English vocabulary

(((((Vocabulary))))))

Criteria:معیار
Forbidden:حرام
Lick:چاٹنا
Inheritance:میراث
Dave:ڈیو
Guilt:جرم
Seduce:بہکانا
Racked:شکار
Bustle:ہلچل
Pale:پیلا
Envisaged:پرختیارپت
Envisage:کلپنا
Dude:یار
Animate:ذی
Animated:متحرک
Riddle:میں پہیلی
Integer:عددی
Slump:بحران
Candid:صاف گوئی
Cosmic:برہمانڈیی
Tiny:چھوٹے
Complement:ازدیاد
Vagina:اندام نہانی
Vars:تازہ
Infantry:انفنٹری
Pitch:پچ
Arthritis:گٹھیا
Convenient:آسان
Charismas:کرسمس
Devoted:وقف
Bared:ننگی
Beard:داڑھی
Holistic:کلی
Resolutions:قراردادوں
Organic:نامیاتی
Hovered:معلق
Overhead:ہیڈ
Indulge:قتل
Deny:جھٹلاؤ
Apologias:کسیلی
Apologise:مستثنی تقاضہ
Rude:اشج
Reversal:الٹ
Affirmation:اثبات
Themself:اپنے آپ کو
Yourself:اپنے آپ
Consequent:نتیجے
Fell:گر گئی
Monotony:ایکرستا
Variation:تغیرات
Similarity:مماثلت
Dissimilarity:فرق
Journey:سفر
Particular:خاص
Particulars:تفصیلات
Halts:روک دی
Halt:رک
Object:اعتراض
Classification:درجہ بندی
Engaging:دلفریب
Trolly:ٹرالی
Admissible:قابل قبول
Engage:مشغول
Engages:مصروف
Remark:کیفیت
Steamer:سٹیمر
Mate:ساتھی
Fere:تقریبا
Often:اکثر
Infrequently:اکثر
Rarely:شاذ و نادر ہی
Fare:کرایہ
Segments:طبقات
Fragment:فریگمنٹ
Fairies:پریوں
Intimacy:انترنگتا
Sag:جھک
Fuss:اپددر
Devotion:عقیدت
Passion:جذبہ
Bestowed:عطا
Elaborate:وضاحت
Quest:کویسٹ
Inquiry:انکوائری
Ruse:چال
Belated:تاخیر
Belate:تاخیر
Invasive:ناگوار
Noninvasive:غیر ناگوار
Retaliate:جوابی کارروائی
Accept:قبول کریں
Faint:بیہوش
Miscreant:شرپسند
Confiscate:ضبط
Gender:صنفی

*Word of Encouragement:*

حوصلہ افزائی کے الفاظ:

  1. You can do it!
    آپ اسے کر سکتے ہیں!
  2. Go for it!
    اسے کر ڈالیں!

  3. You kept going, even when it was hard
    کرتے رہیں، اگرچہ کہ کرنا مشکل ہو

  4. You look so pleased to have done that.
    آپ اسے کر کے بہت خوش نظر آتے ہیں۔

  5. Don’t worry about it!
    اس کے بارے میں پریشان نہ ہوں!

  6. You’ll do better next time.
    آپ اگلی بار بہتر کریں گے۔

  7. It could have gone worse
    یہ بدتر ہو سکتا تھا۔

  8. Be positive
    مثب رہیں۔

  9. Every cloud has a silver lining
    ہر بادل میں ایک چاندنی لکیر ہوتی ہے۔

  10. Don’t give up.
    ہمت نہ ہاریں۔

  11. Practice makes a man perfect!
    مشق سے آدمی کامل بنتا ہے!

  12. You are strong and will get over it
    آپ مضبوط ہیں اور آپ اس کو کر ڈالیں گے!

  13. Do the impossible.
    ناممکن چیز کریں۔

  14. The sky is the limit
    آسمان حد ہے۔

  15. Give it a try!
    اسے آزمائیں!

  16. Stay strong!
    مضبوط رہیں!

  17. Great! You did it on your own.
    عظیم! آپ نے اسے خود سے کیا۔
    CSS ENGLISH MANIA

*ENGLISH VOCABULARY*

Crucial
Critical
مشکلات سے بھرپور

Compassion
Sympathy
ہمدردی

Merely
Simply , Just
صرف، سوائے

Bond
Contract
تعلق

Aggression
Pugnacity
فساد

Eloquently
Clearly
واضح طور پر

Era
Period, Age
زمانہ، دور

Inadequate
Insufficient
ناکافی

Orator
Speech Maker
مقرر

Gratitude
Feeling of being grateful
شکرگزاری

Venerated
Revered
عزت و احترام کرنا

Discontent
A sense of grievance
بےچین، انتشار

Negation
Denial
انکار، نفی

Jeopardy
Danger
خطرہ

Miserable plight
Bad state
برےحالات

Poised
Placid
مطمئن

Permitted
Allowed
اجازت دی جائے

Accomplished
Finished
مکمل ہو جانا، ختم ہو جانا

Ideal
Conceptual
تصور

Longing
Dreaming
تمننا

Obvious
Clear
واضح

Esteem
Regard, Admiration
احترام، تعظیم

Moment
Instant
Iلمحہ

Disquieting
Discomposing
بےجوڑ
……………….☆☆☆☆☆
‬: Who is the current IG of Islamabad Police?
A. Sultan Azam Temuri
B. Muhammad Khalid Khattak
C. Lt Retired Jan Muhammad✅✅
D. Sikandar Hayat
[17/09 9:18 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Who is the current IG of Balochistan Police?
A. moazzam jah Ansari
B. Mr. Mushtaq Ahmed Sukhera
C. Mohsin Hassan Butt✅✅
D. Mr. Ahsan Mehboob
[17/09 9:18 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Who is the current IG of Azad Kashmir AJK Police?
A. Bashir Memon
B. Zulfiqar Ahmed Cheema
C. Malik Khuda Bakhsh Awan
D. Shoaib Dastgir✅✅
[17/09 9:18 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Who is the current IG of New Railways Police?
A. Dr Syed Kaleem Imam
B. Mujeebur Rehman✅✅
C. Captain (retd) Arif Nawaz Khan
D. Muhammad Khalid Khattak
[17/09 9:18 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Who is the Current Governor of khyber pakhtunkhwa (KPK)?
A. Shaukatullah Khan
B. Shah Farman✅✅
C. Iqbal Zafar Jhagra
D. Sardar Mehtab Abbasi
[17/09 9:18 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Current Governor of Punjab is __________?
A. Chaudhry Sarwar✅✅
B. Salman Taseer
C. Shehbaz Sharif
D. Malik Rafiq Rajwana
[17/09 9:18 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Current Governor Sindh is _______________?
A. Imran Ismail✅✅
B. Dr. Ishratul Ebad
C. Justice(R) Saeed U zaman Saddiqi
D. Muhammad Zubair
[17/09 9:18 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Who is the governor of The State Bank of Pakistan?
A. Mr. Riaz Riazuddin
B. Ashraf Mahmood Wathra
C. Tariq Bajwa✅✅
D. Shahid Hafeez Kardar
[17/09 11:31 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Current Governor of Gilgit-Baltistan is_____________?
A. Mir Ghazanfar Ali Khan✅✅
B. Mr. Muhammad Jaffar
C. Syed Pir Karam Ali Shah
D. Mr. Aftab Haider
[17/09 11:31 am] ‪+92 344 3339997‬: Who is the Current Chief Minister of BALOCHISTAN?
A. Jam Mir Kamal Khan ✅✅
B. Abdul Quddus Bizenjo
C. Sardar Sanaullah Zehri
D. Ghous Bakhsh Barozai
:

I am not a mathematician I find this to be Very interesting and meaningful message 2 share:

If:
A = 1 ; B = 2 ; C = 3 ; D = 4 ;
E = 5 ; F = 6 ; G = 7 ; H = 8 ;
I = 9 ; J = 10 ; K = 11 ; L = 12 ;
M = 13 ; N = 14 ; O = 15 ; P = 16 ;
Q = 17 ; R = 18 ; S = 19 ; T = 20 ;
U = 21 ; V = 22 ; W = 23 ; X =24 ;
Y = 25 ; Z = 26.

