1. It is believed that Ancient Egyptians used complex mathematics such as algebra, arithmetic and geometry as far back as 3000 BC.
2. It wasn’t until the 16th century that most mathematical symbols were invented. Before this time math equations were written in words, making it very time consuming.
3. What comes after a million, billion and trillion? Why a quadrillion, quintillion, sextillion, septillion, octillion and nonillion of course.
4. Cutting a cake into 8 pieces is possible with just 3 slices, can you work out how?
5. An icosagon is a shape with 20 sides.
6. A three dimensional parallelogram is called a parallelepiped.
7. Trigonometry is the study of the relationship between the angles of triangles and their sides.
8. The smallest ten prime numbers are: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29.
9. The name of the popular search engine ‘Google’ came from a misspelling of the word ‘googol’, which is a very, very large number (the number one followed by one hundred zeros to be exact).
10. A ‘googolplex’ is the number 1 followed by a googol zeros, this number is so big that it can’t be written because there isn’t enough room in the universe to fit it in! It would also take a length of time far greater than the age of the universe just to write the numbers.
11. The number Pi (the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle) can’t be expressed as a fraction, this means it is an irrational number. When written as a decimal it never repeats and never ends.
12. Here is Pi written to 50 decimal places: 3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510
13. If two quantities have a ratio of approximately 1.618, they are said to be in the golden ratio. This ratio has been used throughout history to design aesthetically pleasing art works such as the Parthenon. It also appears in paintings, music, the design of books, and even in nature.
14. π=3.14159 26535 89793 23846 26433 83279 50288 41971 69399 37510 58209 74944 59230 78164 06286 20899 86280 34825 34211 70679 82148 08651 32823 …
15. A sphere has two sides. However, there are one-sided surfaces.
16. There are shapes of constant width other than the circle. One can even drill square holes.
17. There are just five regular polyhedra
18. In a group of 23 people, at least two have the same birthday with the probability greater than 1/2
19. Everything you can do with a ruler and a compass you can do with the compass alone
20. Among all shapes with the same perimeter a circle has the largest area.
21. There are curves that fill a plane without holes
22. Much as with people, there are irrational, perfect, complex numbers
23. As in philosophy, there are transcendental numbers
24. As in the art, there are imaginary and surreal numbers
25. A straight line has dimension 1, a plane – 2. Fractals have mostly fractional dimension
26. You are wrong if you think Mathematics is not fun
27. Mathematics studies neighborhoods, groups and free groups, rings, ideals, holes, poles and removable poles, trees, growth …
28. Mathematics also studies models, shapes, curves, cardinals, similarity, consistency, completeness, space …
29. Among objects of mathematical study are heredity, continuity, jumps, infinity, infinitesimals, paradoxes…
30. Last but not the least, Mathematics studies stability, projections and values, values are often absolute but may also be extreme, local or global.
31. Trigonometry aside, Mathematics comprises fields like Game Theory, Braids Theory, Knot Theory and more
32. One is morally obligated not to do anything impossible
33. Some numbers are square, yet others are triangular
34. The next sentence is true but you must not believe it
35. The previous sentence was false
36. 12+3-4+5+67+8+9=100 and there exists at least one other representation of 100 with 9 digits in the right order and math operations in between
37. One can cut a pie into 8 pieces with three movements
38. Program=Algorithms+Data Structures
39. There is something the dead eat but if the living eat it, they die.
40. A clock never showing right time might be preferable to the one showing right time twice a day
41. Among all shapes with the same area circle has the shortest perimeter
1. There is about 1/2lb or 250g of table salt (NaCl) in the body of an average adult human.
2. Lightning strikes produce ozone (O3) and help strengthen the ozone layer.
3. Humans have been using chemistry since at least Ancient Egypt. By 1000bce human civilizations were using advanced forms of chemistry like extracting metals from ore, fermenting alcohol, and refining plant extracts as medicine.
4. DNA is flame retardant.
5. One bucketful of water contains more atoms than the Atlantic Ocean does bucketfuls of water.
6. If you slowly pour a handful of salt into a completely full glass of water, it will not overflow. In fact, the water level will go down.
7. Although oxygen gas is colorless (light refraction aside), both the liquid and solid forms are blue.
8. One inch of rain is equal to 10 inches of snow.
9. You have chemoreceptors (taste buds) on the inside of your cheeks too.
10. Hydrofluoric acid is so corrosive that it will dissolve glass. Although it is corrosive, hydrofluoric acid is considered to be a ‘weak acid’.
11. Approximately 20% of the oxygen in the atmosphere was produced by the Amazonian rainforests.
12. The only elements that are liquid at room temperature are bromine and mercury.
13. Though solid at room temperature, gallium will liquefy in your hand.
14. Hydrogen is the most abundant element. About 75% of the elemental mass of the universe is hydrogen.
15. The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium, with is 1 proton and 0 neutrons.
16. The hardest chemical in your body is your tooth enamel.
17. The ethylene gas produced by ripening fruit, ripens other fruit and vegetables.
18. The only letter that doesn’t appear on the Periodic Table of Elements is J.
19. The human body contains enough carbon to produce graphite for about 9,000 pencils.
20. If you expose a glass of water to space, it will boil rather than freeze. The water vapor would almost immediately crystallize into ice.
21 Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, water, and atmosphere.
22. Bee stings are acidic while wasp stings are alkaline.
23. Mosquitoes like the scent of estrogen, thus women get bitten more often than men do.
24. The lighter was invented before the match.
25. Hydrogen is the first element on the periodic table. It has an atomic number of 1. It is highly flammable and is the most common element found in our universe.
26. Liquid nitrogen boils at 77 kelvin (−196 °C, −321 °F).
27. Around 1% of the sun’s mass is oxygen.
28. Helium is lighter than the air around us so it floats, that’s why it is perfect for the balloons you get at parties.
29. Carbon comes in a number of different forms (allotropes), these include diamond, graphite and impure forms such as coal.
30. Under normal conditions, oil and water do not mix. More oil facts.
31. Although it is still debated, it is largely recognized that the word ‘chemistry’ comes from an Egyptian word meaning ‘earth’.
32. The use of various forms of chemistry is believed to go back as long ago as the Ancient Egyptians. By 1000 BC civilizations were using more complex forms of chemistry such as using plants for medicine, extracting metal from ores, fermenting wine and making cosmetics.
33. Things invisible to the human eye can often be seen under UV light, which comes in handy for both scientists and detectives.
34. Humans breathe out carbon dioxide (CO2). Using energy from sunlight, plants convert carbon dioxide into food during a process called photosynthesis.
35. Chemical reactions occur all the time, including through everyday activities such as cooking. Try adding an acid such as vinegar to a base such as baking soda and see what happens!
