific function to your website, there is a good chance that other users are in the same situation.

If you can create a solution to these problems in the form of a plugin, other users can install it to solve their problems, too — and many will be willing to pay for this.

As with themes, there are both free and premium plugins available. Free plugins are uploaded to the WordPress repository, with 33,458 available at the time of writing.

Premium plugins can be found in a number of places. You have the same sales channels as with themes: you can sell them from your website individually, include them in a collection as part of a WordPress club, or sell them via a marketplace.

The most popular plugin marketplace is CodeCanyon, which is owned by the same people that run ThemeForest. There are currently 2,950 plugins uploaded there.

Plugins tend to be less expensive than themes, usually selling for between $10 and $30. However, plugins can be more lucrative, as users are likely to install a lot more plugins, and there is less competition as plugins serve very specific purposes.

WordPress Services

If you don’t want to sell something you’ve created, technically-proficient WordPress users can offer their expertise for hire to other WordPress users.

For example, non-technical users will only be able to use their theme as it comes, out-the-box. If there are aspects of the design they want to customize, they won’t know where to start. If you have an understanding of web design and can develop WordPress themes, why not let other WordPress users hire you to make the changes they want but are unable to make for themselves?  Presto, you’ve got yourself a WordPress theme customization business.

That’s just one example of a WordPress user exploiting their skillset to earn a living. Of course, there are plenty more options – think outside the box and you could have an entire market to yourself.

Complete beginners won’t know how to install WordPress on their website, add a theme, or know what plugins they will need. With a little information, you could help that person get started by recommending and installing a WordPress theme based on their requirements, configuring it correctly using the out-of-the-box customization options the theme supports, then pointing them in the direction of all the plugins they will definitely be needing. It sounds easy, but it isn’t for some people, and they will pay good money for your help.

WordPress Content

If you like to write, and you have a good grasp of the WordPress platform, you could make a living writing WordPress-based content – the path I’ve chosen for myself!

Many WordPress users will want to learn more about the platform, as well as save money wherever possible. In this scenario, they are more likely to search for information using Google than pay someone for help.

A number of fantastic WordPress resources exist online, Torque included, which educate visitors on how to use WordPress — technical discussions, plugin recommendations, theme reviews, and more.

There’s a lot to be said about the platform, and everyone has their own opinions on what works best. With this in mind, most of the well-established WordPress blogs are willing to pay WordPress experts to contribute to their website. Have a look around and send a few emails – even if a website isn’t advertising, they will usually be keen if the right person comes along.

Monetizing a Website

If you’re capable of building great looking WordPress websites and you’re a savvy marketer, there’s no reason why you can’t build your own website capable of generating an income for you.

There are a number of ways you can do this.

For a start, you can indirectly earn a WordPress income from your website using one of the other monetization options featured today. For example, selling themes is how a theme developer makes money, but they still need a website to sell them from; and, if you offer a WordPress-based service such as freelance writing, you will still need a website to promote your service.

There are also webmasters who build a website specifically with the intention of monetizing. This includes affiliate marketers, who promote products in return for a commission of any sales they drive.

Some webmasters will monetize the traffic they generate either by selling advertising space on their website or using a service like AdSense, which earns you money when a user views (CPM) or clicks (CPC) on an advert. The more traffic you get, the more money you earn.

Finally, there’s the option to build a website with the intention of ‘flipping’ it – in other words, selling it for profit. Those of you that are good at building traffic to a website quickly can then sell it on to anyone looking to buy an established website. Websites generally sell for around 6-12 months earnings.

Final Thoughts

These are just some general ideas for monetizing WordPress, but in reality you can sell any service/product a person is willing to pay for. All the ideas I’ve featured today are relatively mainstream ideas, which thousands of WordPress users make a living from every day.

Of course, as a result they can be quite competitive. The key is to use these suggestions for inspiration, then think outside the box to give it your own twist. If you can find a unique idea with strong demand, you can potentially do very well for yourself.

Do you make a living from WordPress? Share your experiences in the comments section below! 

6 Proven Ways to Make Money with WordPress

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6 Proven Ways to Make Money with WordPress

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Ten reasons why Indians should love Pakistan – DailyO Indian News Agency

Independence Day is just around the corner, and it is our duty to wish and thank our neighbours for these goodies.