Then,

H+A+R+D+W+O+R+K
=8+1+18+4+23+15+18+11
= 98%

K+N+O+W+L+E+D+G+E
=11+14+15+23+12+5+4+7+5
=96%

L+O+V+E
= 12+15+22+5
= 54%

L+U+C+K ;
=12+21+3+11
= 47%

None of them makes 100%.
Then what makes 100%?

Is it Money?
.
.
.
NO!

M+O+N+E+Y
= 13+15+14+5+25
=72%

Leadership?
.
.
.
NO!

L+E+A+D+E+R+S+H+I+P
=12+5+1+4+5+18+19+8+9+16
=97%

Every problem has a solution, only if we perhaps change our

“ATTITUDE”…

A+T+T+I+T+U+D+E ;
1+20+20+9+20+21+4+5
= 100%

It is therefore OUR ATTITUDE towards Life and Work that makes
OUR Life 100% Successful.

*Amazing mathematics

👈 👌👌👌👌💖✨✨✨🌟🌟🌟✨

72شہدائے کربلا

1 حضرت امام حسین
2 حضرت عباس بن علی
3 حضرت علی اکبر بن حسین
4 حضرت علی اصغر بن حسین
5 حضرت عبداللہ بن علی
6 حضرت جعفر بن علی
7 حضرت عثمان بن علی
8 حضرت ابوبکر بن علی
9 حضرت ابوبکر بن حسن بن علی
10 حضرت قاسم بن حسن بن علی
11 حضرت عبداللہ بن حسن
12 حضرت عون بن عبداللہ بن جعفر
13 حضرت محمد بن عبداللہ بن جعفر
14 حضرت عبداللہ بن مسلم بن عقیل
15 حضرت محمد بن مسلم
16 حضرت محمد بن سعید بن عقیل
17 حضرت عبدالرحمن بن عقیل
18 حضرت جعفر بن عقیل
19 حضرت حبیب ابن مظاہر اسدی
20حضرت أنس بن حارث اسدی
21 حضرت مسلم بن عوسجہ اسدی
22 حضرت قیس بن عشر اسدی.
23 حضرت ابو ثمامہ بن عبداللہ
24 حضرت بریر ہمدانی
25 حضرت ہنزلہ بن اسد
26 حضرت عابس شاکری
27 حضرت عبدالرحمن رہبی
28 حضرت سیف بن حارث
29 حضرت عامر بن عبداللہ ہمدانی.
30 حضرت جندا بن حارث
31 حضرت شوذب بن عبداللہ
32 حضرت نافع بن حلال
33 حضرت حجاج بن مسروق مؤذن
34 حضرت عمر بن کرضہ
35 حضرت عبدالرحمن بن عبد رب
36 حضرت جندا بن کعب
37 حضرت عامر بن جندا
38 حضرت نعیم بن عجلان
39 حضرت سعد بن حارث
40 حضرت زہیر بن قین
41 حضرت سلمان بن مضارب
42 حضرت سعید بن عمر
43 حضرت عبداللہ بن بشیر
44 حضرت وھب کلبی
45 حضرت حرب بن عمر-شیخ الاسلام قیس
46 حضرت ظہیر بن عامر
47 حضرت بشیر بن عامر
48 حضرت عبداللہ ارواح غفاری
49 حضرت جون غلام ابوذر غفاری
50 حضرت عبداللہ بن امیر
51 حضرت عبداللہ بن یزید
52 حضرت سلیم بن امیر
53 حضرت قاسم بن حبیب
54 حضرت زید بن سلیم
55 حضرت نعمان بن عمر
56 حضرت یزید بن سبیت
57 حضرت عامر بن مسلم
58 حضرت سیف بن مالک
59 حضرت جابر بن حجاج
60 حضرت مسعود بن حجاج
61 حضرت عبدالرحمن بن مسعود
62 حضرت بیکر بن حئ
63 حضرت عمار بن حسن تائی
64حضرت زرغامہ بن مالک
65 حضرت کینانہ بن عتیق
66 حضرت عقبہ بن سولت
67 حضرت حر بن یزید تمیمی
68 حضرت عقبہ بن سولت
69 حضرت حبلہ بن علی شیبنی
70 حضرت کنب بن عمر.
71 حضرت عبداللہ بن یکتیر
72 حضرت اسلم غلام ای ترکی
رضوان الله تعالى عليهـم اجمعين
[9/22, 7:15 AM] ‪+92 333 9284007‬: #Daily__conversation

Roll in the bed.
کروٹیں بدلنا.

This blanket itches me.
اس کمبل سے مجھے کھجلی ہوتی ہے.

Give a loud hiccup.
زور سے ہچکی لینا.

The bumb did not go off.
بم نہیں پھٹا.

Make mincement of something.
کسی چیز کا قیمہ بنانا.

His / Her name gives me palpitations.
اسکے نام سے میرا دِل دھک دھک کرتا ہے.

Make no apology for something.
کوئی معذرت نہ کرنا.

Use a provocative language against somebody.
کسی کیخلاف اشتعال انگیز زبان استعمال کرنا.

Incure one’s displeasure.
ناراضگی مول لینا.

Spurn the offer.
پیشکش ٹھکرانا.

The water ( 💧 ) dribbles from the tap.
پانی نلکے سے قطرہ قطرہ گرتا ہے.

Divine the truth.
حقیقت کو پا لینا.

The demonstrators melted away.
مظاہرین تِتر بِتر ہوگئے.

Give a press conference.
پریس کانفرنس دینا.

Come in the mail ( ✉ ).
بذریعہ ڈاک آنا/ملنا.

Set up a puppet government.
کٹھ پتلی حکومت قائم کرنا.

They give me a standing ovation.
اُنہوں نے مجھے ٹھر کر داد دی.

The meat has gone bad.
گوشت خراب ہوچکا ہے.

It is altogether out of the question.
اس بات کا تو سوال ہی پیدا نہیں ہوتا.

Treat everybody alike.
ہر ایک سے یکساں سلوک کرو.

I won’t be long.
مجھے آنے میں زیادہ دیر نہیں لگے گی.

Put an advertisement in something.
میں اشتہار ڈالنا.

Acknowledge the defeat.
شکست تسلیم کرنا.

I have an account with the Bank Alfalah.
میرا بینک الفلاح میں اکاؤنٹ ہے.

I had an accidental meeting with Nouman in the market.
میری نعمان سے مارکٹ میں اتفاقیہ ملاقات ہوئی.

The sun ( ☀) has risen above the horizon.
سورج افق سے اُبھر ہوا ہے.

Go two at time.
دو دو کر کے جاؤ.

Miss an opportunity.
موقع ضائع کرنا.

Satisfy one’s ego.
آنا کو تسکین دینا.

Mitigate poverty/anger.
غربت یا غصے کو کم کرنا.

Lay down arms.
ہتھیار ڈالنا.

Ascribe something to somebody.
کوئی چیز کسی سے منسوب کرنا.

Humanise the human.
انسان کو انسان بناؤ.

Reform something.
کسی چیز کی اصلاح کرنا.

Betray somebody’s confidence.
کے اعتماد کو ٹھیس پہنچانا.

Dispel one’s fears ( 😱 ).
کے خدشات کو دور کرنا.

I will not let it happen.
میں ایسا نہیں ہونے ڈوں گا.

Let go my hand( ✋).
میرا ہاتھ چھوڑو.

Listen to the reason.
عقل کی بات سننا.

Compromise with the circumstances.
حالات کیساتھ سمجھوتہ کرنا.

Be envious of somebody.
پر رشک کرنا.

Become victim of circumstances.
حالات کا شکار ہو جانا.

Lose faith in something /somebody.
اعتماد اُٹھ جانا.

Have great concern / Anxiety for somebody.
کی بہت فکر کرنا.