36. Athletes at the Olympic Games have to be careful how much coffee they drink. The caffeine in coffee is a banned substance because it can enhance performance. One or two cups are fine but they can go over the limit with more than five. (update – as of 2004 caffeine has been taken back off the WADA banned list but its use will be closely monitored to prevent future abuse by athletes.)
37. Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and an atomic number of 20.
38. Calcium is not naturally found in its elemental state but calcium compounds are common.
39. Carbon is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6.
40. The word carbon comes from the Latin word carbo, meaning coal.
41. Carbon forms a large number of compounds, more than any other element. Because of its willingness to bond to other nonmetallic elements it is often referred to as the building block of life.
42. While carbon forms many different compounds it is a relatively unreactive element.
43. There are several allotropes (different forms) of carbon with the three most well known being amorphous carbon (coal, soot etc), diamond and graphite.
44. The properties of diamond and graphite are very different with diamond being transparent and very hard while graphite is black and soft (soft enough to write on paper).
45. Graphite is used for its thermal insulation (lower rate of heat transfer) properties. It is also a very good conductor or electricity.
46. The carbon atoms in graphite are bonded in flat hexagonal lattices and layered in sheets.
47. Carbon is the 4th most common element in the Universe (after hydrogen, helium and oxygen). It is the 15th most common element in the Earth’s crust while it is the second most common element in the human body (behind oxygen).
48. Carbon has the highest melting point of all elements, around 3500 °C (3773 K, 6332 °F).
49. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds made entirely of molecules featuring just hydrogen and carbon. Organic chemistry involves the study of hydrocarbons.
50. The simplest hydrocarbon compound is methane (CH4).
51. The chemical element Chlorine has the symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
52. On the periodic table Chlorine is in the halogen group and it is the 2nd lightest halogen gas after fluorine.
53. In its standard form chlorine is a yellow-green gas, but its common compounds are usually colorless. Chlorine has a strong distinctive odor such as the smell of household bleach.
54. The name Chlorine is from the Greek word chloros which means greenish yellow.
55. Chlorine has a melting point of -150.7 °F (-101.5 °C) and a boiling point of -29.27 °F (-34.04 °C).
56. The chemical symbol of hydrogen is H. It is an element with atomic number 1, this means that 1 proton is found in the nucleus of hydrogen.
57. Hydrogen is the lightest, simplest and most commonly found chemical element in the Universe, making up around 75% of its elemental mass.
58. Hydrogen is found in large amounts in giant gas planets and stars, it plays a key role in powering stars through fusion reactions.
59. Hydrogen is one of two important elements found in water (H2O). Each molecule of water is made up of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom.
60. Nitrogen is a chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number of 7.
61. Under normal conditions nitrogen is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas.
62. Nitrogen makes up around 78% of the air you breathe.
63. Nitrogen is present in all living things, including the human body and plants.
64. Nitrogen gas is used in food storage to keep packaged or bulk foods fresh. It is also used in the making of electronic parts, for industrial purposes and has many other useful applications.
65. Nitrogen gas is often used as an alternative to carbon dioxide for storing beer in pressurized kegs. The smaller bubbles it produces is preferred for some types of beer.
66. Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, has an atmosphere nearly entirely made of nitrogen (over 98%). It is the only moon in our solar system known to have a dense atmosphere.
67. Oxygen is an element with the chemical symbol O and atomic number 8.
68. Oxygen is a very reactive element that easily forms compounds such as oxides.
69. Under standard temperature and pressure conditions two oxygen atoms join to form dioxygen (O2), a colorless, tasteless and odorless gas.
70. Oxygen is essential to human life, it is found in the air we breathe and the water we drink (H20).
71. Oxygen makes up around 21% of the air you breathe. It is also the most common element in the Earth’s crust (around 47%) and the third most common element in the Universe (but far less than hydrogen and helium, the two most common).
72. The large amount of oxygen on Earth is supported by the oxygen cycle which involves the movement of oxygen between the air, living things and the Earth’s crust. Photosynthesis (a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds using sunlight) plays a major role in this cycle.
73. Ozone (O3) is an allotrope (different form) of oxygen that combines three oxygen atoms together. While ground level ozone is an air pollutant, the ozone layer in the Earth’s upper atmosphere provides protection from the suns harmful rays by filtering UV light.
74. The sun’s mass is made up of around 1% oxygen
75. The chemical element Silicon has a symbol Si and atomic number 14.
76. Silicon is a metalloid (or semi metal). This means it has some properties like a metal, for example, it looks like a metal and some like a non-metal, for example, it does not do conduct electricity very easily.
77. Because silicon is a metalloid it is useful as a semiconductor which means it has electrical conductivity between metals and non-metal insulators like glass.
78. Silicon is the 8th most abundant element in the universe by mass.
79. Silicon is not found as a free element in nature, but rather it occurs as oxides and silicates in many minerals. Over 90% of the Earth’s crust (about 28% by mass) is composed of silicate minerals, which is why silicon is the 2nd most common element on earth after oxygen.
80. The melting point of sulfur is 247.3 °F (119.6 °C) and the boiling point is 832.3 °F (444.6 °C).
81. Sulfur is non-toxic in its pure element form and in the sulphate form. But its compounds such as carbon disulphide, hydrogen sulphide and sulfur dioxide are all toxic.
82. Mineral collectors like elemental sulfur crystals for their distinct, brightly colored polyhedron (multisided) shapes.
83. Sulfur compounds can naturally occur as sulfide minerals such as pyrite, cinnabar, galena, sphalerite and stibnite. Or as sulfate minerals such as gypsum, alunite and barite.
Human Body Facts
Human Body Facts
1. The human eye is so sensitive that if the Earth were flat, you could spot a candle flickering at night from up to 30 miles away.
2. Nerve impulses travel to and from the brain at speeds of up to 250 miles per hour, faster than a Formula 1 racecar.
3. When you blush, the lining of your stomach blushes too.
4. The human brain can read up to 1,000 words per minute.
5. Inside your belly button are thousands of bacteria that form an ecosystem the size of an entire rainforest.
6. When in love, the human brain releases the same cocktail of neurotransmitters and hormones that are released by amphetamines. This leads to increased heart rate, loss of appetite and sleep, and intense feelings of excitement.
7. You can see ultraviolet light, the ability is just filtered out by the eye’s lens. Some people have undergone surgery to remove the lense and can detect ultraviolet light.
8. An adult is made up of 7,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (7 octillion) atoms. For perspective, there’s a ‘measly’ 300,000,000,000 (300 billion) stars in our galaxy.
