Numerical Analysis 9th Burden Faires

Preface ix
1 Mathematical Preliminaries and Error Analysis 1
1.1 Review of Calculus 2
1.2 Round-off Errors and Computer Arithmetic 17
1.3 Algorithms and Convergence 32
1.4 Numerical Software 41
2 Solutions of Equations in One Variable 47
2.1 The Bisection Method 48
2.2 Fixed-Point Iteration 56
2.3 Newton’s Method and Its Extensions 67
2.4 Error Analysis for Iterative Methods 79
2.5 Accelerating Convergence 86
2.6 Zeros of Polynomials and Müller’s Method 91
2.7 Survey of Methods and Software 101
3 Interpolation and Polynomial Approximation 105
3.1 Interpolation and the Lagrange Polynomial 106
3.2 Data Approximation and Neville’s Method 117
3.3 Divided Differences 124
3.4 Hermite Interpolation 136
3.5 Cubic Spline Interpolation 144
3.6 Parametric Curves 164
3.7 Survey of Methods and Software 171
4 Numerical Differentiation and Integration 173
4.1 Numerical Differentiation 174
4.2 Richardson’s Extrapolation 185
4.3 Elements of Numerical Integration 193
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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vi Contents
4.4 Composite Numerical Integration 203
4.5 Romberg Integration 213
4.6 Adaptive Quadrature Methods 220
4.7 Gaussian Quadrature 228
4.8 Multiple Integrals 235
4.9 Improper Integrals 250
4.10 Survey of Methods and Software 256
5 Initial-Value Problems for Ordinary Differential
Equations 259
5.1 The Elementary Theory of Initial-Value Problems 260
5.2 Euler’s Method 266
5.3 Higher-Order Taylor Methods 276
5.4 Runge-Kutta Methods 282
5.5 Error Control and the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg Method 293
5.6 Multistep Methods 302
5.7 Variable Step-Size Multistep Methods 315
5.8 Extrapolation Methods 321
5.9 Higher-Order Equations and Systems of Differential Equations 328
5.10 Stability 339
5.11 Stiff Differential Equations 348
5.12 Survey of Methods and Software 355
6 Direct Methods for Solving Linear Systems 357
6.1 Linear Systems of Equations 358
6.2 Pivoting Strategies 372
6.3 Linear Algebra and Matrix Inversion 381
6.4 The Determinant of a Matrix 396
6.5 Matrix Factorization 400
6.6 Special Types of Matrices 411
6.7 Survey of Methods and Software 428
7 IterativeTechniques in Matrix Algebra 431
7.1 Norms of Vectors and Matrices 432
7.2 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 443
7.3 The Jacobi and Gauss-Siedel Iterative Techniques 450
7.4 Relaxation Techniques for Solving Linear Systems 462
7.5 Error Bounds and Iterative Refinement 469
7.6 The Conjugate Gradient Method 479
7.7 Survey of Methods and Software 495
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Contents vii
8 ApproximationTheory 497
8.1 Discrete Least Squares Approximation 498
8.2 Orthogonal Polynomials and Least Squares Approximation 510
8.3 Chebyshev Polynomials and Economization of Power Series 518
8.4 Rational Function Approximation 528
8.5 Trigonometric Polynomial Approximation 538
8.6 Fast Fourier Transforms 547
8.7 Survey of Methods and Software 558
9 Approximating Eigenvalues 561
9.1 Linear Algebra and Eigenvalues 562
9.2 Orthogonal Matrices and Similarity Transformations 570
9.3 The Power Method 576
9.4 Householder’s Method 593
9.5 The QR Algorithm 601
9.6 Singular Value Decomposition 614
9.7 Survey of Methods and Software 626
10 Numerical Solutions of Nonlinear Systems of
Equations 629
10.1 Fixed Points for Functions of Several Variables 630
10.2 Newton’s Method 638
10.3 Quasi-Newton Methods 647
10.4 Steepest Descent Techniques 654
10.5 Homotopy and Continuation Methods 660
10.6 Survey of Methods and Software 668
11 Boundary-Value Problems for Ordinary Differential
Equations 671
11.1 The Linear Shooting Method 672
11.2 The Shooting Method for Nonlinear Problems 678
11.3 Finite-Difference Methods for Linear Problems 684
11.4 Finite-Difference Methods for Nonlinear Problems 691
11.5 The Rayleigh-Ritz Method 696
11.6 Survey of Methods and Software 711
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
viii Contents
12 Numerical Solutions to Partial Differential
Equations 713
12.1 Elliptic Partial Differential Equations 716
12.2 Parabolic Partial Differential Equations 725
12.3 Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations 739
12.4 An Introduction to the Finite-Element Method 746
12.5 Survey of Methods and Software 760
Bibliography 763
Answers to Selected Exercises 773
Index 863About


This well-respected text gives an introduction to the theory and application of modern numerical approximation techniques for students taking a one- or two-semester course in numerical analysis. With an accessible treatment that only requires a calculus prerequisite, Burden and Faires explain how, why, and when approximation techniques can be expected to work, and why, in some situations, they fail. A wealth of examples and exercises develop students’ intuition, and demonstrate the subject’s practical applications to important everyday problems in math, computing, engineering, and physical science disciplines. The first book of its kind built from the ground up to serve a diverse undergraduate audience, three decades later Burden and Faires remains the definitive introduction to a vital and practical subject.


Features and Benefits

  • Virtually every concept in the text is illustrated by examples, and reinforced by more than 2500 class-tested exercises ranging from elementary applications of methods and algorithms to generalizations and extensions of the theory.
  • The exercise sets include many applied problems from diverse areas of engineering, as well as from the physical, computer, biological, and social sciences.
  • The algorithms in the text are designed to work with a wide variety of software packages and programming languages, allowing maximum flexibility for users to harness computing power to perform approximations. The book’s companion website offers Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB worksheets, as well as C, FORTRAN, Java, and Pascal programs.
  • The design of the text gives instructors flexibility in choosing topics they wish to cover, selecting the level of theoretical rigor desired, and deciding which applications are most appropriate or interesting for their classes.