He is a family ( 👪 ) man.
وہ بال بچوں والا ہے.

Ring up the doctor.
ڈاکٹر کو فون کرو.

Revive the memories.
یادیں تازہ کرنا.

Nouman wants everything cut and dried.
نعمان ہر چیز تیار مانگنا چاہتا ہے.

Dogs were let loose on him/her.
اس پر کُتے چھوڑ دیئے گئے.

The things will settle.
حالات ٹھیک ہوجائیں گے.

Be bent on doing something.
کوئی کام کرنے پر تُلا ہونا.

Threaten / intimidate somebody.
کو ڈرانا دھمکانا.

Frustrate somebody’s designs.
کے منصوبے خاک میں ملانا.

Make amends for something.
کی تلافی کرنا.

Raise obstcales in one’s way.
کے راستے میں روکاوٹیں کھڑی کرنا.

He divorced Saira.
اس نے سائیرہ کو طلاق دی.

Be disguised as somebody.
کا بھیس بدلنا.

At length the wrestler gave in.
آخرکار پہلوان نے ہار مان لی.

Lend somebody in trouble.
کو مصیبت میں ڈالنا.

disinherit somebody.
کو جائیداد سے لاوارث کردینا.

Come to the light.
(حقائق کا) کا منظر عام پر آنا.

Misunderstand somebody.
کو غلط سمجھنا.

Doubt somebody’s intention.
کی نیت پر شک کرنا.

Deal with somebody later.
سے بعد میں نمٹنا.

Don’t tax my patience.
میرے صبر کا امتحان مت لو.

Apply the brake.
بریک لگاؤ.

I can not recall his/her name.
مجھے اسکا نام یاد نہیں آرہا.

Prop something against something.
کوئی چیز کسی چیز کے سہارے کھڑا کرنا.

Totter / stagger home.
(زخمی یا شراب نوشی کی حالت میں) لڑکھڑاتے ہوئے گھر جانا.

I’m going to satisfy my hunger.
میں اپنی بھوک مٹانے جارہا ہوں.

Nouman is quenching / slaking his thirst.
نعمان اپنی پیاس بجھا رہا ہے.

Nouman has reclined against the wall.
نعمان دیوار سے ٹیک لگا چکا ہے.

The child is drooling.
بچے کئ رال بہہ رہی ہے.

Stab somebody in the back.
کے پیٹھ میں چھرا گھونپنا.

Don’t mourn over your fate.
اپنی قسمت پر رونا.

Such acstasy I had never known before.
ایسا مزہ مجھے پہلے کبھی نہیں آیا تھا.

My education was interrupted.
میری تعلیم متاثر ہوئی.

He married thrice.
اس نے تین شادیاں کیں.

Watch your steps.
دیکھ کر قدم رکھو.

Take the air.
ہوا خوری کرنا.

I have lost my appetite.
میری بھوک ختم ہوچکی ہے.

The students had created a tumult in the class.
طلباء نے جماعت میں ہنگامہ کھڑا کر دیا تھا.

The people showered Rose ( 🌹) petals on Imran Khan.
لوگوں نے عمران خان پر پھولوں کی پتیاں نچھاور کیں.

No untoward incident took place.
کوئی ناخوشگوار واقعہ پیش نہیں آیا.

He doesn’t even answer to my salutation.
وہ میرے سلام کا جواب تک نہیں دیتا ہے.
Make compensation for something.
کی تلافی کرنا.

Banish this fear from your mind.
یہ خوف ذہن سے نکال دو.

Turn tail.
دم دبا بھاگ جانا.

Don’t molest the girls / women.
لڑکیوں / عورتوں کو مت چھوڑو.

We made a brief halt in the desert.
ہم تھوڑی
[9/22, 7:15 AM] ‪+92 333 9284007‬: #Daily__conversation

دال میں کچھ کالا ہے
Something is fishy 
ناراضگی
Displeasure 
مجھے پھنسانا چاہتی ہو
You want to trap me 
بَھتّہ خور
Extortionist 
لش پش ہے
It’s fantastic! 
Crumble 
ڈھیر ہوجانا
صابَن دانی
Soap dish 
اب نخرے مت کرو
Don’t make pretensions 
[9/22, 7:15 AM] ‪+92 333 9284007‬: ENGLISH VOCABULARY

Crucial
Critical
مشکلات سے بھرپور

Compassion
Sympathy
ہمدردی

Merely
Simply , Just
صرف، سوائے

Bond
Contract
تعلق

Aggression
Pugnacity
فساد

Eloquently
Clearly
واضح طور پر

Era
Period, Age
زمانہ، دور

Inadequate
Insufficient
ناکافی

Orator
Speech Maker
مقرر

Gratitude
Feeling of being grateful
شکرگزاری

Venerated
Revered
عزت و احترام کرنا

Discontent
A sense of grievance
بےچین، انتشار

Negation
Denial
انکار، نفی

Jeopardy
Danger
خطرہ

Miserable plight
Bad state
برےحالات

Poised
Placid
مطمئن

Permitted
Allowed
اجازت دی جائے

Accomplished
Finished
مکمل ہو جانا، ختم ہو جانا

Ideal
Conceptual
تصور

Longing
Dreaming
تمننا

Obvious
Clear
واضح

Esteem
Regard, Admiration
احترام، تعظیم

Moment
Instant
Iلمحہ

Disquieting
Discomposing
بےجوڑ
[9/22, 7:15 AM] ‪+92 333 9284007‬: A SUMMARY OF HUMAN BIOLOGY
1: Number of Bones 206
2: Number of Muscles 639
3: Number of Kidneys 2
4: Number of Milk Teeth 20
5: Number of Ribs 24 (12 pair)
6: Number of Heart Chamber 4
7: Largest artery Aorta
8: Normal blood pressure 120/80mmHg
9: Ph of Blood 7.4
10: Number of vertebrae in the Spine 33
11: Number of vertebrae in the Neck 7
12: Number of Bones in Middle Ear 6
13: Number of Bones in Face 14
14: Number of Bones in Skull 22
15: Number of Bones in Chest 25
16: Number of Bones in Arms 6
17: Number of Muscles in Human Arm 72
18: Number of Pumps in Heart 2
19: Largest Organ Skin
20: Largest gland Liver
21: Biggest cell female Ovum
22: Smallest cell male Sperm
23: Smallest Bone Stapes
24: First transplanted Organ Heart
25: Average length of Small Intestine 7m
26: Average length of Large Intestine 1.5m
27: Average weight of new Born baby 2.6kg
28: Pulse rate in One Minute 72 times
29: Normal body temperature 37 C° (98.4 F°)
30: Average Blood Volume 4 to 5 liters
31: Life Span of RBC 120 days
32: Life Span of WBC 10 to 15 days
33: Pregnancy Period 280 days (40 week)
34: Number of Bones in Human Foot 33
35: Number of Bones in Each wrist 8
36: Number of Bones in Hand 27
37: Largest Endocrine gland Thyroid
38: Largest Lymphatic Organ Spleen
39: Largest part of Brain Cerebrum
40: Largest & Strongest Bone Femur
41: Smallest Muscle Stapedius (Middle Ear)
41: Number of Chromosome 46 (23 pair)
42: Number of Bones in new Born baby 306
43: Viscosity of Blood 4.5 to 5.5
44: Universal Donor Blood Group O
45: Universal Recipient Blood Group AB
46: Largest WBC Monocyte
47: Smallest WBC Lymphocyte
48: Increase RBC count called Polycethemia
49: Blood Bank in the Body is Spleen
50: Non Nucleated Blood cell is RBC
51: RBC produced in the Bone Marrow
52: River of Life is Called Blood
53: Normal Blood Cholesterol level 250mg/dl
54: Fluid part of Blood is Plasma
55: Normal Blood Sugar 100mg/dl
[9/22, 7:15 AM] ‪+92 333 9284007‬: Common grammar mistakes👇👇👇👇

Wrong : I have visited Niagara Falls last weekend.
Right : I visited Niagara Falls last weekend.