9. Our muscles are actually incredibly more powerful than they appear to be. Human strength is limited to protect our tendons and muscles from harming themselves. This limitation can be removed during an adrenaline rush, during which some people have lifted boulders or even cars off themselves.
10. We humans are the best long-distance runners on the planet. Better than any four-legged animal. In fact, thousands of years ago we used to run after our prey until they died of exhaustion.
11. A full head of human hair is strong enough to support 12 tonnes.
12. In 30 minutes, the human body gives off enough heat to bring a gallon of water to the boil
13. We have the same amount of hairs on our body as a chimpanzee. Most are useless and so fine that they are invisible.
14. The atoms that make up your human body today are same atoms that formed during the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago.
15. Human bone is as strong as granite. A block of bone the size of a matchbox could support nine tonnes of weight.
16. If the human brain were a computer, it could perform 38 thousand-trillion operations per second. The world’s most powerful supercomputer, BlueGene, can manage only .002% of that.
17. The focusing muscles in your eyes move around 100,000 times a day. To give your leg muscles the same workout, you’d need to walk 50 miles.
18. For every pound of fat or muscle gained, your body creates seven miles of new blood vessels
19. Humans share 50% of their DNA with bananas.
20. Loneliness is physically painful. Just as you have a drive to avoid physical pain, you have a similarly powerful drive to connect with others and seek companionship – in order to avoid the pain of loneliness.
21. A single human sperm contains the 37.5mb of male DNA required to create a human child. That means an average ejaculation sees the transfer of 1,500 terabytes of information.
22. Your body produces 25 million new cells each second. Every 13 seconds, you produce more cells than there are people in the United States.
23. Humans are bioluminescent and glow in the dark. The light that we emit is 1,000 times weaker than our human eyes are able to pick up.
24. Humans shed 40 pounds of skin in their lifetime, completely replacing their outer skin every month.
25. In one day, your blood travels 12,000 miles around your body. That’s four times the distance across the US from coast-to-coast.
26. Our brain’s connected neurons look similar to the structure of the universe. In a way, our brains are modeled after the universe.
27. Around 90% of the cells that make humans aren’t “human” in origin. We’re mostly fungi and bacteria.
28. Along with the five traditional senses of sound, sight, touch, smell and taste, humans have 15 “other senses.” These include balance, temperature, pain and time as well as internal senses for suffocation, thirst, and fullness.
29. You’re a little richer than you might think. Inside all of us is around 0.2 milligrams of gold, most of which is in our blood Sadly, you’d need the blood of around 40,000 people to collect enough gold to make one 8g coin.
30. The human brain uses 20% of the entire body’s oxygen and calorie intake, despite only accounting for about 2% of an adult’s body mass.
31. If you stretched out the 300,000,000 capillaries in your lungs end to end, the line would extend from Seattle to San Diego, or about 1,300 miles.
32. Some women see more colors than everyone else. Most people have three types of color receptors to see color vision, while some women have four or even five of these receptors and can see a wider range of colors.
33. A condition called synesthesia can cause senses to overlap. In other words, some people can taste words or hear colors.
34. The need to breathe so much is due to carbon dioxide buildup more than the need for oxygen. If there was a different way to get rid of carbon dioxide from the blood, we would only need to breathe at a rate of about once per minute.
35. Crying alleviates stress and allows humans to decrease feelings of anger and sadness. It physically does help to let it out.
36. The brain uses over a quarter of the oxygen used by the human body. More human brain facts.
37. Your heart beats around 100000 times a day, 36500000 times a year and over a billion times if you live beyond 30. More human heart facts.
38. Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body. They are created inside the bone marrow of your bones. More blood facts.
39. The colour of a humans skin is determined by the level of pigment melanin that the body produces. Those with small amounts of melanin have light skin while those with large amounts have dark skin. More skin facts.
40. Adult lungs have a surface area of around 70 square metres! More lung facts.
41. Humans have a stage of sleep that features rapid eye movement (REM). REM sleep makes up around 25% of total sleep time and is often when you have your most vivid dreams. More eye facts.
42. Most adults have 32 teeth. More teeth facts.
43. The smallest bone found in the human body is located in the middle ear. The staples (or stirrup) bone is only 2.8 millimetres long. More ear facts.
44. Your nose and ears continue growing throughout your entire life. More nose facts.
45. Infants blink only once or twice a minute while adults average around 10.
46. As well as having unique fingerprints, humans also have unique tongue prints.
47. The left side of your body is controlled by the right side of your brain while the right side of your body is controlled by the left side of your brain.
48. Antibiotics are only effective against bacteria, they won’t help in fighting off a virus.
49. It takes the body around 12 hours to completely digest eaten food.
50. Your sense of smell is around 10000 times more sensitive than your sense of taste. More senses facts.
51. With the 60,000 miles of blood vessels inside the average human body, you could circumnavigate Earth two and a half times.
Mercury click to collapse contents
1. Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System.
2. The orbital speed of Mercury is 47.8 km/sec (29.7 miles/sec).
3. Mercury has no atmosphere and no known satellites, perhaps because of its proximity to the Sun.
4. The diameter of Planet Mercury is 4,878 km (3,031 miles).
5. The first visit to Mercury was a flyby made by the Mariner 10 spacecraft in 1974.
6. Mercury is often identified with the Greek god Hermes, the messenger of the gods in Roman mythology.
7. Mercury orbits the sun once every 87.97 Earth Days.
8. A day, from sunrise to sunrise, on Mercury is equivalent to 176 Earth Days.
9. Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, the maximum distance from the Sun = 70 million km (43.5 million miles).
10. Mercury’s minimum distance from Earth = 77 million km (48 million miles).
11. Mercury is known as a terrestrial planet consisting of about 70% metallic and 30% silicate material.
12. First it was Copernicus who noticed orbiting planet in the early 16th century; and then Galileo was the first to observe Mercury during the 17th century.
13. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Mercury would be 38 lbs. (Multiply your actual weight by 0.38).
14. The surface of the planet is covered in craters much like those seen on Earth’s moon. This is a sign that Mercury has been geologically dormant for billions of years.
15. Since Mercury’s orbit is within Earth’s orbit, it can be viewed from Earth in the early morning or the late evening, but never in the middle of the nighttime.
16. The planet makes three complete rotations on its axis per every two orbital revolutions.
17. The surface temperature of Mercury ranges from -173 to 427°C. (-279 to 800°F).
18. Mercury is the second densest planet after Earth.
19. The surface of Mercury is very similar to our moon. It has a very barren, rocky surface covered with many craters.
20. Being so close to the Sun, the daytime temperature on Mercury is scorching – reaching over 400 Degrees Celsius.
21. At night however, without an atmosphere to hold the heat in, the temperatures plummet, dropping to -180 Degrees Celsius.