1. Cricket: The sport wouldn’t have been the same for India, if it wasn’t for India versus Pakistan matches. There wouldn’t be one such soul on our side, and across the border, who wouldn’t agree with this. I mean, this nation wouldn’t have taken much interest in the English game, if our neighbours wouldn’t have been an active part of it. And then, obviously, we as a nation wouldn’t have enjoyed the “mauka mauka” ads that much as well.

2. Beautiful women: I don’t think I need to elaborate this point much. For some weird reason, the other side of the border has definitely got prettier females than our side. From donning simple salwar kameez attires to a western outfits – Pakistani women are definitely prettier, at least if you consider the subcontinent. Period. Even their politicians appear graceful with their hijabs.

3. Chand Nawab: He has to be the first soul from the subcontinent who went viral, before the word viral went viral. Chand Nawab is a legacy in his own right. Not only does he show how many PTCs (piece to camera) a journalist can actually give, but also inspires our finest directors to portray the real life character in reel life. What a legend! Oh, and in case you’ve missed it, another such video is making the rounds on Youtube. Go check it.

4. Zindagi channel: Okay this is a bit enforced here, and nothing to do with my inclination towards Pakistani soaps, but this famous entertainment channel that our mothers (and now our fathers) have gotten glued to, thanks to the curiosity and excitement the serials have evoked to find out how the society progresses on the other side of the border, is a godsend. Why? Because finally, we’ve got rid of those repetitive “saas bahu soaps”. Good riddance!

5. Coke Studio: Who’d have thought something as great and entertaining as Coke Studio would pop out of Pakistan. I mean looking at our diversity, cultures, religions and faiths (and godmen/godwomen too) one would really think why something as cool as Coke Studio never happened in India first?

6. Mangoes: You haven’t had it all, if you haven’t had Pakistani mangoes. If we have the famous langras then they have the sindhri; if we have the chausa then they have the desi gola. No, I’m not dissing our own varieties, but bringing to light the fact that Pakistani mangoes are a must for the ardent lovers of this fruit.

7. Umer Sharif: Tagged as the “King of Comedy”, Umer was a talent powerhouse. His sense of comedy, dialogue delivery and body language set him apart and made him a household name in both the countries. His recorded stage shows played an important part in his success. And if you haven’t seen “Yes Sir Eid, No Sir Eid”, and “Bakra Qistoon Pay” then you have really missed some quality comic performances.

8. Human development index: It’s nothing less than ironic that such an important economic index was developed by a Pakistani Noble laureate, Mahbub-ul-Haq. The index did shift the focus of economists and policymakers from income and human-centred indices. And today it is widely respected and followed by economists from around the world. Well, the fact that Pakistan is fighting various internal problems can be ignored for a while.

9. Brain: Another feather that rests on Pakistan’s hat – the world’s first virus for MS-DOS was written by Pakistani brothers. “Brain” was written by Basit Farooq Alvi and Amjad Farood Alvi in Lahore, Pakistan in 1986. The brothers told TIME magazine they had written it to protect their medical software from piracy, and it was supposed to target copyright infringers only.

10. Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan: As a generation , we’ve come a long way from Qawwalis and Sufi songs. But my first exposure of Qawwali and Sufi music can be traced back to this great musician. Widely considered as one of the greatest voices ever to be recorded, besides being a rage in the subcontinent, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan was also one of the first few artists to collaborate with Western artists. And he is probably the only Qawwal artist that the coming generations would relate to.

#Independence Day, #Chand Nawab, #Pakistan

Morgan Stanley’s Strategist prediction about Pakistan in 2015 is not New!

Morgan Stanley’s Strategist prediction about Pakistan in 2015 is not New!


Pakistan, on the world map, is located on an idealistic location. Its geography, since its birth, is thoroughly assessed, researched and mapped by world.

Last week it was in the newspapers that David M Darst who is Chief Investment Strategist of Morgan Stanley, in one of his lectures in Pakistan, highly talked about Pakistan’s future, its rise and economic importance in the coming decades with emphasis on the youth of Pakistan.

In other words it can be said that the world’s eyes are on Pakistan’s geo-political and geo-strategic position, its significance and how to exploit it. We need to understand that what Morgan Stanley’s Strategist predicted about Pakistan in 2015 was envisioned by Gen. (R) Pervez Musharraf in 1999!