Wrong: The woman which works here is from Japan.
Right : The woman who works here is from Japan.

Wrong : She’s married with a dentist.
Right : She’s married to a dentist.

Wrong : She was boring in the class.
Right : She was bored in the class.

Wrong : I must to call him immediately.
Right : I must call him immediately.

Wrong : Every students like the teacher.
Right : Every student likes the teacher.

Wrong : Although it was raining, but we had the picnic.
Right : Although it was raining, we had the picnic.

Wrong : I enjoyed from the movie.
Right : I enjoyed the movie.

Wrong : I look forward to meet you.
Right : I look forward to meeting you.

Wrong : I like very much ice cream.
Right : I like ice cream very much.

Wrong : She can to drive.
Right : She can drive.

Wrong : Where I can find a bank?
Right : Where can I find a bank?

Wrong : I live in United States.
Right: I live in the United States.

Wrong : When I will arrive, I will call you.
Right : When I arrive, I will call you.

Wrong : I’ve been here since three months.
Right : I’ve been here for three months

Wrong : My boyfriend has got a new work.
Right : My boyfriend has got a new job. (or just “has a new job”)

Wrong : She doesn’t listen me.
Right : She doesn’t listen to me.

Wrong : You speak English good.
Right : You speak English well.

Wrong : The police is coming.
Right : The police are coming.

Wrong : The house isn’t enough big.
Right : The house isn’t big enough.

Wrong : You should not to smoke.
Right : You should not smoke.

Wrong : Do you like a glass of wine?
Right : Would you like a glass of wine?

Wrong : There is seven girls in the class.
Right : There are seven girls in the class.

Wrong: I didn’t meet nobody.
Right : I didn’t meet anybody.

Wrong : My flight departs in 5:00 am.
Right : My flight departs at 5:00

#Admin
[9/23, 8:21 AM] ‪+92 331 6016655‬: Whatsapgroup Career Opportunities New name Old Name
Karachi kalachi
Hyderabad Neerankot
Sukkur Bakhar
Sialkot Salkot
Faisalabad Lailapur
Mianwali Mian Ali
Jacombad Khangarh
Gujrawala Khanpur
Hazarah Hozar
Pakpatan Ajodhan
Chennai Madras
Mumbai Bombay
Dhakka Decca
Kolkata calcuta
Srilanka Ceylon
Bharat India
Bandladesh East pakistan
Bin Qasim Pipri
Karnataka Mysore
Sahiwal Montgomery

💮ﺩﻧﯿﺎﮐﯽ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺫﺑﺎﻧﻮﮞ ﮐﮯ ﻋﻈﯿﻢ ﺷﺎﻋﺮ 💮

,💮1. ﺳﻨﺪﮬﯽ ……….. ﺷﺎﮦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻠﻄﯿﻒ
💮2 . , ﺍﻧﮕﺮﯾﺰﯼ ………….. ﺷﯿﮑﺴﭙﯿﺌﺮ
💮,3 . ﺍﻃﺎﻟﻮﯼ ……….. ﺩﺍﻧﺘﮯ
,💮4 . ﺑﻨﮕﺎﻟﯽ ………… ﺭﺍﺑﻨﺪﺭﻧﺎﺗﮫ ﭨﯿﮕﻮﺭ
,💮5 . ﭘﺸﺘﻮ ……………. ﺧﻮﺷﺤﺎﻝ ﺧﺎﻥ ﺧﭩﮏ
,💮6 . ﭘﻨﺠﺎﺑﯽ ………… ﻭﺍﺭﺙ ﺷﺎﮦ
💮,7 . ﺟﺮﻣﻦ ………… ﮔﻮﺋﭩﮯ
,💮8 . ﺳﻨﺴﮑﺮﺕ ……….. ﮐﺎﻟﯽ ﺩﺍﺱ
💮,9. ﺍﺭﺩﻭ ………… ﻋﻼﻣﮧ ﺍﻗﺒﺎﻝ
,💮10 . ﻋﺮﺑﯽ …………. ﺍﻣﺮﺍﺅﺍﻟﻘﯿﺲ
,💮11 . ﻓﺎﺭﺳﯽ …….. ﺵﯾﺦ ﺳﻌﺪﯼ
,💮12 . ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﯿﺴﯽ ……. ﺳﻠﯽ
,💮13 . ﻻﻃﯿﻨﯽ …….. ﺩﺭﺟﻞ
,💮14 . ﮨﻨﺪﯼ ……….. ﺗﻠﺴﯽ ﺩﺍﺱ

.💮,15 ﯾﻮﻧﺎﻧﯽ ……………. ﮨﻮﻣﺮ #General_knowledges

■ Which Sea is Connected with Pakistan:
#Arbian_Sea
■ What is the Highest Temperature recorded in jacobabad: #53_Centigrade
■ Which Area Recieves highest Rainfall in Pakistan ?
#Murree
■ Which is the largest desert in Pakistan: #Thar
■ What is the Area of Balochistan:
#347056_sq_km
■ What is the Area of Punjab:
#205344_sq_km
■ What is the Area of Sindh:
#140914_Sq_km
■ What is the Area of kPK:
#74521_sq_km
■ Where the largest irrigation system of the world is situated:
#Pakistan
■ Which Dam is largest electricity generating potential in the World:
#Tarbela
■ On which River Kalabagh Dam is supposed to be built :
#Indus_River
■ Which is the longest river of Pakistan:
#Indus_River
■ Which is the largest province of Pakistan:
#Balochistan
■ What is name of Pakistan Afghanistan border:
#Durand_Line
■ Which Country is located in the Southern West of Pakistan:
#Iran
■ What is the length of Pakistan iran border:
#805_km
■ Which of the Following is the highest point in Pakistan:
#K2
■ What is the highet of k2:
#8611_Meters
■ What is the Original name of K2:
#Godwin_Austin
■ What is the length of Pakistan-india border:
#Line_Of_Control
■ Which country Is located in north of pakistan:
#China
■ What is lenth of Pakistan-China border:
#585_km this 595
■ Which country is situated in northern west of Pakistan:
#Afghanistan
■ What is the length of Pakistan Afghanistan boders:
#2252_km
■ Total Area of Pakistan:
#796096_Sq_km
■ In Which continent of world Pakistan is situated:
#Asia
■ At which side of asia pakistan is located :
#Southern_Asia
■ How many countries are there is South Asia:
#Seven
■ With how many countries pakistan shares her boders:
#four

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Amazing facts

Mathematics

1. It is believed that Ancient Egyptians used complex mathematics such as algebra, arithmetic and geometry as far back as 3000 BC.

2. It wasn’t until the 16th century that most mathematical symbols were invented. Before this time math equations were written in words, making it very time consuming.

3. What comes after a million, billion and trillion? Why a quadrillion, quintillion, sextillion, septillion, octillion and nonillion of course.

4. Cutting a cake into 8 pieces is possible with just 3 slices, can you work out how?

5. An icosagon is a shape with 20 sides.

6. A three dimensional parallelogram is called a parallelepiped.

7. Trigonometry is the study of the relationship between the angles of triangles and their sides.

8. The smallest ten prime numbers are: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29.

9. The name of the popular search engine ‘Google’ came from a misspelling of the word ‘googol’, which is a very, very large number (the number one followed by one hundred zeros to be exact).

10. A ‘googolplex’ is the number 1 followed by a googol zeros, this number is so big that it can’t be written because there isn’t enough room in the universe to fit it in! It would also take a length of time far greater than the age of the universe just to write the numbers.

11. The number Pi (the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle) can’t be expressed as a fraction, this means it is an irrational number. When written as a decimal it never repeats and never ends.

12. Here is Pi written to 50 decimal places: 3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510

13. If two quantities have a ratio of approximately 1.618, they are said to be in the golden ratio. This ratio has been used throughout history to design aesthetically pleasing art works such as the Parthenon. It also appears in paintings, music, the design of books, and even in nature.