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About the Text
This book was written for a sequence of courses on the theory and application of numerical
approximation techniques. It is designed primarily for junior-level mathematics, science,
and engineering majors who have completed at least the standard college calculus sequence.
Familiarity with the fundamentals of linear algebra and differential equations is useful, but
there is sufficient introductory material on these topics so that courses in these subjects are
not needed as prerequisites.
Previous editions of Numerical Analysis have been used in a wide variety of situations.
In some cases, the mathematical analysis underlying the development of approximation
techniques was given more emphasis than the methods; in others, the emphasis was reversed. The book has been used as a core reference for beginning graduate level courses
in engineering and computer science programs and in first-year courses in introductory
analysis offered at international universities. We have adapted the book to fit these diverse
users without compromising our original purpose:
To introduce modern approximation techniques; to explain how, why, and when they
can be expected to work; and to provide a foundation for further study of numerical
analysis and scientific computing.
The book contains sufficient material for at least a full year of study, but we expect many
people to use it for only a single-term course. In such a single-term course, students learn
to identify the types of problems that require numerical techniques for their solution and
see examples of the error propagation that can occur when numerical methods are applied.
They accurately approximate the solution of problems that cannot be solved exactly and
learn typical techniques for estimating error bounds for the approximations. The remainder
of the text then serves as a reference for methods not considered in the course. Either the
full-year or single-course treatment is consistent with the philosophy of the text.
Virtually every concept in the text is illustrated by example, and this edition contains
more than 2600 class-tested exercises ranging from elementary applications of methods
and algorithms to generalizations and extensions of the theory. In addition, the exercise
sets include numerous applied problems from diverse areas of engineering as well as from
the physical, computer, biological, economic, and social sciences. The chosen applications
clearly and concisely demonstrate how numerical techniques can be, and often must be,
applied in real-life situations.
A number of software packages, known as Computer Algebra Systems (CAS), have
been developed to produce symbolic mathematical computations. Maple®, Mathematica®,
and MATLAB® are predominant among these in the academic environment, and versions
of these software packages are available for most common computer systems. In addition,
Sage, a free open source system, is now available. This system was developed primarily
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
x Preface
by William Stein at the University of Washington, and was first released in February 2005.
Information about Sage can be found at the site .
Although there are differences among the packages, both in performance and price, all can
perform standard algebra and calculus operations.
The results in most of our examples and exercises have been generated using problems
for which exact solutions are known, because this permits the performance of the approximation method to be more easily monitored. For many numerical techniques the error
analysis requires bounding a higher ordinary or partial derivative, which can be a tedious
task and one that is not particularly instructive once the techniques of calculus have been
mastered. Having a symbolic computation package available can be very useful in the study
of approximation techniques, because exact values for derivatives can easily be obtained. A
little insight often permits a symbolic computation to aid in the bounding process as well.
We have chosen Maple as our standard package because of its wide academic distribution and because it now has a NumericalAnalysis package that contains programs that
parallel the methods and algorithms in our text. However, other CAS can be substituted with
only minor modifications. Examples and exercises have been added whenever we felt that
a CAS would be of significant benefit, and we have discussed the approximation methods
that CAS employ when they are unable to solve a problem exactly.
Algorithms and Programs
In our first edition we introduced a feature that at the time was innovative and somewhat
controversial. Instead of presenting our approximation techniques in a specific programming
language (FORTRAN was dominant at the time), we gave algorithms in a pseudo code that
would lead to a well-structured program in a variety of languages. The programs are coded
and available online in most common programming languages and CAS worksheet formats.
All of these are on the web site for the book:∼faires/Numerical-Analysis/ .
For each algorithm there is a program written in FORTRAN, Pascal, C, and Java. In addition,
we have coded the programs using Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB. This should ensure
that a set of programs is available for most common computing systems.
Every program is illustrated with a sample problem that is closely correlated to the text.
This permits the program to be run initially in the language of your choice to see the form
of the input and output. The programs can then be modified for other problems by making
minor changes. The form of the input and output are, as nearly as possible, the same in
each of the programming systems. This permits an instructor using the programs to discuss
them generically, without regard to the particular programming system an individual student
chooses to use.
The programs are designed to run on a minimally configured computer and given in
ASCII format for flexibility of use. This permits them to be altered using any editor or word
processor that creates standard ASCII files (commonly called “Text Only” files). Extensive
README files are included with the program files so that the peculiarities of the various
programming systems can be individually addressed. The README files are presented
both in ASCII format and as PDF files. As new software is developed, the programs will
be updated and placed on the web site for the book.
For most of the programming systems the appropriate software is needed, such as a
compiler for Pascal, FORTRAN, and C, or one of the computer algebra systems (Maple,
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Preface xi
Mathematica, and MATLAB). The Java implementations are an exception. You need the
system to run the programs, but Java can be freely downloaded from various sites. The best
way to obtain Java is to use a search engine to search on the name, choose a download site,
and follow the instructions for that site.
New for This Edition
The first edition of this book was published more than 30 years ago, in the decade after major
advances in numerical techniques were made to reflect the new widespread availability of
computer equipment. In our revisions of the book we have added new techniques in order
to keep our treatment current. To continue this trend, we have made a number of significant
changes to the ninth edition.
• Our treatment of Numerical Linear Algebra has been extensively expanded, and constitutes one of major changes in this edition. In particular, a section on Singular Value
Decomposition has been added at the end of Chapter 9. This required a complete rewrite
of the early part of Chapter 9 and considerable expansion of Chapter 6 to include necessary material concerning symmetric and orthogonal matrices. Chapter 9 is approximately
40% longer than in the eighth edition, and contains a significant number of new examples
and exercises. Although students would certainly benefit from a course in Linear Algebra
before studying this material, sufficient background material is included in the book, and
every result whose proof is not given is referenced to at least one commonly available
• All the Examples in the book have been rewritten to better emphasize the problem to
be solved before the specific solution is presented. Additional steps have been added to
many of the examples to explicitly show the computations required for the first steps of
iteration processes. This gives the reader a way to test and debug programs they have
written for problems similar to the examples.
• A new item designated as an Illustration has been added. This is used when discussing a
specific application of a method not suitable for the problem statement-solution format
of the Examples.
• The Maple code we include now follows, whenever possible, the material included in
their NumericalAnalysis package. The statements given in the text are precisely what is
needed for the Maple worksheet applications, and the output is given in the same font
and color format that Maple produces.
• A number of sections have been expanded, and some divided, to make it easier for instructors to assign problems immediately after the material is presented. This is particularly
true in Chapters 3, 6, 7, and 9.
• Numerous new historical notes have been added, primarily in the margins where they
can be considered independent of the text material. Much of the current material used in
Numerical Analysis was developed in middle of the 20th century, and students should be
aware that mathematical discoveries are ongoing.
• The bibliographic material has been updated to reflect new editions of books that we
reference. New sources have been added that were not previously available.
As always with our revisions, every sentence was examined to determine if it was phrased
in a manner that best relates what is described.
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
xii Preface
A Student Solutions Manual and Study Guide (ISBN-10: 0-538-73351-9; ISBN-13: 978-0-
538-73351-9) is available for purchase with this edition, and contains worked-out solutions
to many of the problems. The solved exercises cover all of the techniques discussed in the
text, and include step-by-step instructions for working through the algorithms. The first two
chapters of this Guide are available for preview on the web site for the book.
Complete solutions to all exercises in the text are available to instructors in secure,
customizable online format through the Cengage Solution Builder service. Adopting instructors can sign up for access at Computation results
in these solutions were regenerated for this edition using the programs on the web site to
ensure compatibility among the various programming systems.
A set of classroom lecture slides, prepared by Professor John Carroll of Dublin City
University, are available on the book’s instructor companion web site at http://www.cengage.
com/math/burden. These slides, created using the Beamer package of LaTeX, are in PDF
format. They present examples, hints, and step-by-step animations of important techniques
in Numerical Analysis.