22. Mercury has a very low surface gravity.
23. Mercury has no atmosphere which means there is no wind or weather to speak of.
24. There is also no water on the surface of Mercury, it is possible however that there could be water underneath the surface.
25. Likewise, there is no air on the surface but it could be trapped underneath.
Venus click to collapse contents
1. The diameter of Venus is 12,100 km (7,522 miles).
2. The interior of Venus is composed of a central iron core and a molten rocky mantle, similar to the composition of Earth.
3. The surface of Venus is very dry with flat plains, highland regions, and depressions.
4. Venus is the sixth largest planet in the Solar System.
5. Venus is the second closest planet to the Sun.
6. Planet Venus is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty.
7. The atmosphere of Venus is primarily composed of carbon dioxide (96%) and nitrogen (3%), with traces of other gases and little to no water vapor.
8. Similar in size, density, and mass, Venus and Earth often referred to as sister planets.
9. The orbital speed of Venus is 35 km per second (78,292 mi/hr)
10. Maximum distance of Venus from the Sun is 109 million km (68 million miles)
11. Minimum distance of Venus from the Earth is 40 million km (25 million miles)
12. Venus is the hottest planet in the Solar System.
13. Venus is one of the brightest objects in the sky, next to the Sun and Moon.
14. It takes 243 days for Venus to rotate on its axis.
15. The surface of Venus may have been formed by a lot of volcanic activity. It is said to have 167 volcanoes that measure up to 100 km across.
16. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Venus would be 88 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 0.88)
17. The rotation of Venus is so slow that it travels around the sun quicker than it can make one rotation on its axis. This means that Venus has a longer day than it does a year.
18. Aside from planet Earth, Venus is the most explored planet. Many space probes have visited and landed on Venus to gather data.
19. The clouds surrounding Venus are comprised mostly of sulfuric acid.
20. Studies point to the fact that Venus used to have water on it, but it dried up as the sun started letting off more energy.
21. The atmosphere of Venus made up mainly of carbon dioxide.
22. Its size is slightly smaller than Earth.
23. It also features gravity similar to that of Earth.
24. The surface of Venus is often described as a “stormy desert” full of many craters and very active volcanoes.
25. The surface is also likened to molten lead.
26. Venus features no liquid water.
Earth click to collapse contents
1. The Earth is around 4.6 billion years old according to scientists.
2. The Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System.
3. The Earth’s atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), argon (.93%),and carbon dioxide (0.03%).
4. Earth’s atmosphere divided in 5 sections from the surface: Troposphere (0-13 km), Ozone Layer (13-25 km), Stratosphere (25-50 km), Mesosphere (50-75 km), and Thermosphere (75-150 km)
5. Earth is the fifth largest planet in the Solar System.
6. The Diameter of the Earth is 12,756 km (7,926 miles)
7. The earth’s orbital speed is 29.8 km per second (66,660 mi/hr)
8. Earth has only one satellite, the Moon. The Moon is the second brightest object in the sky from Earth.
9. Earth has an average surface temperature of 13°C (55.4°F).
10. The greenhouse effect raises Earth’s temperature 35°C(95°F).
11. Earth’s distance from the Sun – Min. 146 million km (91million miles) Max. 152 million km (94.5 million miles).
12. Earth is composed of: iron (32%), oxygen (30%), silicon (15%), magnesium (14%), sulfur (3%), nickel (2%), calcium (1.5%), aluminum (1.4%) and the remainder made up of other elements.
13. Earth’s main tectonic plates: African plate, Antarctic plate, Indo-Australian Plate, Eurasian Plate, North American Plate, South American Plate, and the Pacific Plate.
14. Earth has several layers with unique chemical and seismic properties: Crust (0-40 km), upper mantle (40-400 km), transition region (400-650 km), lower mantle (650-2700 km), D layer (2700-2890 km), outer core (2890-5150 km), and the inner core (5150-6378 km) from the surface.
15. The Earth is not perfectly round, rather it is an oblate spheroid. This is due to the planet’s equatorial bulge.
Mars click to collapse contents
1. Known as the Red Planet, Mars is characterized by its red, dusty landscape.
2. The atmosphere on Mars is very thin, composed mainly of carbon dioxide (95%), nitrogen (2.7%), and argon (1.6%), with traces of oxygen and water.
3. The orbital speed of Mars is 24.2 km per second (54,133 mi/hr).
4. Temperatures on Mars vary from 0°C (32°F) to -100°C (-148°F).
5. The diameter of the planet Mars is 6,785 km.
6. A Mars year is equal to 686.98 Earth Days.
7. A day in Mars is equal to 24.6 Earth Hours.
8. Mars maximum distance from the Sun = 249 million km (155 million miles).
9. Mars is 35 million miles from Earth.
10. Mars is the god of war in Roman mythology (Ares).
11. The polar ice caps consist of frozen Co2 (dry ice) which lies over a layer of ice.
12. Mars has very weak gravity which cannot hold onto the atmosphere well.
13. Mariner 4 – first successful flyby mission to Mars. Launched on November 28, 1964 and arrived at Mars on July 14, 1965.
14. Mariner 9 – first successful orbit of Mars. Launched May 30, 1971 and began orbit November 13, 1971.
15. Viking 1 – Successful orbit and landing on surface of Mars. Launched August 20, 1975 and arrived at Mars July 20, 1976.
16. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Mars would be 38 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 0.38).
17. Phobos, one of Mars’ two moons, is gradually getting closer and closer to Mars. It is believed that it will eventually collide with the planet.
18. The surface of Mars is covered in canyons and valleys. This leads scientists to believe that the planet once had water on it.
19. Just like Earth, both of Mars’ poles are blanketed in ice.
20. Mars is nicknamed the red planet because it is covered with rust-like dust. Even the atmosphere is a pinkish red, colored by tiny particles of dust thrown up from the surface.
21. Mars experiences violent dust storms which continually change its surface.
22. Mars has many massive volcanoes and is home to Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in our solar system, it stands 21km high and is 600km across the base.
23. Mars has a very thin atmosphere made mostly of carbon dioxide. It is not thick enough to trap the sun’s heat like Venus, so the planet is very cold. Temperatures range from -120 Degrees Celsius on winter nights to 25 Degrees Celsius in the summer.
24. Mars has many channels, plains and canyons on the surface which could have been caused by water erosion in the past.
Jupiter click to collapse contents
1. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system with a mean diameter of 139,822 km (86,881 miles).
2. Jupiter’s mass is 318 times larger than Earth. The diameter is 11 times, volume is 1,321 times, and surface area is 122 times of Earth.