14. π=3.14159 26535 89793 23846 26433 83279 50288 41971 69399 37510 58209 74944 59230 78164 06286 20899 86280 34825 34211 70679 82148 08651 32823 …

15. A sphere has two sides. However, there are one-sided surfaces.

16. There are shapes of constant width other than the circle. One can even drill square holes.

17. There are just five regular polyhedra

18. In a group of 23 people, at least two have the same birthday with the probability greater than 1/2

19. Everything you can do with a ruler and a compass you can do with the compass alone

20. Among all shapes with the same perimeter a circle has the largest area.

21. There are curves that fill a plane without holes

22. Much as with people, there are irrational, perfect, complex numbers

23. As in philosophy, there are transcendental numbers

24. As in the art, there are imaginary and surreal numbers

25. A straight line has dimension 1, a plane – 2. Fractals have mostly fractional dimension

26. You are wrong if you think Mathematics is not fun

27. Mathematics studies neighborhoods, groups and free groups, rings, ideals, holes, poles and removable poles, trees, growth …

28. Mathematics also studies models, shapes, curves, cardinals, similarity, consistency, completeness, space …

29. Among objects of mathematical study are heredity, continuity, jumps, infinity, infinitesimals, paradoxes…

30. Last but not the least, Mathematics studies stability, projections and values, values are often absolute but may also be extreme, local or global.

31. Trigonometry aside, Mathematics comprises fields like Game Theory, Braids Theory, Knot Theory and more

32. One is morally obligated not to do anything impossible

33. Some numbers are square, yet others are triangular

34. The next sentence is true but you must not believe it

35. The previous sentence was false

36. 12+3-4+5+67+8+9=100 and there exists at least one other representation of 100 with 9 digits in the right order and math operations in between

37. One can cut a pie into 8 pieces with three movements

38. Program=Algorithms+Data Structures

39. There is something the dead eat but if the living eat it, they die.

40. A clock never showing right time might be preferable to the one showing right time twice a day

41. Among all shapes with the same area circle has the shortest perimeter

Chemistry Facts

Chemistry Facts

1. There is about 1/2lb or 250g of table salt (NaCl) in the body of an average adult human.

2. Lightning strikes produce ozone (O3) and help strengthen the ozone layer.

3. Humans have been using chemistry since at least Ancient Egypt. By 1000bce human civilizations were using advanced forms of chemistry like extracting metals from ore, fermenting alcohol, and refining plant extracts as medicine.

4. DNA is flame retardant.

5. One bucketful of water contains more atoms than the Atlantic Ocean does bucketfuls of water.

6. If you slowly pour a handful of salt into a completely full glass of water, it will not overflow. In fact, the water level will go down.

7. Although oxygen gas is colorless (light refraction aside), both the liquid and solid forms are blue.

8. One inch of rain is equal to 10 inches of snow.

9. You have chemoreceptors (taste buds) on the inside of your cheeks too.

10. Hydrofluoric acid is so corrosive that it will dissolve glass. Although it is corrosive, hydrofluoric acid is considered to be a ‘weak acid’.

11. Approximately 20% of the oxygen in the atmosphere was produced by the Amazonian rainforests.

12. The only elements that are liquid at room temperature are bromine and mercury.

13. Though solid at room temperature, gallium will liquefy in your hand.

14. Hydrogen is the most abundant element. About 75% of the elemental mass of the universe is hydrogen.

15. The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium, with is 1 proton and 0 neutrons.

16. The hardest chemical in your body is your tooth enamel.

17. The ethylene gas produced by ripening fruit, ripens other fruit and vegetables.

18. The only letter that doesn’t appear on the Periodic Table of Elements is J.

19. The human body contains enough carbon to produce graphite for about 9,000 pencils.

20. If you expose a glass of water to space, it will boil rather than freeze. The water vapor would almost immediately crystallize into ice.

21 Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, water, and atmosphere.

22. Bee stings are acidic while wasp stings are alkaline.

23. Mosquitoes like the scent of estrogen, thus women get bitten more often than men do.

24. The lighter was invented before the match.

25. Hydrogen is the first element on the periodic table. It has an atomic number of 1. It is highly flammable and is the most common element found in our universe.

26. Liquid nitrogen boils at 77 kelvin (−196 °C, −321 °F).

27. Around 1% of the sun’s mass is oxygen.

28. Helium is lighter than the air around us so it floats, that’s why it is perfect for the balloons you get at parties.

29. Carbon comes in a number of different forms (allotropes), these include diamond, graphite and impure forms such as coal.

30. Under normal conditions, oil and water do not mix. More oil facts.

31. Although it is still debated, it is largely recognized that the word ‘chemistry’ comes from an Egyptian word meaning ‘earth’.

32. The use of various forms of chemistry is believed to go back as long ago as the Ancient Egyptians. By 1000 BC civilizations were using more complex forms of chemistry such as using plants for medicine, extracting metal from ores, fermenting wine and making cosmetics.

33. Things invisible to the human eye can often be seen under UV light, which comes in handy for both scientists and detectives.

34. Humans breathe out carbon dioxide (CO2). Using energy from sunlight, plants convert carbon dioxide into food during a process called photosynthesis.

35. Chemical reactions occur all the time, including through everyday activities such as cooking. Try adding an acid such as vinegar to a base such as baking soda and see what happens!

36. Athletes at the Olympic Games have to be careful how much coffee they drink. The caffeine in coffee is a banned substance because it can enhance performance. One or two cups are fine but they can go over the limit with more than five. (update – as of 2004 caffeine has been taken back off the WADA banned list but its use will be closely monitored to prevent future abuse by athletes.)

37. Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and an atomic number of 20.

38. Calcium is not naturally found in its elemental state but calcium compounds are common.

39. Carbon is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6.

40. The word carbon comes from the Latin word carbo, meaning coal.

41. Carbon forms a large number of compounds, more than any other element. Because of its willingness to bond to other nonmetallic elements it is often referred to as the building block of life.

42. While carbon forms many different compounds it is a relatively unreactive element.

43. There are several allotropes (different forms) of carbon with the three most well known being amorphous carbon (coal, soot etc), diamond and graphite.

44. The properties of diamond and graphite are very different with diamond being transparent and very hard while graphite is black and soft (soft enough to write on paper).

45. Graphite is used for its thermal insulation (lower rate of heat transfer) properties. It is also a very good conductor or electricity.

46. The carbon atoms in graphite are bonded in flat hexagonal lattices and layered in sheets.

47. Carbon is the 4th most common element in the Universe (after hydrogen, helium and oxygen). It is the 15th most common element in the Earth’s crust while it is the second most common element in the human body (behind oxygen).

48. Carbon has the highest melting point of all elements, around 3500 °C (3773 K, 6332 °F).

49. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds made entirely of molecules featuring just hydrogen and carbon. Organic chemistry involves the study of hydrocarbons.

50. The simplest hydrocarbon compound is methane (CH4).

51. The chemical element Chlorine has the symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

52. On the periodic table Chlorine is in the halogen group and it is the 2nd lightest halogen gas after fluorine.

53. In its standard form chlorine is a yellow-green gas, but its common compounds are usually colorless. Chlorine has a strong distinctive odor such as the smell of household bleach.

54. The name Chlorine is from the Greek word chloros which means greenish yellow.

55. Chlorine has a melting point of -150.7 °F (-101.5 °C) and a boiling point of -29.27 °F (-34.04 °C).

56. The chemical symbol of hydrogen is H. It is an element with atomic number 1, this means that 1 proton is found in the nucleus of hydrogen.

57. Hydrogen is the lightest, simplest and most commonly found chemical element in the Universe, making up around 75% of its elemental mass.

58. Hydrogen is found in large amounts in giant gas planets and stars, it plays a key role in powering stars through fusion reactions.

59. Hydrogen is one of two important elements found in water (H2O). Each molecule of water is made up of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom.

60. Nitrogen is a chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number of 7.

61. Under normal conditions nitrogen is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas.

62. Nitrogen makes up around 78% of the air you breathe.

63. Nitrogen is present in all living things, including the human body and plants.

64. Nitrogen gas is used in food storage to keep packaged or bulk foods fresh. It is also used in the making of electronic parts, for industrial purposes and has many other useful applications.