No decision taken on Mohammad Amir’s return to Pakistan team: PCB

No decision taken on Mohammad Amir’s return to Pakistan team: PCB

The Pakistan cricket authorities are having second thoughts about rushing Mohammad Amir back into the national team.

The Chairman of the Pakistan Cricket Board, Shaharyar Khan told the media in Lahore that until now no final decision has been taken on when Amir would be considered for national selection again.

“We have to first monitor his attitude and behavior and see other things as well. They are some players who are opposed to his comeback to the Pakistan team and we have to sit down first and talk to them and also Amir,” he said.

Khan’s statement was different from the one he gave last week when he said that the PCB had decided to give Amir a chance to win back his place in the Pakistan team.

Pakistan’s head coach Waqar Younis had also said that since Amir had served his five year ban for spot-fixing he deserved a second chance.

But a well-informed source told PTI that the PCB had got some feedback from the Bangladesh Premier League and they were not very happy to hear some things about Amir’s attitude and conduct there.

Amir has impressed with his bowling in the BPL and after having dismissed Pakistan’s Test and T20 captains Misbah-ul-Haq and Shahid Afridi in the tournament on Tuesday he also accounted for the scalp of Muhammad Hafeez.

Amir clearly didn’t try to hide his delight at having Hafeez caught behind in his celebrations which included a kick in the air to apparently send a message to his former Pakistan teammate.

Hafeez is the only Pakistani player to have gone on record recently and said he wouldn’t like to share a dressing room with any of the three players Amir, Salman Butt and Muhammad Asif who were banned for spot fixing in 2010.

Aamir has been brilliant for Chittagong Vikings in the BPL.

The Chittagong Vikings match with Dhaka Dynamites on Tuesday was much anticipated as earlier Hafeez had also said he turned down an offer to play alongside Amir’s team in BPL, saying that he could not “share a dressing room with a player who tarnished the image of Pakistan”.

Better late than never for Rafatullah

Good things come to those who wait and after nearly two decades of domestic cricket, Rafatullah Mohmand is in line for his Pakistan debut


For 19 years Rafatullah Mohmand has grafted away on the Pakistan domestic circuit. Recently, the 39-year-old has pondered retirement but now he is on the brink of fulfilling the dream of an international debut having been included in the T20 squad for the series against England and staking a claim for the World T20.

Since 1996 Rafatullah has not missed a single season. He started his career for his native team Peshawar and later joined Habib Bank Limited and is presently representing WAPDA. His name was floated around for national selection in 2006 when he was enjoying a consistent run in the Quaid-e-Azam trophy with Peshawar, where he finished second-highest run-scorer in the Gold League, but he only reached as far as the Pakistan A side for a Top End one-day tournament in Australia.

“I have been playing cricket for a long time and like many I also had a dream to represent the country at highest level,” Rafatullah said after his national selection. “But we all know how big the competition is in Pakistan and you only few get a chances but I am happy that I finally got a chance. Now, I know I have less time so my target in whatever the time left is I want to do my best and help Pakistan to win matches.

“Whatever I have learnt and whatever I know I will transform it at the top level. It been a very long time I have been playing domestic and I have been use to of it. Obviously every cricket player has a dream to play and after such prolonged domestic career came at certain stage of my career where I was thinking about quitting. But now I have a chance and whatever the age is I want to perform and if I am not able to give perform well I will move aside.”

In the 2003-04 and 2004-05 seasons, Rafatullah averaged over fifty in List A cricket but he could not quite do enough to force his way to the top of the list. In 2009 he was involved in a first-class world-record second-wicket stand of 580 with Aamer Sajjid where he finished unbeaten on a career-best 302.