3. The orbital speed of Jupiter is 13.1 km/sec.
4. A year on Jupiter is equal to 11.9 Earth Years.
5. A day on Jupiter is equal to 9.8 Earth Hours.
6. At the centre of Jupiter is a rocky core, slightly bigger than Earth but weighing about 20 times more.
7. Jupiter’s maximum distance from the Sun = 817 million km (508 million miles).
8. Jupiter’s minimum distance from Earth = 588 million km (365 million miles).
9. Jupiter has many moons circling around it. Four of these moons are bigger than Pluto.
10. Jupiter has sixty three moons or satellites, eight are regular and 55 irregular.
11. Jupiter’s four largest moons are named: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
12. Voyager 1 provided the earliest and clearest photographs of Jupiter on January of 1979.
13. Jupiter has rings, the third planet discovered to have a ring system in our Solar System.
14. Jupiter has a very strong magnetic field, you would weigh two and a half times as much as you would on Earth.
15. Jupiter’s rings were discovered by Voyager 1 in 1979.
16. Jupiter’s largest moon is the biggest in the Solar System. Named Ganymede, it is larger than the planet Mercury.
17. The volume of Jupiter is great enough to hold 1,300 Earths.
18. The rotation of Jupiter is the fastest of any planet in the Solar System, making its days only 10 hours long.
19. The large red spot on Jupiter is actually from a storm that has lasted over 300 years.
Saturn click to collapse contents
1. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest.
2. Saturn was the god of agriculture in Roman mythology. Saturn is also the father of Jupiter, the king of the Roman gods.
3. Saturn is flattened at the poles, due to a fast rotation on its axis.
4. Saturn has 62 known moons, fifty-three have been named. Most of them are small in size.
5. Saturn is not a peaceful planet. Storm winds race around the atmosphere at 800kmp/h.
6. A year on Saturn is equal to 29.5 Earth Years.
7. It is surrounded by a system of rings that stretch out into space for thousands of kilometres.
8. A day on Saturn is equal to 10 hours and 14 minutes in Earth days.
9. Diameter of Saturn is 119,871 km (74,500 miles).
10. Saturn’s maximum distance from the Sun is 1.5 billion km (938 million miles).
11. Saturn’s minimum distance from Earth is 1.2 billion km (746 million miles).
12. Saturn has fourteen subdivisions of its rings, the widest is at 25,500 km, the B ring.
13. Saturn’s rings are made primarily of “water ice” mixed with dust and other chemicals.
14. Saturn has a small rocky core covered with liquid gas.
15. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Saturn would be 108 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 1.08).
16. The temperature on Saturn by the clouds is at -274° F.
17. Titan is Saturn’s only moon that has an atmosphere, it is also bigger than Mercury.
18. Saturn is the second largest planet in our solar system and is another gas giant.
19. Saturn’s rings are made of water, ice, rocks, dust and other chemicals.
20. Pioneer 11 did the first flyby of the planet in 1979. Since then, Voyager 1 was sent closer to Saturn and it took much higher quality photographs.
21. Saturn has a very strong magnetic field which traps energy particles resulting in high levels of radiation.
22. The day of the week, Saturday, is named after Saturn.
Uranus click to collapse contents
1. Uranus is named after the Greek god of the sky. Uranus was the husband of Gaia, the goddess of the Earth.
2. It was discovered in December 13, 1781 by William Herschel, a German-born British astronomer.
3. The orbital speed of Uranus is 6.6 km/sec (14,763 mi/hr).
4. A year on Uranus is equal to 84.01 Earth Years (orbit around the sun).
5. Uranus is the third largest planet in the Solar System.
6. Uranus spins lying on its side (like a barrel), this is perhaps due to a large collision early in its formation.
7. Uranus was the first planet discovered by telescope.
8. Uranus is the coldest of the planets even though Neptune is located further from the Sun.
9. Like Venus, Uranus spins from east to west, which is opposite from the spin of Earth.
10. A day on Uranus is equal to a little more than 17 hours on Earth.
11. Uranus maximum distance from the Sun is 3 billion km (1.88 billion miles).
12. Uranus minimum distance from the Earth is 2.6 billion km (1.6 billion miles).
13. The diameter of Uranus is 51,488 km (32,000 miles).
14. The 27 moons of Uranus are named after characters created by William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope.
15. The planet is the second least dense after Saturn.
16. Uranus has 13 unique rings. They are named using Greek symbols and other numerical values: 1986U2R/ζ, 6, 5, 4, α, β, η, γ, δ, λ, ε, ν, and μ.
17. If you weigh 100 lbs on earth, your weight on Uranus would be 89 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 0.89).
18. Since Uranus takes 84 Earth years to go around the sun, this means that each of its poles is in daylight for 42 years and in darkness for the next 42.
19. Uranium, the chemical element, is named after the planet Uranus by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, a German chemist, in 1789.
20. Due to the fashion in which it spins, portions of Uranus can have nights that last over 40 years.
Neptune click to collapse contents
1. Neptune is the fourth largest planet in the Solar System.
2. Neptune is a gaseous planet, composed of hydrogen, helium, methane, with traces of ammonia and water.
3. Neptune suffers the most violent weather in our Solar System.
4. Neptune is a large, water planet with a blue hydrogen-methane atmosphere and faint rings.
5. In Roman mythology, Neptune is the god of the sea.
6. Neptune has strong winds which is more than any other planet in the Solar System. Winds on Neptune can get up to 2,000 km/hour (1,200 miles/hour). “The Scooter” is a cloud that moves around Neptune about every 16 hours.
7. The blue color of the planet is due to the absorption of red light by methane in the atmosphere.
8. The orbital speed of Neptune is 5.4 km/second.
9. The diameter of Neptune is 49,493 km.
10. One Neptune day is equal to 16 hours in Earth time.
11. One Neptune year is equal to 164.83 Earth Years.
12. Neptune’s maximum distance from the Sun – 4.5 billion km (2.8 billion miles).
13. Neptune’s minimum distance from Earth – 4.3 billion km (2.7 billion miles).
14. Neptune has 13 moons, the largest of which is named Triton. The other moons are: Naiad, Thalassa, Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Proteus, Nereid, Halimede, Sao, Laomedeia, Neso, and Psamathe.
15. Neptune has five main rings, they are named after the people who had been doing work on the planet; the rings are: Halle, Le Verrier, Lassell, Arago, and Adams.
16. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Neptune would be 113 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 1.13).