65. Nitrogen gas is often used as an alternative to carbon dioxide for storing beer in pressurized kegs. The smaller bubbles it produces is preferred for some types of beer.

66. Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, has an atmosphere nearly entirely made of nitrogen (over 98%). It is the only moon in our solar system known to have a dense atmosphere.

67. Oxygen is an element with the chemical symbol O and atomic number 8.

68. Oxygen is a very reactive element that easily forms compounds such as oxides.

69. Under standard temperature and pressure conditions two oxygen atoms join to form dioxygen (O2), a colorless, tasteless and odorless gas.

70. Oxygen is essential to human life, it is found in the air we breathe and the water we drink (H20).

71. Oxygen makes up around 21% of the air you breathe. It is also the most common element in the Earth’s crust (around 47%) and the third most common element in the Universe (but far less than hydrogen and helium, the two most common).

72. The large amount of oxygen on Earth is supported by the oxygen cycle which involves the movement of oxygen between the air, living things and the Earth’s crust. Photosynthesis (a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds using sunlight) plays a major role in this cycle.

73. Ozone (O3) is an allotrope (different form) of oxygen that combines three oxygen atoms together. While ground level ozone is an air pollutant, the ozone layer in the Earth’s upper atmosphere provides protection from the suns harmful rays by filtering UV light.

74. The sun’s mass is made up of around 1% oxygen

75. The chemical element Silicon has a symbol Si and atomic number 14.

76. Silicon is a metalloid (or semi metal). This means it has some properties like a metal, for example, it looks like a metal and some like a non-metal, for example, it does not do conduct electricity very easily.

77. Because silicon is a metalloid it is useful as a semiconductor which means it has electrical conductivity between metals and non-metal insulators like glass.

78. Silicon is the 8th most abundant element in the universe by mass.

79. Silicon is not found as a free element in nature, but rather it occurs as oxides and silicates in many minerals. Over 90% of the Earth’s crust (about 28% by mass) is composed of silicate minerals, which is why silicon is the 2nd most common element on earth after oxygen.

80. The melting point of sulfur is 247.3 °F (119.6 °C) and the boiling point is 832.3 °F (444.6 °C).

81. Sulfur is non-toxic in its pure element form and in the sulphate form. But its compounds such as carbon disulphide, hydrogen sulphide and sulfur dioxide are all toxic.

82. Mineral collectors like elemental sulfur crystals for their distinct, brightly colored polyhedron (multisided) shapes.

83. Sulfur compounds can naturally occur as sulfide minerals such as pyrite, cinnabar, galena, sphalerite and stibnite. Or as sulfate minerals such as gypsum, alunite and barite.

Human Body Facts

Human Body Facts

1. The human eye is so sensitive that if the Earth were flat, you could spot a candle flickering at night from up to 30 miles away.

2. Nerve impulses travel to and from the brain at speeds of up to 250 miles per hour, faster than a Formula 1 racecar.

3. When you blush, the lining of your stomach blushes too.

4. The human brain can read up to 1,000 words per minute.

5. Inside your belly button are thousands of bacteria that form an ecosystem the size of an entire rainforest.

6. When in love, the human brain releases the same cocktail of neurotransmitters and hormones that are released by amphetamines. This leads to increased heart rate, loss of appetite and sleep, and intense feelings of excitement.

7. You can see ultraviolet light, the ability is just filtered out by the eye’s lens. Some people have undergone surgery to remove the lense and can detect ultraviolet light.

8. An adult is made up of 7,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (7 octillion) atoms. For perspective, there’s a ‘measly’ 300,000,000,000 (300 billion) stars in our galaxy.

9. Our muscles are actually incredibly more powerful than they appear to be. Human strength is limited to protect our tendons and muscles from harming themselves. This limitation can be removed during an adrenaline rush, during which some people have lifted boulders or even cars off themselves.

10. We humans are the best long-distance runners on the planet. Better than any four-legged animal. In fact, thousands of years ago we used to run after our prey until they died of exhaustion.

11. A full head of human hair is strong enough to support 12 tonnes.

12. In 30 minutes, the human body gives off enough heat to bring a gallon of water to the boil

13. We have the same amount of hairs on our body as a chimpanzee. Most are useless and so fine that they are invisible.

14. The atoms that make up your human body today are same atoms that formed during the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago.

15. Human bone is as strong as granite. A block of bone the size of a matchbox could support nine tonnes of weight.

16. If the human brain were a computer, it could perform 38 thousand-trillion operations per second. The world’s most powerful supercomputer, BlueGene, can manage only .002% of that.

17. The focusing muscles in your eyes move around 100,000 times a day. To give your leg muscles the same workout, you’d need to walk 50 miles.

18. For every pound of fat or muscle gained, your body creates seven miles of new blood vessels

19. Humans share 50% of their DNA with bananas.

20. Loneliness is physically painful. Just as you have a drive to avoid physical pain, you have a similarly powerful drive to connect with others and seek companionship – in order to avoid the pain of loneliness.

21. A single human sperm contains the 37.5mb of male DNA required to create a human child. That means an average ejaculation sees the transfer of 1,500 terabytes of information.

22. Your body produces 25 million new cells each second. Every 13 seconds, you produce more cells than there are people in the United States.

23. Humans are bioluminescent and glow in the dark. The light that we emit is 1,000 times weaker than our human eyes are able to pick up.

24. Humans shed 40 pounds of skin in their lifetime, completely replacing their outer skin every month.

25. In one day, your blood travels 12,000 miles around your body. That’s four times the distance across the US from coast-to-coast.

26. Our brain’s connected neurons look similar to the structure of the universe. In a way, our brains are modeled after the universe.

27. Around 90% of the cells that make humans aren’t “human” in origin. We’re mostly fungi and bacteria.

28. Along with the five traditional senses of sound, sight, touch, smell and taste, humans have 15 “other senses.” These include balance, temperature, pain and time as well as internal senses for suffocation, thirst, and fullness.

29. You’re a little richer than you might think. Inside all of us is around 0.2 milligrams of gold, most of which is in our blood Sadly, you’d need the blood of around 40,000 people to collect enough gold to make one 8g coin.

30. The human brain uses 20% of the entire body’s oxygen and calorie intake, despite only accounting for about 2% of an adult’s body mass.

31. If you stretched out the 300,000,000 capillaries in your lungs end to end, the line would extend from Seattle to San Diego, or about 1,300 miles.

32. Some women see more colors than everyone else. Most people have three types of color receptors to see color vision, while some women have four or even five of these receptors and can see a wider range of colors.

33. A condition called synesthesia can cause senses to overlap. In other words, some people can taste words or hear colors.

34. The need to breathe so much is due to carbon dioxide buildup more than the need for oxygen. If there was a different way to get rid of carbon dioxide from the blood, we would only need to breathe at a rate of about once per minute.

35. Crying alleviates stress and allows humans to decrease feelings of anger and sadness. It physically does help to let it out.

36. The brain uses over a quarter of the oxygen used by the human body. More human brain facts.

37. Your heart beats around 100000 times a day, 36500000 times a year and over a billion times if you live beyond 30. More human heart facts.

38. Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body. They are created inside the bone marrow of your bones. More blood facts.

39. The colour of a humans skin is determined by the level of pigment melanin that the body produces. Those with small amounts of melanin have light skin while those with large amounts have dark skin. More skin facts.

40. Adult lungs have a surface area of around 70 square metres! More lung facts.

41. Humans have a stage of sleep that features rapid eye movement (REM). REM sleep makes up around 25% of total sleep time and is often when you have your most vivid dreams. More eye facts.

42. Most adults have 32 teeth. More teeth facts.

43. The smallest bone found in the human body is located in the middle ear. The staples (or stirrup) bone is only 2.8 millimetres long. More ear facts.