At a time when he was struggling to earn a national call-up despite his consistent runs, he tried emigrating to Afghanistan in a bid to play the ICC World Cup Qualifier in 2009 but his name was later withdrawn as he would not have spent the required four years in the country.

In the 2012-13 season he trebled his number of one-day hundreds as he scored 425 runs in six matches with three centuries, but it was this year’s Haier Mobile T20 Cup which finally brought him his reward after scoring 230 runs at a strike-rate of 157.53 to help Peshawar to the title. He was also considered one of the fittest players available and before selection, Rafatullah was called up in the National Cricket Academy for a fitness test and ESPNcricinfo understands he has passed with distinction. If he makes his debut, he will be the oldest T20 international debutant for a Full Member.

“We always talk about youngsters but they are raw and with World T20 ahead we want an experienced campaigner,” Haroon Rasheed, the chief selector, told ESPNcricinfo. “Rafat is the one we think can give us what we need in the line-up. He is among the fittest guys in our domestic circuit and his form, we have seen him batting in the recent T20.

“He knows that he doesn’t have much time but we wanted to reward him for his persistence in domestic cricket. He has been an outstanding batsman in T20 for his team Peshawar. Having experience of playing first-class cricket for many years, with his form, sound technique and fitness, and also given his fielding credentials, he has been afforded an opportunity as he was considered to have potential to feature in an international T20 competition as an opener.”

Pakistan have never been afraid to throw a player in young. Now they have shown they don’t mind blooding them somewhat older, too.

Umar Farooq is ESPNcricinfo’s Pakistan correspondent.

پاکستان کے پاس اب انڈین پریمیئر لیگ کی طرح پاکستان سپر لیگ ہے۔ یہ صرف وقت کی بات تھی کیونکہ ہندوستان کے بعد اگر کسی دوسرے ملک کے کرکٹ شائقین اس کھیل سے جنون کی حد تک عقیدت رکھتے ہیں، تو وہ پاکستان ہے۔

حال ہی میں بنگلہ دیش، سری لنکا اور یہاں تک کہ ویسٹ انڈیز نے بھی تھوڑی بہت کامیابی کے ساتھ آئی پی ایل کے اپنے اپنے ورژن لانچ کیے۔ مگر پاکستان میں چیزیں صفر سے آگے نہیں بڑھ سکیں جس کی کئی وجوہات میں سے بنیادی وجہ بین الاقوامی ٹیموں کا سکیورٹی خدشات کی بناء پر پاکستان میں میچ کھیلنے سے انکار تھا۔

مگر ایسا لگتا ہے کہ اب چیزیں درست سمت میں جا رہی ہیں۔ کئی سالوں کی غیر یقینی صورتحال کے بعد پاکستان کرکٹ بورڈ نے اب ستمبر میں پاکستان سپر لیگ کے لیے ٹھوس منصوبوں کا اعلان کیا ہے۔ افتتاحی ایڈیشن فروری 2016 میں شروع ہوگا۔

یہ دوسری ٹی 20 لیگز کی طرح فرنچائز ماڈل پر ہی مبنی ہوگا جس میں پانچ فرنچائز — کراچی، لاہور، پشاور، کوئٹہ اور اسلام آباد — چار صوبائی اور ایک وفاقی دار الحکومت کی نمائندگی کریں گی جبکہ انعامی رقم 10 لاکھ ڈالر ہوگی۔

اور پی ایس ایل میں بڑے ناموں کی کوئی کمی نہیں ہوگی۔ کرس گیل، کیرن پولارڈ، کیون پیٹرسن اور کمار سنگاکارا ان 100 سے زائد کھلاڑیوں میں شامل ہیں جنہوں نے ٹورنامنٹ میں شرکت کی حامی بھری ہے۔

زمینی حقائق

لیکن صرف ایک پریشانی جگہ کی ہے۔ بھلے ہی اس ایونٹ کا نام پاکستان سپر لیگ ہے، مگر یہ ایونٹ پاکستان میں نہیں ہو رہا۔ شروعات میں تو میچز کے لیے قطر کا نام تجویز کیا گیا تھا، مگر پھر پاکستان کرکٹ بورڈ نے فیصلہ کیا کہ پی ایس ایل کا پہلا ایڈیشن متحدہ عرب امارات میں ہوگا۔

پی سی بی کے پاس اس سلسلے میں زیادہ آپشن نہیں تھے۔ زیادہ تر بین الاقوامی ٹیمیں اب بھی پاکستان کو غیر محفوظ سمجھتی ہیں۔ پاکستانی قومی کرکٹ ٹیم اپنے ہوم میچز امارات میں کھیلتی ہے۔ مئی میں پاکستان نے زمبابوے کا دورہ کیا مگر دوسری ٹیموں کے پاکستان آنے میں اب بھی بہت وقت باقی ہے۔

لیکن پھر بھی پی سی بی نے یہ ایونٹ اپنی سرزمین پر کروانے کے لیے سرتوڑ کوششیں کیں۔ انہوں نے اعلیٰ پائے کے بین الاقوامی کھلاڑیوں کو مینیج کر رہی ایجنسیوں کے ذریعے انہیں پاکستان میں کھیلنے کے لیے دعوت دی مگر منفی جواب ملا۔

کرس گیل اور کیون پیٹرسن جیسے زبردست ٹی 20 کھلاڑیوں کی شرکت کے بغیر پاکستان سپر لیگ ایک ناکام ایونٹ ثابت ہوتا اس لیے ایونٹ کو پاکستان سے باہر رکھنا کاروباری اعتبار سے ایک درست فیصلہ تھا۔