17. Neptune is the farthest planet from the Sun.
18. Neptune was the very first planet to be located using mathematics rather than observation.
19. The planet is never capable of being seen by the naked eye.
20. Neptune is covered in thin wispy white clouds which stretch out around
21. Neptune has 19 moons. planet is the second least dense after Saturn.et to it.
22. Neptune is notorious for being the stormy planet. Sometimes winds can reach up to 1,240 miles per hour.
23. Neptune emits its own heat at a rate of 2.7 times more than the energy that it absorbs from without.
24. The planet is 30 times farther from the Sun that our planet is.
Pluto click to collapse contents
1. In 2006 Pluto was demoted to the status of dwarf planet.
2. Pluto is the smallest dwarf planet in the Solar System, smaller than Earth’s Moon, and half the width of Jupiter’s moon, Ganymede.
3. Pluto’s journey around the Sun takes 248 Earth years. This means that, since its discovery in 1930, it still has over 160 years to go until it has made a complete orbit around the Sun.
4. The atmosphere of Pluto consists of nitrogen with some carbon monoxide and methane.
5. Pluto orbits the Sun on a different plane than the 8 planets, going over them and below them.
6. Pluto consists of rock with a very thick coating of ice.
7. A day on Pluto is equivalent to Earth’s 6 days and 9 hours, meaning that it has the second slowest rotation in the Solar System (after Venus, which takes 243 days to turn on its axis).
8. Pluto’s orbit is elliptical, meaning that it can come closer to the Sun than Neptune, but then go almost two billion kilometers further away from Neptune’s orbit.
9. Pluto is too faint to be seen with the naked eye. When viewed through a telescope, it looks like a star.
10. Pluto is cold: -233° C (-390° F), just 40° C (72° F) above absolute zero. At this temperature, all elements would be frozen except for neon, hydrogen, and helium.
11. Pluto maximum distance from the Sun – 7.38 billion km (4.6 billion miles).
12. Pluto’s minimum distance from Earth – 4.28 billion km (2.7 billion miles).
13. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Pluto would be 7 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by .067).
14. When gazing at the Sun from Pluto it would appear as a tiny bright start because the two are so far away from each other.
15. According to some astronomers, Pluto used to be one of Neptune’s moons, but it somehow broke out of its orbit.
16. Since being declassified as a planet, Pluto’s technical name is now 134340.
Time click to collapse contents
1. We use time to order events in the past, present and future. We also use it to make comparisons and measure the speed at which things move.
2. If you wanted to measure time you could use a watch, clock, hourglass or even a sundial.
3. A sundial is a tool that uses the position of the Sun to measure time, typically involving a shadow cast across a marked surface.
4. The use of pendulums to accurately measure time was discovered by Galileo Galilei around 400 years ago. A pendulum is a free swinging weight hanging from a pivot.
5. There are 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour and 24 hours in a day.
6. Normal years have 365 days but a Leap year has 366. The Earth takes a little longer than 365 days to go around the Sun so we add an extra day in February every four years (with a few exceptions) to keep calendars and seasons aligned.
7. 10 years is known as a decade, 100 years is known as a century and 1000 years is known as a millennium.
8. Milliseconds, microseconds and nanoseconds are examples of very small units of time.
9. Scientists believe the moon was used as a form of calendar as far back as 6000 years ago. Calendars have been changing ever since and are very accurate in modern times.
10. Accurate clocks that measure hours, minutes and seconds have improved with the invention of sundials, water clocks, mechanical clocks, pendulums and hourglasses through to the digital displays and atomic clocks of today.
11. Many places use daylight saving time (typically by putting clocks forward an hour) for longer daylight in the evenings.
12. Different parts of the world are located in different time zones. This means that while you are having breakfast in the morning, someone in another part of the world is having dinner.
13. Theories related to time have been put forward by famous scientists such as Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. You may have even heard of the term ‘spacetime’, a model in physics that joins space and time together.
14. In terms of philosophy, time is difficult to define. Scientists and philosophers have disagreed on our understanding of time for many years. Some argue it is a ‘real’ part of the Universe while others argue it is just the way humans think, comparing events and putting them in sequence. It’s a little confusing but fun to think about, what do you think
15. Some more questions to get your brain buzzing: Does time have a direction
Sound click to collapse contents
1. Sound comes from vibrations. These vibrations create sound waves which move through mediums such as air and water before reaching our ears.
2. Our ears vibrate in a similar way to the original source of the vibration, allowing us to hear many different sounds.
3. Dogs can hear sound at a higher frequency than humans, allowing them to hear noises that we can’t.
4. Sound is used by many animals to detect danger, warning them of possible attacks before they happen.
5. Sound can’t travel through a vacuum (an area empty of matter).
6. The speed of sound is around 767 miles per hour (1,230 kilometres per hour).
7. The loud noise you create by cracking a whip occurs because the tip is moving so fast it breaks the speed of sound!
8. When travelling through water, sound moves around four times faster than when it travels through air.
9. The scientific study of sound waves is known as acoustics.
10. Although music can be hard to define, it is often described as a pleasing or meaningful arrangement of sounds.
11. The sound of thunder is produced by rapidly heated air surrounding lightning which expands faster than the speed of sound.
Light click to collapse contents
1. In physics, light refers to electromagnetic radiation. The light we normally talk about in everyday life refers to the visible spectrum (the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that the human eye can see).
2. Other animals can see parts of the spectrum that humans can’t. For example, a large number of insects can see ultraviolet (UV) light.
3. UV light can be used to show things the human eye can’t see, coming in handy for forensic scientists.
4. The wavelength of infrared light is too long to be visible to the human eye.
5. Scientists study the properties and behaviors of light in a branch of physics known as optics.
6. Isaac Newton observed that a thin beam of sunlight hitting a glass prism on an angle creates a band of visible colors that includes red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet (ROYGBIV). This occurred because different colors travel through glass (and other mediums) at different speeds, causing them to refract at different angles and separate from each other.
7. Light travels very, very fast. The speed of light in a vacuum (an area empty of matter) is around 186,000 miles per second (300,000 kilometres per second).
8. Light travels slower through different mediums such as glass, water and air. These mediums are given a refractive index to describe by how much they slow the movement of light. Glass has a refractive index of 1.5, meaning that lights travels through it at around 124,000 miles per second (200,000 kilometres per second). The refractive index of water is 1.3 while the refractive index of air is 1.0003, meaning that air only slightly slows down light.
9. Light takes 1.255 seconds to get from the Earth to the Moon.
10. Sunlight can reach a depth of around 80 metres (262 feet) in the ocean.
11. One of the many things Italian scientist Galileo Galilei worked on was telescopes, producing telescopes with around 30x magnification in some of his later work. These telescopes helped him discover the four largest moons orbiting Jupiter (later named the Galilean satellites).
12. Photosynthesis is a process that involves plants using energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into food.
Energy click to collapse contents
1. The word energy comes from the Greek word energeia.
2. Most types of energy are either a form of kinetic energy or potential energy.
3. Common examples include heat energy, elastic potential energy, chemical energy, sound energy, nuclear energy, geothermal energy and gravitational potential energy.