When he came to the helm of affairs, he was quite clear about the socio-economic road map on which he successfully maneuvered Pakistan and its interests with outstanding strategies and policies not only in the South Asian region but also in the whole world.

In a speech at an international Think Tank in 2010, Gen. (R) Pervez Musharraf explained this shift of world’s focus on Pakistan during recent decades in the following descriptive words:

“Until 1989 the world’s geo-strategic focus was Euro-centric – because of the Cold War, because of East-West confrontation, NATO-Warsaw Pact, the Berlin Wall, the reunification of Germany, etc. But after 1989 – or rather, after 9/11 – the geo-strategic focus shifted to South Asia and West Asia, for reasons that you all know. That is the happening place now. Therefore I would like to deduce that while in 1989 the area of South Asia could be abandoned because of the geo-strategic focus being Euro-centric, now when everything is happening in that area it is not possible to abandon the place.”

If we clearly study his national and foreign policies, it is evident that how successfully he projected Pakistan and its geography both regionally and internationally. Gen. (R) Pervez Musharraf had, in fact even till date has gripping insight of the whole Himalayan region, its geo political set up and the socio economic factors with their global impact. In 2006, as President he explained the central position of Pakistan in the following words:

“Pakistan provides the natural link between the SCO states to connect the Eurasian heartland with the Arabian Sea and South Asia … We offer the critical overland routes and connectivity for mutually beneficial trade and energy transactions intra- regionally and interregionally”

[SCO states: China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan]

Then to connect Pakistan with the oil rich Arabian Peninsula, and to provide access of Central Asian countries and China to the warm waters of Arabian Sea and also elevating the status of Balochistan he made Gawadar Port. In his words:

“Our geo-strategic significance can’t be reduced. We need to realize that we have understood that and therefore we have constructed a new port at Gwadar which is at the mouth of the Gulf almost.”

Pakistan is abundant with natural and human resources. It was in the regime of Gen. (R) Pervez Musharraf that the manpower of the country was mainstreamed so much so that for the first time in Pakistan’s history, Reverse brain drain was happened with brilliant Pakistani mind and blood being ‘imported’ back to Pakistan.

He was the only leader who firmly believed in empowerment of youth and women. On several occasions he advocated their rights and role in society, not only in Pakistan’s soil but also on international floors.

In a nutshell, Pakistan can be best described in words of Gen. (R) Pervez Musharraf who has ruled Pakistan for nearly a decade with its ranking in N-11 countries:

“If I was to encapsulate in the briefest manner the present situation in Pakistan, I would like to say that it is the most happening place in the world, where there is never a dull moment.”

Unfortunately Pakistan did not pay any heed to Gen. (R) Pervez Musharraf’s reforms, policies, strategies and actions which were always in the interests of Pakistan and for the betterment of its people. Had this Nation ever realized his staunch stand on ‘Pakistan First’ policy, Pakistan would be ‘next China’ of the world ‘NOW’ in 2015, not after 35 years as predicted by David M Darst!

Published : February 6, 2015

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are solely of the author and do not represent ARY policies or opinion.

Author Spotlight

Tabarak Unnisa

Tabarak UnnisaAn IT Graduate who believes in the slogan of ‘Pakistan First’. She tweets at : @TabarakUnnisa

Don’t Mess With Pakistan

Don’t Mess With Pakistan


Border Skirmishes between Pakistan and India are once again at rise. A country that boost itself as world’s largest democratic country and who should show bigger heart is now firing and shelling at LOC and has adopted confrontational approach towards Pakistan. Moreover the ruling party of India BJP, other political leaders and activists are ranting against Pakistan that clearly indicated their mindset.