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ایک انٹرویو میں پی سی بی ایگزیکٹو کمیٹی کے سربراہ نجم سیٹھی پرامید تھے کہ پاکستان سپر لیگ کو بیرونِ ملک منعقد کروانا پاکستان کے لیے مددگار ثابت ہوگا۔ سیٹھی نے وضاحت کی کہ جگہ سے زیادہ اہم بات یہ ہے کہ پاکستان برانڈ میں کمرشل دلچسپی زیادہ ہوگی جس سے کھلاڑیوں کو زیادہ معاوضہ ادا کیا جا سکے گا۔

پاکستانیوں کا اپنے کھلاڑیوں کو اپنے سامنے کھیلتا نہ دیکھ سکنے کا افسوس اس امید سے کچھ کم ہوجاتا ہے کہ شاید اس سے پاکستان کرکٹ بالآخر بہتری کی جانب جائے۔

فیصل زیدی نامی ڈان کے ایک فری لانس صحافی اور کرکٹ شائق نے کہا کہ “پاکستان میں ایک عرصے سے بین الاقوامی کرکٹ منعقد نہیں ہوا ہے، اس لیے لوگ پاکستان سپر لیگ کا انعقاد پاکستان میں ہر حال میں چاہتے ہیں۔ لیکن اگر حقیقت پسندی سے دیکھیں تو ایونٹ پاکستان میں منعقد ہونے پر یہاں کوئی بھی نہیں آتا۔ پر اگر یہ امارات میں کھیلا جاتا ہے اور کامیاب ہوتا ہے، تو اس بات کی قوی امید ہے کہ ایک یا دو سیزن کے بعد یہ پاکستان منتقل کر دیا جائے گا۔”

مختصر فارمیٹ

پی ایس ایل کو آئی پی ایل سے دو مزید چیزیں ممتاز کرتی ہیں۔

پہلی چیز ٹیموں کی تعداد ہے۔ آئی پی ایل کے برعکس پی ایس ایل میں صرف پانچ ٹیمیں ہوں گی، جس کا مطلب ہے کہ مکمل ٹورنامنٹ صرف 24 میچز پر مشتمل ہوگا۔ یہ آئی پی ایل سے چھوٹا ہوگا جہاں آٹھ ٹیمیں تقریباً دو ماہ تک کھیلتی ہیں۔

دوسری چیز نیلامی کا نظام ہے۔ پی سی بی کیریبیئن پریمیئر لیگ کی طرح ڈرافٹ فارمیٹ اپنائے گا جس میں ہر کھلاڑی کو ایک مخصوص کیٹیگری میں ڈالا جاتا ہے اور پھر بیلٹ کے ذریعے اسے منتخب کیا جاتا ہے۔ سیٹھی کے مطابق اس سے پاکستانی کھلاڑیوں کو بین الاقوامی کھلاڑیوں جتنا معاوضہ ملنا ممکن ہوگا۔

پاکستانی کرکٹ کی غیر یقینی صورتحال کو دیکھتے ہوئے پی ایس ایل کے پہلے ایڈیشن کا شدت سے انتظار کیا جا رہا ہے۔ سب سے پہلی ترجیح یہ ہوگی کہ افتتاحی ایڈیشن بغیر کسی بڑے مسئلے کے نمٹ جائے۔

مگر اس سے بھی زیادہ اہم یہ کہ اگر پی ایس ایل پاکستان میں بین الاقوامی کرکٹ کی بحالی کا سبب بن جاتی ہے، تو یہ ایک بہت بڑی کامیابی ہوگی نہ صرف پاکستان کرکٹ بورڈ کے لیے،بلکہ کرکٹ کے لیے بھی۔

انگلش میں پڑھیں۔

Views from India: Why it’s important for the Pakistan Super League to succeed



Pakistan now has its own version of the Indian Premier League. To be fair, it was only a matter of time. After India, if there is one country that can match the cricketing devotion of its fervent fans, it is Pakistan.

In recent years, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and even the West Indies launched their own versions of the IPL, with varying degrees of success. But Pakistan didn’t quite manage to get things off the ground. A big factor was the fact that international teams were not willing to tour Pakistan because of security concerns.

But things seem to be looking up now. After years of uncertainty, the Pakistan Cricket Board finally unveiled concrete plans for the Pakistan Super League in September. The inaugural edition is set to begin in February 2016.

It will follow a similar format to the other franchise-based Twenty20 leagues in the world, with five franchises representing the five provincial capitals – Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta and Islamabad – with prize money of $1 million.

And the PSL isn’t likely to be short of big names. Chris Gayle, Kieron Pollard, Kevin Pietersen and Kumar Sangakkara are among the more than 100 players who have signed up for the tournament.

Ground realities

The only caveat is the location. Despite being called the Pakistan Super League, the event will not be held in Pakistan. Though Qatar was the original venue, the Pakistan Cricket Board later declared that the first edition of the PSL would take place in the United Arab Emirates.

The PCB really did not have much choice in the matter. Most international cricket teams still consider Pakistan out of bounds. The Pakistani national cricket team continues to play their home games in the UAE. Zimbabwe tested the waters in May by touring Pakistan. However, there is still a long way to go before other teams will be willing to set foot in Pakistan.

Even so, the PCB tried its utmost best to host the event on home soil. They initially contacted agencies handling some of the top international players to consider playing in Pakistan, but the response was negative.

Without the participation of Twenty20 heavyweights like Chris Gayle and Kevin Pietersen, the Pakistan Super League would have ultimately turned out to be a damp squib. Therefore, the move to a venue outside Pakistan makes reasonable business sense.

Looking at the positives

In an interview, the PCB Executive Committee chief Najam Sethi was confident that hosting the PSL abroad would ultimately help Pakistan. Sethi explained that more than the venue, there would be a greater commercial interest in the Pakistan brand, which would result in better player remuneration.

In Pakistan, the dismay at not being able to watch its stars live is tempered with the hope that it may lead to a resurgence of Pakistani cricket.

“Look, it is true that people here badly want the PSL to be in Pakistan as we have been in cricketing isolation,” said Faisal Zaidi, a freelance journalist for Dawn and an avid cricket fan. “But let us be realistic, if it was held in Pakistan, no one would have come here. If it is played in the UAE and if it becomes successful, there is a chance that it will be moved to Pakistan after one or two seasons.”