4. Kinetic energy refers to the energy an object has because of its movement. A car in motion has kinetic energy, as does a basketball when you pass or shoot it.
5. Energy can be transformed from one form to another. In lightning, electric potential energy transforms into light, heat and sound energy.
6. The law of conservation of energy states that energy can only be transformed, it can’t be created or destroyed.
7. You might have heard of Albert Einstein’s famous formula E = mc² (energy equals mass multiplied by the speed of light squared).
8. Food contains chemical energy which is used by living organisms such as animals to grow and reproduce. Food energy is usually measured in calories or joules.
9. Wind farms contain large numbers of wind turbines which are used to transform wind energy into a useful energy such as electricity. The use of wind power to generate electricity doubled between the years 2005 and 2008. More wind energy facts.
10. The USA’s Mojave Desert is home to the world’s largest solar power plant. More solar power facts.
11. The Three Gorges Dam in China is the world’s largest hydroelectric power station. More hydropower facts.
12. Nuclear power produces around 13% of the world’s electricity. More nuclear power facts.
13. Plants use energy from sunlight during an important process called photosynthesis.
14. A person standing on a diving board above a swimming pool has gravitational potential energy.
15. During chemical reactions, chemical energy is often transformed into light or heat.
16. Stretched rubber bands and compressed springs are examples of elastic potential energy.
Gravity click to collapse contents
1. Objects with mass are attracted to each other, this is known as gravity.
2. Gravity keeps Earth and the other planets in our solar system in orbit around the Sun. It also keeps the Moon in orbit around Earth.
3. Tides are caused by the rotation of the Earth and the gravitational effects of the Moon and Sun.
4. Because Mars has a lower gravity than Earth, a person weighing 200 pounds on Earth would only weigh 76 pounds on Mars.
5. It is thought that Isaac Newton’s theories on gravity were inspired by seeing an apple fall from a tree.
6. While Newton’s older law of universal gravitation is accurate in most scenarios, modern physics uses Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity to describe gravity.
7. Acceleration of objects to due to the gravity on Earth is around 9.8 m/s2. If you ignore air resistance (drag) then the speed of an object falling to Earth increases by around 9.8 metres per second every second.
8. The force of gravity 100 kilometres (62 miles) above Earth is just 3% less than at the Earth’s surface.
9. The human body can handle increased g-forces as seen in activities such as dragster races, airplane acrobatics and space training. The highest known acceleration voluntarily experienced by a human is 46.2 g by g-force pioneer John Stapp.
10. While formula one racing drivers may feel around 5 g’s under heavy braking, they can experience over 100 g’s if a crash causes them to decelerate extremely quickly over a very short distance.
11. Some roller coasters have been known to include g-forces of around 4 to 6 g.
1. Mass and inertia are the same thing. (Mass actually measures inertia – in kilogramsÂ… Much as monetary resources measures financial wealth – in dollars.)
2. Weight (force of gravity) decreases as you move away from the earth by distance squared. (It decreases, but only approaches zero, never reaching it, even far beyond the solar system.)
3. Weight (in newtons) is mass x acceleration (w = mg). Mass is not Weight! Mass is a scalar and measured in kilograms, weight is a force and a vector and measured in Newtons.
4. Velocity can only be constant when the net force (and acceleration) is zero. (The velocity can be zero and not constant – for example when a ball, thrown vertically, is at the top of its trajectory.)
5. Velocity, displacement [s], momentum, force (weight), torque, and acceleration are vectors.
6. Speed, distance [d], time, length, mass, temperature, charge, power and energy (joules) are scalar quantities.
7. The slope of the distance-time graph is velocity.
8. The slope of the velocity-time graph is acceleration.
9. The area under a velocity-time graph is distance.
10. Magnitude is a term used to state how large a vector quantity is.
11. At zero (0) degrees two vectors have a resultant equal to their sum. At 180 degrees two vectors have a resultant equal to their difference. From the minimum value (at 180) to the maximum value (at zero) is the total range of all the possible resultants of any two vectors.
12. An unbalanced force must produce an acceleration and the object cannot be in equilibrium.
13. If an object is not accelerating, it is in equilibrium and no unbalanced forces are acting.
14. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the resultant vector.
15. Momentum is conserved in all collision systems. Energy is conserved (in the KE of the objects) only if a collision is perfectly elastic.
16. Mechanical energy is the sum of the potential and kinetic energy.
17. UNITS: a = [m/sec2]; F = [kgÂ•m/sec2] = Newton; work = PE = KE = [kgÂ•m2/sec2] = Joule; Power = [kgÂ•m2/sec3] = [Joules/sec] = Watt
18. 1ev is a very small energy unit equal to 1.6 x 10-19 joules – used for small objects such as electrons. This is on the Reference Chart.
19. Gravitational potential energy increases as height increases.
20. Kinetic energy changes only if mass or velocity changes.
21. Mechanical energy (PE + KE) does not change for a free falling mass or a swinging pendulum. (when ignoring air friction)
22. A coulomb is charge, an amp is current [coulomb/sec] and a volt is potential difference [joule/coulomb].
23. Short, fat, cold wires make the best conductors.
24. Electrons and protons have equal amounts of charge (1.6 x 10-19 coulombs each – known as one elementary charge). This is on the Reference Chart.
25. Adding a resistor in series increases the total resistance of a circuit.
26. Adding a resistor in parallel decreases the total resistance of a circuit.
27. All resistors in series have equal current (I).
28. All resistors in parallel have equal voltage (V).
29. If two similar charged spheres touch each other add the charges and divide by two to find the final charge on each sphere after they are separated.
30. Insulators contain no electrons free to move.
31. Ionized gases conduct electric current using positive ions, negative ions and electrons.
32. Electric fields all point in the direction of the force on a positive test charge.
33. Electric fields between two parallel plates are uniform in strength except at the edges.
34. Millikan determined the charge on a single electron using his famous oil-drop experiment.
35. All charge changes result from the movement of electrons not protons. (an object becomes positive by losing electrons)
36. The direction of a magnetic field is defined by the direction a compass needle points. (The direction an isolated north pole would feel.)
37. Magnetic fields point from the north to the south outside the magnet and south to north inside the magnet.
38. Magnetic flux is measured in webers.
39. Left hands are for negative charges and reverse answer for positive charges.
40. The first hand rule deals with the B-field around a current bearing wire, the third hand rule looks at the force on charges moving in a B-field, and the second hand rule is redundant.
41. Solenoids are stronger with more current or more wire turns or adding a soft iron core.
42. Sound waves are longitudinal and mechanical.
43. Light slows down, bends toward the normal and has a shorter wavelength when it enters a medium with a higher index of refraction (n).