44. Your nose and ears continue growing throughout your entire life. More nose facts.

45. Infants blink only once or twice a minute while adults average around 10.

46. As well as having unique fingerprints, humans also have unique tongue prints.

47. The left side of your body is controlled by the right side of your brain while the right side of your body is controlled by the left side of your brain.

48. Antibiotics are only effective against bacteria, they won’t help in fighting off a virus.

49. It takes the body around 12 hours to completely digest eaten food.

50. Your sense of smell is around 10000 times more sensitive than your sense of taste. More senses facts.

51. With the 60,000 miles of blood vessels inside the average human body, you could circumnavigate Earth two and a half times.

Planet Facts

Planet Facts

Mercury click to collapse contents

1. Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System.

2. The orbital speed of Mercury is 47.8 km/sec (29.7 miles/sec).

3. Mercury has no atmosphere and no known satellites, perhaps because of its proximity to the Sun.

4. The diameter of Planet Mercury is 4,878 km (3,031 miles).

5. The first visit to Mercury was a flyby made by the Mariner 10 spacecraft in 1974.

6. Mercury is often identified with the Greek god Hermes, the messenger of the gods in Roman mythology.

7. Mercury orbits the sun once every 87.97 Earth Days.

8. A day, from sunrise to sunrise, on Mercury is equivalent to 176 Earth Days.

9. Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, the maximum distance from the Sun = 70 million km (43.5 million miles).

10. Mercury’s minimum distance from Earth = 77 million km (48 million miles).

11. Mercury is known as a terrestrial planet consisting of about 70% metallic and 30% silicate material.

12. First it was Copernicus who noticed orbiting planet in the early 16th century; and then Galileo was the first to observe Mercury during the 17th century.

13. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Mercury would be 38 lbs. (Multiply your actual weight by 0.38).

14. The surface of the planet is covered in craters much like those seen on Earth’s moon. This is a sign that Mercury has been geologically dormant for billions of years.

15. Since Mercury’s orbit is within Earth’s orbit, it can be viewed from Earth in the early morning or the late evening, but never in the middle of the nighttime.

16. The planet makes three complete rotations on its axis per every two orbital revolutions.

17. The surface temperature of Mercury ranges from -173 to 427°C. (-279 to 800°F).

18. Mercury is the second densest planet after Earth.

19. The surface of Mercury is very similar to our moon. It has a very barren, rocky surface covered with many craters.

20. Being so close to the Sun, the daytime temperature on Mercury is scorching – reaching over 400 Degrees Celsius.

21. At night however, without an atmosphere to hold the heat in, the temperatures plummet, dropping to -180 Degrees Celsius.

22. Mercury has a very low surface gravity.

23. Mercury has no atmosphere which means there is no wind or weather to speak of.

24. There is also no water on the surface of Mercury, it is possible however that there could be water underneath the surface.

25. Likewise, there is no air on the surface but it could be trapped underneath.

Venus click to collapse contents

1. The diameter of Venus is 12,100 km (7,522 miles).

2. The interior of Venus is composed of a central iron core and a molten rocky mantle, similar to the composition of Earth.

3. The surface of Venus is very dry with flat plains, highland regions, and depressions.

4. Venus is the sixth largest planet in the Solar System.

5. Venus is the second closest planet to the Sun.

6. Planet Venus is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty.

7. The atmosphere of Venus is primarily composed of carbon dioxide (96%) and nitrogen (3%), with traces of other gases and little to no water vapor.

8. Similar in size, density, and mass, Venus and Earth often referred to as sister planets.

9. The orbital speed of Venus is 35 km per second (78,292 mi/hr)

10. Maximum distance of Venus from the Sun is 109 million km (68 million miles)

11. Minimum distance of Venus from the Earth is 40 million km (25 million miles)

12. Venus is the hottest planet in the Solar System.

13. Venus is one of the brightest objects in the sky, next to the Sun and Moon.

14. It takes 243 days for Venus to rotate on its axis.

15. The surface of Venus may have been formed by a lot of volcanic activity. It is said to have 167 volcanoes that measure up to 100 km across.

16. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Venus would be 88 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 0.88)

17. The rotation of Venus is so slow that it travels around the sun quicker than it can make one rotation on its axis. This means that Venus has a longer day than it does a year.

18. Aside from planet Earth, Venus is the most explored planet. Many space probes have visited and landed on Venus to gather data.

19. The clouds surrounding Venus are comprised mostly of sulfuric acid.

20. Studies point to the fact that Venus used to have water on it, but it dried up as the sun started letting off more energy.

21. The atmosphere of Venus made up mainly of carbon dioxide.

22. Its size is slightly smaller than Earth.

23. It also features gravity similar to that of Earth.

24. The surface of Venus is often described as a “stormy desert” full of many craters and very active volcanoes.

25. The surface is also likened to molten lead.

26. Venus features no liquid water.

Earth click to collapse contents

1. The Earth is around 4.6 billion years old according to scientists.

2. The Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System.

3. The Earth’s atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), argon (.93%),and carbon dioxide (0.03%).

4. Earth’s atmosphere divided in 5 sections from the surface: Troposphere (0-13 km), Ozone Layer (13-25 km), Stratosphere (25-50 km), Mesosphere (50-75 km), and Thermosphere (75-150 km)

5. Earth is the fifth largest planet in the Solar System.

6. The Diameter of the Earth is 12,756 km (7,926 miles)

7. The earth’s orbital speed is 29.8 km per second (66,660 mi/hr)

8. Earth has only one satellite, the Moon. The Moon is the second brightest object in the sky from Earth.

9. Earth has an average surface temperature of 13°C (55.4°F).

10. The greenhouse effect raises Earth’s temperature 35°C(95°F).

11. Earth’s distance from the Sun – Min. 146 million km (91million miles) Max. 152 million km (94.5 million miles).

12. Earth is composed of: iron (32%), oxygen (30%), silicon (15%), magnesium (14%), sulfur (3%), nickel (2%), calcium (1.5%), aluminum (1.4%) and the remainder made up of other elements.

13. Earth’s main tectonic plates: African plate, Antarctic plate, Indo-Australian Plate, Eurasian Plate, North American Plate, South American Plate, and the Pacific Plate.

14. Earth has several layers with unique chemical and seismic properties: Crust (0-40 km), upper mantle (40-400 km), transition region (400-650 km), lower mantle (650-2700 km), D layer (2700-2890 km), outer core (2890-5150 km), and the inner core (5150-6378 km) from the surface.

15. The Earth is not perfectly round, rather it is an oblate spheroid. This is due to the planet’s equatorial bulge.

Mars click to collapse contents

1. Known as the Red Planet, Mars is characterized by its red, dusty landscape.

2. The atmosphere on Mars is very thin, composed mainly of carbon dioxide (95%), nitrogen (2.7%), and argon (1.6%), with traces of oxygen and water.

3. The orbital speed of Mars is 24.2 km per second (54,133 mi/hr).

4. Temperatures on Mars vary from 0°C (32°F) to -100°C (-148°F).

5. The diameter of the planet Mars is 6,785 km.

6. A Mars year is equal to 686.98 Earth Days.

7. A day in Mars is equal to 24.6 Earth Hours.

8. Mars maximum distance from the Sun = 249 million km (155 million miles).

9. Mars is 35 million miles from Earth.

10. Mars is the god of war in Roman mythology (Ares).

11. The polar ice caps consist of frozen Co2 (dry ice) which lies over a layer of ice.

12. Mars has very weak gravity which cannot hold onto the atmosphere well.

13. Mariner 4 – first successful flyby mission to Mars. Launched on November 28, 1964 and arrived at Mars on July 14, 1965.

14. Mariner 9 – first successful orbit of Mars. Launched May 30, 1971 and began orbit November 13, 1971.

15. Viking 1 – Successful orbit and landing on surface of Mars. Launched August 20, 1975 and arrived at Mars July 20, 1976.

16. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Mars would be 38 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 0.38).

17. Phobos, one of Mars’ two moons, is gradually getting closer and closer to Mars. It is believed that it will eventually collide with the planet.

18. The surface of Mars is covered in canyons and valleys. This leads scientists to believe that the planet once had water on it.