Shorter format

Two other features differentiate the PSL from the IPL.

The first factor is the number of teams – unlike the IPL, the PSL will only have five teams, which means that the entire tournament will comprise of only 24 matches. That is much shorter than the IPL, where eight teams currently play each other over a period of almost two months.

The second factor is the auction system. The PCB will follow the draft format followed by the Caribbean Premier League, where each player is put in a certain category and chosen by ballot. According to Sethi, this will ensure that Pakistani players will make the same money as international players.

Considering the mercurial nature of Pakistani cricket, the first edition of the PSL is being keenly anticipated. The first priority would be to ensure that the inaugural edition goes off without any major hitch.

But more importantly, if the PSL can become the first step in the resumption of international cricket in Pakistan, it will be a huge success story for a beleaguered Pakistan Cricket Board and the game as a whole

دنیا کی 100 اعلیٰ ترین یونیورسٹیوں میں ایک بھی اسلامی ملک کی یونیورسٹی شامل نہیں، رپورٹ

دنیا کی 100 اعلیٰ ترین یونیورسٹیوں میں ایک بھی اسلامی ملک کی یونیورسٹی شامل نہیں، رپورٹ

Pakistan overachievers? Who’d have thought it?

October 30, 2015

Pakistan overachievers? Who’d have thought it?

Over the last five years they have won over half their away series and have not been beaten at home. It is a stark contrast to what went before

A strong home record is not to be sniffed at Gareth Copley / © Getty Images

A last-gasp victory and after all the turbulence of ten days of Test cricket the result in the end has been somewhat predictable. For the sixth season in a row Pakistan will end up unbeaten in the desert. It has become such a state of affairs that even the local fan base has become used to it – almost taking it for granted. It bears repeating: there’s nothing wrong with being a bully at home. Perhaps being dominant at home is worth being satisfied about, rather than being something worth denigrating as somehow unworthy, somehow Indian even.

One of the more fascinating things to come out of this series – against England, and so bound to be high-profile – is how the results affect so much and yet so little: you can change your form, your reputation, your performances, but the narrative? That takes more than mere competence.

In the weeks before the series started, most headlines inevitably revolved around Mohammad Amir (him of zero first-class matches in five years) not being back in the team immediately after his ban was lifted. The rest focused on Saeed Ajmal and Abdur Rehman – neither of whom had played a Test match in the year prior to the team selection for this series – being excluded from the squad. It almost seemed as if Pakistani cricket might as well have been in stasis during their time between the last home series against England and this one, rather than having gone through a downfall and a revival, as was actually the case. Pakistan went from a spin-led juggernaut to a team struggling without identity, which eventually rebounded thanks to domestic veterans and batsmen playing beyond their own expectations.

Of course, that is a better alternative to, say, the Australian perspective. For instance, the conversations at the start of the Australian season last year seemed to indicate there had been a memory wipe regarding Australia’s tour to the Emirates. While it has become a cliché to lampoon what happens in the Channel Nine commentary box, it was still surprising that a discussion there on cricket’s fastest centuries failed to mention Misbah-ul-Haq’s effort barely a month prior, against their own lot. At least for England, what happens against them still counts as actual cricket, even if it takes place far from their shores.

Is it really the team’s fault that their board has neither the clout nor the vision to give them the sort of opportunities their record deserves? Are they to blame for not touring any of the big three in this period, or is it the fault of their board, or of the condescending triopoly that rules cricket right now?

Pakistan exist as the pariah of the cricket world, and even when they enter the mainstream, they seem to do so temporarily. To be fair, it’s not as if Pakistan and the builders of their narrative play a particularly positive role in changing this state of affairs.

That doesn’t mean their achievements should be played down, particularly at home. Pakistan have gone through a quiet, televised revolution. The return of Younis Khan, the appointment of Misbah, and their relocation to the UAE came at perhaps the lowest point in modern Pakistan’s Test history.

In the previous 47 months they played nine Test series and won none – the longest winless run in their history. No batsman but Younis Khan had averaged over 45, no bowler had averaged under 25. The glimmers of hope – a new-ball pair who could rule the world, a captain who could bring stability – had been removed, Eeyore might have been deemed too optimistic in Pakistan at the time.

Five years later they hold the longest unbeaten home run in Test cricket. That too has to be taken into context. Their fortunes till then had been rather different to those of their Asian brethren. At the start of this run by Pakistan, Sri Lanka had lost two of their previous 19 home series; India had lost two of their previous 34 series – one each to Australia and South Africa. Pakistan, meanwhile, had lost nearly as many Test series (nine) as they had won (eight) at home over the previous 15 years, losing to six different Test nations. If you had told Pakistani fans that five years from then they would all be complaining about being dominant at home, they’d have called you a madman – and then probably accepted the notion, since satisfaction has never been part of their dictionary; they only feel at home in elation or misery.

Yet Pakistan’s away record is different from what popular perception might say it is too. They have won half (five) of their away series in this period, or as many as they had won in the 11 years prior to the start of this run.

This Pakistan team has made Test cricket interesting again for its fans © AFP

Is it really the team’s fault that their board has neither the clout nor the vision to give them the sort of opportunities their record deserves? Are they to blame for not touring any of the big three in this period, or is it the fault of their board, or of the condescending triopoly that rules cricket right now? Is it their fault that every time the Test team starts to get into their groove, they have to face months on end without a single Test match?

Perhaps their greatest achievement, despite what the crowd attendance in the Emirates might argue, has been to do with interest in the longest format. Test cricket was slowly becoming an irrelevance in Pakistan – perhaps best illustrated by them going a calendar year, 2008, without playing a single Test. Five years of success later, the TV network broadcasting the Pakistan-England series can proudly call the ratings from the Test series record-breaking. It’s amazing what a winning team can do.