44. All angles in wave theory problems are measured to the normal.
45. Blue light has more energy, a shorter wavelength and a higher frequency than red light (remember- ROYGBIV).
46. The electromagnetic spectrum (radio, infrared, visible. Ultraviolet x-ray and gamma) are listed lowest energy to highest. They are all electromagnetic and travel at the speed of light (c = f ! l ).
47. The speed (c) of all types of electromagnetic waves is 3.0 x 108 m/sec in a vacuum.
48. As the frequency of an electromagnetic wave increases its energy increases (E = h ! f) and its wavelength decreases and its velocity remains constant as long as it doesn’t enter a medium with a different refractive index (i.e. optical density).
49. A prism produces a rainbow from white light by dispersion. (red bends the least because it slows the least).
50. Transverse wave particles vibrate back and forth perpendicular to the direction of the wave’s velocity. Longitudinal wave particles vibrate back and forth parallel to the direction of the wave’s velocity.
51. Light wave are transverse (they, and all (and only)transverse waves can be polarized).
52. The amplitude of a non-electromagnetic wave (i.e. water, string and sound waves) determines its energy. The frequency determines the pitch of a sound wave. Their wavelength is a function of its frequency and speed (v = f ! l ). Their speed depends on the medium they are traveling in.
53. Constructive interference occurs when two waves are zero (0) degrees out of phase or a whole number of wavelengths (360 degrees.) out of phase.
54. At the critical angle a wave will be refracted to 90 degrees. At angles larger than the critical angle, light is reflected not refracted.
55. Doppler effect: when a wave source moves toward you, you will perceive waves with a shorter wavelength and higher frequency than the waves emitted by the source. When a wave source moves away from you, you will perceive waves with a longer wavelength and lower frequency.
56. Double slit diffraction works because of diffraction and interference.
57. Single slit diffraction produces a much wider central maximum than double slit.
58. Diffuse reflection occurs from dull surfaces while regular (spectacular) reflection occurs from smooth (mirror-like) surfaces.
59. Only waves show diffraction, interference and the polarization.
60. The period of a wave is the inverse of its frequency (T = 1/f ). So waves with higher frequencies have shorter periods.
61. Monochromatic light has one frequency.
62. Coherent light waves are all in phase.
63. In order to explain the photoelectric effect, Einstein proposed particle behavior for light (and all electromagnetic waves) with E = h f and KEmax = hf Â– Wo.
64. A photon is a particle of light (wave packet).
65. To preserve the symmetry of the universe, DeBroglie proposed wave behavior for particles ( l = h/mv). Therefore large fast moving objects (baseballs, rockets) have very short wavelengths (that are unobservable) but very small objects, particularly when moving slowly have wavelengths that can be detected in the behavior of the objects.
66. Whenever charged particles are accelerated, electromagnetic waves are produced.
67. The lowest energy state of a atom is called the ground state.
68. Increasing light frequency increases the kinetic energy of the emitted photo-electrons in the photo-electric effect (KEmax = hf Â– Wo).
69. As the threshold frequency increases for a photo-cell (photo emissive material) the work function also increases (Wo = h fo)
70. Increasing light intensity increases the number of emitted photo-electrons in the photo-electric effect but not their KE (i.e. more intensity>more photons>more electrons emitted). This is the particle nature shown by light.
71. Key to understanding trajectories is to separate the motion into two independent components in different dimensions – normally horizontal and vertical. Usually the velocity in the horizontal dimension is constant (not accelerated) and the motion in the vertical dimension is changing (usually with acceleration of g).
72. Centripetal force and centripetal acceleration vectors are toward the center of the circle- while the velocity vector is tangent to the circle. (Centripetal means towards the center!)
73. An object in orbit is not weightless – it is its weight that keeps it moving in a circle around the astronomical mass it is orbiting. In other words, its weight is the centripetal force keeping it moving in a circle.
74. An object in orbit is in free fall – it is falling freely in response to its own weight. Any object inside a freely falling object will appear to be weightless.
75. Rutherford discovered the positive nucleus using his famous gold-foil experiment.
76. Fusion is the process in which hydrogen is combined to make helium.
77. Fission requires that a neutron causes uranium to be split into middle size atoms and produce extra neutrons, which, in turn, can go on and cause more fissions.
78. Radioactive half-lives are not effected by any changes in temperature or pressure (or anything else for that matter).
79. One AMU of mass is equal to 931 meV of energy. (E = mc2). This is on the Reference Charts!
80. Nuclear forces are very strong and very short-ranged.
81. There are two basic types of elementary particles: Hadrons & Leptons (see Chart).
82. There are two types of Hadrons: Baryons and Mesons (see Chart).
83. The two types of Hadrons are different because they are made up of different numbers of quarks. Baryons are made up of 3 quarks, and Mesons of a quark and antiquark.
84. Notice that to make long-lived Hadron particles quarks must combine in such a way as to give the charge of particle formed a multiple of the elementary charge.
85. For every particle in the “Standard Model” there is an antiparticle. The major difference of an antipartcle is that its charge is opposite in sign. All antiparticles will anhililate as soon as they come in contact with matter and will release a great amount of energy.
85. Notice that to make long-lived Hadron particles quarks must combine in such a way as to give the charge of particle formed a multiple of the elementary charge.
86. Notice that the retention of the Energy Level Diagrams on the new charts implies that there will be questions on it. The units (eV) can be converted to Joules with the coversion given on the first Chart of the Regents Reference tables. And can be used with the formula (given under Modern Physics formulas) to calculate the energy absorbed or released when the electron changes levels.
87. Because of differences in gravity, a 200 pound person would only weigh 76 pounds on Mars. More gravity facts.
88. Electric eels can stun both predators and prey with electric shocks of around 500 volts. More electricity facts.
89. Energy from food is usually measured in joules or calories. More energy facts.
90. Light from the Earth takes just 1.255 seconds to reach the Moon. More light facts.
91. Sound travels at a speed of around 767 miles per hour (1,230 kilometres per hour). More sound facts.
92. When traveling at 80 kilometres per hour (50 miles per hour), cars use around half of their fuel just to overcome wind resistance.
93. Water can work against gravity, moving up narrow tubes in a process called capillary action.
94. A magnifying glass uses the properties of a convex shaped lens to magnify an image, making it easier to see.
95. A scientist who studies physics is known as a physicist.
96. Uranus is the only planet in our solar system that rolls on its side like a barrel, while Venus is the only planet that spins in the opposite direction to Earth.
97. The fastest land animal in the world is the Cheetah, clocking a max speed of around 113 km per hour (70 mph).
98. 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics was won by Albert Einstein for his work in the field of theoretical physics.