Newspapers Worldwide especially Indian Media is frenzy over the statements by Gen. (R) Pervez Musharraf in an interview to private channel regarding violation of working boundaries. He warned India and said:

“We have source (in Kashmir) besides the (Pakistan) army…People in Kashmir are fighting against (India). We just need to incite them”

This is very right and fitting statement by a Patriotic General who had fought wars defending Pakistan and led this country with great socio-economic progress and achievements with its rankings high to N-11 countries. There is nothing wrong in this statement. Pakistan should give a Tit-for-Tat response to India. As further said by General:

“In Kashmir, we can fight with the (Indian) army from both the front and back…We are Muslims. We will not show the other cheek when we are slapped. We can respond tit for tat”

Indian Media has been driven mad by these statements and they have adopted Anti-Pakistan approach by saying that this ‘incite’ Kashmir is actually confession by Pakistan that it’s a terrorist country and is haven of terrorism. India has forgotten what it has been doing since 1947. Pakistan has fought three wars of 1948, 1965 and 1971 with India. Moreover they are still not out of sufferings they have endured in Kargil war when Pakistan was in a winning position but unfortunately lost on political table. They divided Pakistan and now in their statements they are proudly quoting that Pakistan needs to be taught a lesson ‘again’! There assessment is absolutely wrong! Don’t underestimate Pakistan. Pakistan is a powerful nuclear country with its Army ranked world’s best army. As said by Gen. Musharraf once:

“Don’t Mess with Pakistan”

Kashmir is a UN issue. India terms it as ‘bilateral’ issue. What kind of bilateral issue it is if they don’t want to talk about it. The July 2001 Agra Summit failed due to row over adding lines related to Kashmir from Indian side on the joint declaration. Pakistan has always being following peaceful policy of resolving Kashmir issue through mutual understanding and bilateral talks. It is the India who backtracks always whenever the issue is near to be resolved. Former Indian Prime Minister Man Mohan Singh himself admitted that during Gen. (R) Pervez Musharraf era, India and Pakistan was near resolution of Kashmir issue.

India should understand the repercussions of the tensions between two countries in a region. Peace of South Asia is at stake. For Pakistan it is the time to rise and to be strong internally by crushing the menace of extremism and terrorism and also ethnicity from its roots that is damaging its social fabrics and so in turn the economy of Pakistan. It should guard its honour, dignity and its National Interests. We should support and should be proud of our Pakistan Army over the success of ‘Operation Zarb e Azb’ ,going on since June 2014. Pakistan Army is capable of fighting both internal and external threats.

Pakistan Army Zindabad

Pakistan Paendabad

Sab Say Pehlay Pakistan!

 Published : October 20, 2014

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are solely of the author and do not represent ARY policies or opinion.

Author Spotlight

Tabarak Unnisa

Tabarak UnnisaAn IT Graduate who believes in the slogan of ‘Pakistan First’. She tweets at : @TabarakUnnisa

We have Pakistan on world map but not in our hearts!

We have Pakistan on world map but not in our hearts!


We have Pakistan on world map but not in our hearts! Pakistan is fighting ‘War of Terror’, the same war which was previously ‘preached’ by politicians as ‘foreign war’ that started with a ‘phone call’ and that was also attributed to the act of ‘cowardice’ as Pakistan accepted ‘All’ the demands of America! Had we as a Nation understood at that time the Vision of the Commando Gen. (R ) Pervez Musharraf, when the ‘cancer of terrorism’ was diagnosed in its early stages, we would be able to root it out completely. Now this ‘Terrorism’ which is a product of ‘extremism’ has maligned the minds, both young and old, men and women alike. On the other hand, terrorism has also different forms like terrorizing the public with crimes such as street crimes, target killing, extortion etc. There is no full stop at this as the society is also deeply plagued with sectarian and ethnic divisions. This Islamic Republic of Pakistan was created to practice the religion with harmony irrespective of Muslims and minorities. Quaid e Azam on 11 August 1947 speaking to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan clearly outlined and highlighted the rights of citizens of newly created country.

“You are free, free to go to your temples; you are free to go to your mosques or to any other places of worship in this state of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the State”

But what we see now? Temples, Churches and even Mosques are fighting for their existence. In such turbulent situation the question is where as a nation we are heading to? Be it any political or religious Jalsas or Dharnas, speeches and rallies, elections and selections, everyone is after their personal interests. There are just egos, blame games followed by ‘clean games’, ethnic fight, sectarian fight, religious fight, liberal fight etc. Nowhere Pakistan is seen. Pakistan is heard, seen & in fact ‘lived’ by only ONE MAN, the great Sipa Salar of Pak Foj, the SSG Commando, the warrior, the Ghazi General ‘Pervez Musharraf’. Pakistan runs in his blood & soul! Who else can better understand Pakistan than him who has ruled this Nation for nearly a decade? How situation of Pakistan in 1999 and now in 2015 was and their cause is well explained by him in one of his interviews. On 25 August 2014, during the Dharna days, he said:

“Ground situation was same as today during 12 Oct 1999. Economy was in shambles. We were failed and defaulted state. There was sectarian conflict, law and order problem, ethnic law and order problem in Karachi, economy was disturbed & governance was poor. Now also there is poor governance and economy is going down. Environment is similar we are going socio economically downwards. In 1999 people were going to Army chief. Now in 2014, whole Pakistan is out and they are also looking towards Army chief”

This Nation is also to be blamed as when the Army takes control of the country’s helm of affairs in order to save the State, they get into the pity issues of ‘Amriyat’ (Dictatorship) and ‘Jamhuriat’ (Democracy) and when so-called democracy is ‘thrived’ on the cost of several crisis like electricity, petrol, gas and water, they look towards the Army!

Pakistan needs the command of Gen. (R) Pervez Musharraf to bring Pakistan back on the socio economically progressive path where there is development of state and welfare of its people. To conclude I would quote the words of him from his historic speech on 10 Jan 2002 where he said:

“We have to make Pakistan into a powerful and strong country. We have resources and potential. We are capable of meeting external danger. We have to safeguard ourselves against internal dangers. I have always been saying that internal strife is eating us like termite. Don’t forget that Pakistan is the citadel of Islam and if we want to serve Islam well we will first have to make Pakistan strong and powerful”

Published : February 12, 2015

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are solely of the author and do not represent ARY policies or opinion.

Author Spotlight

Tabarak Unnisa

Tabarak UnnisaAn IT Graduate who believes in the slogan of ‘Pakistan First’. She tweets at : @TabarakUnnisa Read Full

The Worship of the Warrior – Pakistan

The Worship of the Warrior – Pakistan


“Pakistan ka Allah Hafiz”

The General who commanded his armed forces by leading from the front said this with raised hands, heavy heart & Teary eyes. Heavy heart & Teary eyes were not because of leaving Presidency but due to the situation through which Pakistan was going through. Satisfied with his actions and decisions that were always based on the Vision ‘Pakistan First’, he said in his last speech as a President of Islamic Republic of Pakistan:

“Now I am satisfied, but at the same time I am sad and in pain as well that Pakistan is sliding downhill very quickly.  This is my heartfelt sorrow, I am very sad”

That was the black day of 18 August 2008.

He then went on International lecture circuit that both national and international media drum played as ‘self-imposed’ exile which in reality was not. He as a statesman, an intellect, a philosopher and a leader always promoted and defended Pakistan on the floors of Powerful Think Tanks and various top institutions that no other Pakistani leader has ever done before. In fact no one is of such caliber as his!

& then after 4 years on 24 March in 2013, this Great Warrior and Ghazi, the Great Commando General Syed Pervez Musharraf returned to his Motherland, his Junoon,his Ishq, this Pak Dharti!

Yes as he said on 18 Aug 2008:

“Pakistan Mera Ishq hai. Pakistan is my Love; and always, my life is for Pakistan”

While on board in his comeback flight EK 666 from Dubai to Karachi, he expressed his happiness in these words:

“I am feeling nostalgic…I am happy I am going back”

After landing at Jinnah International Airport addressing to his supporters who gathered to welcome him,he asked from his opponents:

“People said I would not come. Where are those people now? People were trying to scare me. I only fear Allah, no one else”

With resolve to ‘Save Pakistan’ he said:

“Where has the Pakistan I left five years ago gone? My heart cries tears of blood when I see the state of the country today.I have come back for you. I want to restore the Pakistan I left.”

With determination to serve the Motherland he said:

“Now, I will live here and change the fate of the country”

Imagine the feelings of a Warrior who fought and who guarded this Motherland for more than 40 years. He returned despite serious life threats on him, ignoring the caring advice of his family and friends and also even knowing that unending, politicized and Vindictive Legal battle was awaiting him. This can only be done by a Man who worships Pakistan!

Published : March 25, 2015
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are solely of the author and do not represent ARY policies or opinion.

Author Spotlight

Tabarak Unnisa

Tabarak UnnisaAn IT Graduate who believes in the slogan of ‘Pakistan First’. She tweets at : @TabarakUnnisa