But all good things must come to an end. In the most likely scenario of there being no Tests in the India series, which is in any case unlikely to take place, Pakistan will go at least seven months without a Test. Misbah might be gone by then; Younis’ Indian summer will almost certainly be over. The players who are around will either be more in tune with the shorter formats, or (in the case of the Test specialists) out of tune with the international game. The Sharjah Test might be our last look at an under-heralded team.

So appreciate them while you can, because a decade from now, a bunch of hipster writers certainly will. After all, nothing pleases their narrative as much as a Pakistani team from days gone by.

Hassan Cheema is a sports journalist, writer and commentator, and co-hosts the online cricket show Pace is Pace Yaar. @mediagag

The second coming of Team Misbah

November 3, 2014

The second coming of Team Misbah

The current side calls forth memories of the golden era of 2010-12
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Good old boys: Misbah-ul-Haq and Azhar Ali made their debuts in their mid-20s, late by traditional Pakistan standards, and have come to embody an ethic that goes against the idea of the mercurial Pakistan side © Getty Images

There was a lot that Pakistan lost in the summer of 2010. They lost a series against England; they lost two captains, their two best pacers and some of their integrity. It could have been easy to lose hope as well, particularly when barely a month later Zulqarnain Haider abandoned the team mid-tour. They had failed to win any of their previous eight Test series since beating West Indies in 2006, and their fortunes looked bleak. To add to that, they had won only one of their previous ten away series, and considering they could no longer play at home it would have been easy to fold there and then. But instead, with Waqar Younis and Misbah-ul Haq in charge of the Test team (and Shahid Afridi with the ODI squad) Pakistan went on a run that would have been hugely impressive with the full-strength Test squad, or even the team of the 1990s, and quite simply remarkable with the talent available.

Over the course of about a year and a half following that summer, Pakistan played seven Test series, winning five and drawing two. It was the longest unbeaten streak of series they had had since the late ’80s, and the first time they had won four in a row since 1994. And the men who made it possible made you doubt everything you had learnt about Pakistani cricket.

The Pakistani player in the post-Imran era was brash, aggressive and disturbingly young. Nearly every one of the greats of the mighty ’90s side made his debut as a teenager. It was a trend that continued even when it seemed it had stopped paying dividends. The lost generation of the 2000s could blame their careers on how early they were thrown into the bear pit. Several of them had been outlined as potential Pakistan players when they were still boys – in the 1996 Lombard Under-15 Challenge Cup, Taufeeq Umar, Hasan Raza, Bazid Khan, Faisal Iqbal, Kamran Akmal, Shoaib Malik and Yasir Arafat all played for the Pakistan team that finished runners-up. Every one of them, with the exception of Bazid, would eventually make their international debuts at 20 or younger. Each of them could be accused of failing to fulfill his potential. Add the likes of Danish Kaneria (who debuted at the age of 19) and Pakistan’s lost generation seemed to be posing a question to the very core of the beliefs of Pakistani cricket. Perhaps the decades-old strategy of throwing children into the pool and judging them by whether they swam or sank wasn’t ideal in the modern, increasingly professional game.

With that generation failing and the assembly lines drying up Pakistan were forced to look where they had rarely looked before. The rise of Team Misbah was based around the very players that Pakistan seemed to regard as obsolete: journeymen who had learnt their craft after years in the domestic game. Pakistan’s two highest scorers during those seven series dating from late 2010 were Azhar Ali and Misbah. The former had debuted at 25, normal by international standards but practically ancient for Pakistan. Misbah had debuted at 26 but did not play his sixth Test till he was 33. Both were, and bizarrely still are, underrated within Pakistan. Neither can be considered an expressive shot-maker – the only reason they got to where they did was the weight of their runs rather than the keen eye of a particularly prophetic selector. Misbah is the embodiment of this team – unspectacular, conservative, ugly but successful. A man who elicits admiration and respect but rarely the blind love that would force a 12-year-old to go out into the street and play cricket.

Much the same was true of the bowling. The two leading wicket-takers during those 18 months were Saeed Ajmal and Abdur Rehman, who made their debuts at 30 and 27 respectively.

What that team had was a collective unity, a desire to show the world that their late debuts, and the questions about their age, was unjust. Even now Misbah bristles at talk of his age, arguing that a player’s fitness should override his date of birth – a view that seems to be shared by the older players in the team.

After the historic win against England, though, Pakistan began to unravel, unable to win any of their following six series. The fact that they played only one series in the 12 months following that England series – and continued to be patchy in the ODI game – meant that the confidence, unity and momentum that the 18 months of constant long-form cricket from late 2010 on had established were lost.

Azhar’s position in the side was questioned after a poor series in South Africa. He had been Pakistan’s highest scorer in the series win against England, and the only player to score multiple centuries against Sri Lanka in mid-2012. One bad series was enough to make the doubters question his presence. Furthermore the complacency that has defined Pakistan cricket for decades seemed to have returned. The fire in the belly from years of being treated poorly (in their eyes) had dimmed.

With Sarfraz Ahmed trying to make up for lost time and a stunted career, and Younis Khan feeling unfairly treated again, Pakistan seem to have a team eerily similar in composition and mindset to the one that brought them success early in the decade

Now Pakistan have a chance to revive that team. Before the second Test match here in Abu Dhabi, Zulfiqar Babar bristled at questions over his age in a manner that was reminiscent of Misbah. He too seems to be making up for lost time, and having missed five years of domestic cricket (due to politicking in the Multan division) there is a passion in him that is evocative of the early series of Team Misbah, and of the way Rehman and Ajmal bowled in them.

Each member of the bowling quartet is inexperienced at this level, but none is younger than 26. With Sarfraz Ahmed trying to make up for lost time and a stunted career, and Younis Khan feeling unfairly treated again (the most dangerous Younis is the angry Younis), Pakistan seem to have lucked out with a team eerily similar in composition and mindset to the one that brought them success early in the decade. And with Misbah and the returning Waqar united in the dressing room again, satisfied with making conservatism Pakistan’s go-to approach, they seem to be turning the clock back to 2010.

But of course this is a poorer version of that team. It would be extremely surprising for anyone in this team to achieve what Ajmal did in the last four years, for instance. That team also had Umar Gul responding to the responsibility of leading the pace attack following the loss of Amir and Asif – and producing the best year of his career in 2011 (the only year of his career when he has taken over 20 wickets at under 30). Thus while the keeper, and possibly one of the opening batsmen, might be an improvement, it is questionable if this team really can achieve the heights of the first iteration of Team Misbah.

After the Test win against Australia in Dubai, Misbah said it was second only to the series win against England in 2012. A 2-0 result in this series could leapfrog that one. What’s open to question is whether it is a flash in the pan or truly a reincarnation. Either way, the team will be respected but never loved.

Hassan Cheema is a sports journalist, writer and commentator, and co-hosts the online cricket show Pace is Pace Yaar. @mediagag

Yasir trains with childhood hero Warne.

Yasir Shah and Shane Warne chatted about legspin in Sharjah

Yasir Shah and Shane Warne chatted about legspin in Sharjah

Shane Warne has paid a visit to Pakistan’s training session in Sharjah to have a one-on-one session with legspinner Yasir Shah. After their one-and-a-half hour session, Yasir said it had fulfilled a childhood wish to bowl with the legendary Australian.

This was the first organised meeting between the two, with Warne in the UAE to promote a golf tournament. Warne was also keen to get some practice before his All Stars T20 matches in the USA. Pakistan’s team management were reluctant to let Warne take part in a team training session but allowed him and Yasir to spend some time on one of the pitches at the Sharjah Cricket Stadium.

Yasir’s excitement was clear and he said he was happy to meet his hero. “I had a wish from my childhood that I could bowl with him and play with him,” Yasir said. “I was excited to have him here for me. I am very happy to hear the kind of feedback he gave me, and he spoke highly about me.

“He didn’t teach me everything but gave me very useful tips about certain things, and didn’t find any problem in my bowling action. He emphasised that Test cricket is played with patience and I don’t need to rush and waste energy, just keep myself calm.”

When asked if he could get confused with having too many coaches around him, he said: “I don’t think I can get lost focus as I am working a lot with Mushy bhai. His [Warne] tips are very useful, which I am going to try in the long run, but during the series I won’t make any changes.”

Yasir was perhaps a little star struck as Pakistan arrived for their training session at the Sharjah Cricket Stadium, with his team-mates calling “berha khush ha aj Yasir” [look how excited Yasir is today] at the news of Warne coming to nets.

Warne had been due to arrive at 10am but eventually turned up just after 11am. The team security manager was overhead saying “a gya” [he came] as Yasir hurried towards the dressing room, where Pakistan’s team manager, Intikhab Alam, introduced the two legspinners.

“Look I have always been a fan of Shah since the first time I saw him a while ago,” Warne said afterward. “He’s probably the best legspinner in the world. The way he bowls and the way the ball comes out of his hand its fantastic. I think he is more of a natural talent than me. If he gets his pace right and doesn’t try to bowl quick and keeps patience… He has got a beautiful leg break.”

“He is a wonderful bowler now, although he hasn’t played a lot Test – but he has played a lot of first-class cricket. He is a world-class spinner. Test match cricket is what all we love and spinners can excel in this format.”

Yasir climbed to No. 2 in the world rankings for Test bowlers after taking eight wickets against England in Dubai. Overall, he has picked up 69 wickets in 11 Test matches at an average of 24.55.

Warne was the player Yasir idolised and grew up watching him. The pair met in Adelaide during the World Cup earlier this year but on that occasion only spent a few minutes together, and Warne said he would be happy to share more of his expertise with Yasir in the UAE, given the opportunity.

“Probably I am a bit biased for legspinners, but I love seeing spin bowling and I am very passionate about it,” Warne said. “I have always liked to help as many spin bowlers as I possibly can, whether it’s Kaneria, who I have helped little bit, or Graeme Swann, Kumble, Saqlain, Mushy, Dan Vettori – all of the spinners have got a club, so we always try to help each other. We are bit different, think differently than most people. It was a fantastic opportunity to work with Yasir; we worked on a couple of things.

“I am not big on working on technical things because you have your natural gift and what is natural to you, so there’s no point working on technical things, especially in the middle of a Test series. Off-season’s when you have time work on that. He is a wonderful bowler, beautiful, so we just worked on who he has having troubles with in the England side, some tactics and plans, how he can be little bit better.”

Yasir was mainly assisted by Mushtaq Ahmed, Pakistan’s spin bowling coach, to cover the language barrier. It was Warne who did most of the talking, with Shah was rarely speaking, though he questioned about getting spin and drift.

“He wants a bit more drift and bounce, bowling round the wicket and over the wicket,” Warne said. “I hope by the end of the series he will be bowling beautifully and a huge smile on his face. We couldn’t communicate that well but when he was smiling afterwards I knew what he got was pretty good. It was nice hour or so and that was good fun.”

Umar Farooq is ESPNcricinfo’s Pakistan correspondent. @kalson





In a press conference at the Valdai Discussion Club 2014 in answer to a question to a United States Journalist, President Vladimir Putin addressed his concerns regarding the US and their role in the middle east and ISIS. Although the film footage of the press conference has been banned, Live leaks released a copy of the press conference to the public. The words of Putin are transcribed below word for word from the video originally provided by  Inessa S.

The press and mainstream news has been avoiding this information. It is a scathing , diplomatic account of Russia’s position on the politic behavior and actions in the middle east regarding Syria and ISIS, as well as a reprimand to our press who have failed to do their job.

Putin’s complete oration to the US Journalists:

First point. I never said that I view the US as a threat to our…

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