19. Just like Earth, both of Mars’ poles are blanketed in ice.

20. Mars is nicknamed the red planet because it is covered with rust-like dust. Even the atmosphere is a pinkish red, colored by tiny particles of dust thrown up from the surface.

21. Mars experiences violent dust storms which continually change its surface.

22. Mars has many massive volcanoes and is home to Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in our solar system, it stands 21km high and is 600km across the base.

23. Mars has a very thin atmosphere made mostly of carbon dioxide. It is not thick enough to trap the sun’s heat like Venus, so the planet is very cold. Temperatures range from -120 Degrees Celsius on winter nights to 25 Degrees Celsius in the summer.

24. Mars has many channels, plains and canyons on the surface which could have been caused by water erosion in the past.

Jupiter click to collapse contents

1. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system with a mean diameter of 139,822 km (86,881 miles).

2. Jupiter’s mass is 318 times larger than Earth. The diameter is 11 times, volume is 1,321 times, and surface area is 122 times of Earth.

3. The orbital speed of Jupiter is 13.1 km/sec.

4. A year on Jupiter is equal to 11.9 Earth Years.

5. A day on Jupiter is equal to 9.8 Earth Hours.

6. At the centre of Jupiter is a rocky core, slightly bigger than Earth but weighing about 20 times more.

7. Jupiter’s maximum distance from the Sun = 817 million km (508 million miles).

8. Jupiter’s minimum distance from Earth = 588 million km (365 million miles).

9. Jupiter has many moons circling around it. Four of these moons are bigger than Pluto.

10. Jupiter has sixty three moons or satellites, eight are regular and 55 irregular.

11. Jupiter’s four largest moons are named: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

12. Voyager 1 provided the earliest and clearest photographs of Jupiter on January of 1979.

13. Jupiter has rings, the third planet discovered to have a ring system in our Solar System.

14. Jupiter has a very strong magnetic field, you would weigh two and a half times as much as you would on Earth.

15. Jupiter’s rings were discovered by Voyager 1 in 1979.

16. Jupiter’s largest moon is the biggest in the Solar System. Named Ganymede, it is larger than the planet Mercury.

17. The volume of Jupiter is great enough to hold 1,300 Earths.

18. The rotation of Jupiter is the fastest of any planet in the Solar System, making its days only 10 hours long.

19. The large red spot on Jupiter is actually from a storm that has lasted over 300 years.

Saturn click to collapse contents

1. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest.

2. Saturn was the god of agriculture in Roman mythology. Saturn is also the father of Jupiter, the king of the Roman gods.

3. Saturn is flattened at the poles, due to a fast rotation on its axis.

4. Saturn has 62 known moons, fifty-three have been named. Most of them are small in size.

5. Saturn is not a peaceful planet. Storm winds race around the atmosphere at 800kmp/h.

6. A year on Saturn is equal to 29.5 Earth Years.

7. It is surrounded by a system of rings that stretch out into space for thousands of kilometres.

8. A day on Saturn is equal to 10 hours and 14 minutes in Earth days.

9. Diameter of Saturn is 119,871 km (74,500 miles).

10. Saturn’s maximum distance from the Sun is 1.5 billion km (938 million miles).

11. Saturn’s minimum distance from Earth is 1.2 billion km (746 million miles).

12. Saturn has fourteen subdivisions of its rings, the widest is at 25,500 km, the B ring.

13. Saturn’s rings are made primarily of “water ice” mixed with dust and other chemicals.

14. Saturn has a small rocky core covered with liquid gas.

15. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Saturn would be 108 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 1.08).

16. The temperature on Saturn by the clouds is at -274° F.

17. Titan is Saturn’s only moon that has an atmosphere, it is also bigger than Mercury.

18. Saturn is the second largest planet in our solar system and is another gas giant.

19. Saturn’s rings are made of water, ice, rocks, dust and other chemicals.

20. Pioneer 11 did the first flyby of the planet in 1979. Since then, Voyager 1 was sent closer to Saturn and it took much higher quality photographs.

21. Saturn has a very strong magnetic field which traps energy particles resulting in high levels of radiation.

22. The day of the week, Saturday, is named after Saturn.

Uranus click to collapse contents

1. Uranus is named after the Greek god of the sky. Uranus was the husband of Gaia, the goddess of the Earth.

2. It was discovered in December 13, 1781 by William Herschel, a German-born British astronomer.

3. The orbital speed of Uranus is 6.6 km/sec (14,763 mi/hr).

4. A year on Uranus is equal to 84.01 Earth Years (orbit around the sun).

5. Uranus is the third largest planet in the Solar System.

6. Uranus spins lying on its side (like a barrel), this is perhaps due to a large collision early in its formation.

7. Uranus was the first planet discovered by telescope.

8. Uranus is the coldest of the planets even though Neptune is located further from the Sun.

9. Like Venus, Uranus spins from east to west, which is opposite from the spin of Earth.

10. A day on Uranus is equal to a little more than 17 hours on Earth.

11. Uranus maximum distance from the Sun is 3 billion km (1.88 billion miles).

12. Uranus minimum distance from the Earth is 2.6 billion km (1.6 billion miles).

13. The diameter of Uranus is 51,488 km (32,000 miles).

14. The 27 moons of Uranus are named after characters created by William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope.

15. The planet is the second least dense after Saturn.

16. Uranus has 13 unique rings. They are named using Greek symbols and other numerical values: 1986U2R/ζ, 6, 5, 4, α, β, η, γ, δ, λ, ε, ν, and μ.

17. If you weigh 100 lbs on earth, your weight on Uranus would be 89 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 0.89).

18. Since Uranus takes 84 Earth years to go around the sun, this means that each of its poles is in daylight for 42 years and in darkness for the next 42.

19. Uranium, the chemical element, is named after the planet Uranus by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, a German chemist, in 1789.

20. Due to the fashion in which it spins, portions of Uranus can have nights that last over 40 years.

Neptune click to collapse contents

1. Neptune is the fourth largest planet in the Solar System.

2. Neptune is a gaseous planet, composed of hydrogen, helium, methane, with traces of ammonia and water.

3. Neptune suffers the most violent weather in our Solar System.

4. Neptune is a large, water planet with a blue hydrogen-methane atmosphere and faint rings.

5. In Roman mythology, Neptune is the god of the sea.

6. Neptune has strong winds which is more than any other planet in the Solar System. Winds on Neptune can get up to 2,000 km/hour (1,200 miles/hour). “The Scooter” is a cloud that moves around Neptune about every 16 hours.

7. The blue color of the planet is due to the absorption of red light by methane in the atmosphere.

8. The orbital speed of Neptune is 5.4 km/second.

9. The diameter of Neptune is 49,493 km.

10. One Neptune day is equal to 16 hours in Earth time.

11. One Neptune year is equal to 164.83 Earth Years.

12. Neptune’s maximum distance from the Sun – 4.5 billion km (2.8 billion miles).

13. Neptune’s minimum distance from Earth – 4.3 billion km (2.7 billion miles).

14. Neptune has 13 moons, the largest of which is named Triton. The other moons are: Naiad, Thalassa, Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Proteus, Nereid, Halimede, Sao, Laomedeia, Neso, and Psamathe.

15. Neptune has five main rings, they are named after the people who had been doing work on the planet; the rings are: Halle, Le Verrier, Lassell, Arago, and Adams.

16. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Neptune would be 113 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by 1.13).

17. Neptune is the farthest planet from the Sun.

18. Neptune was the very first planet to be located using mathematics rather than observation.

19. The planet is never capable of being seen by the naked eye.

20. Neptune is covered in thin wispy white clouds which stretch out around

21. Neptune has 19 moons. planet is the second least dense after Saturn.et to it.

22. Neptune is notorious for being the stormy planet. Sometimes winds can reach up to 1,240 miles per hour.

23. Neptune emits its own heat at a rate of 2.7 times more than the energy that it absorbs from without.

24. The planet is 30 times farther from the Sun that our planet is.

Pluto click to collapse contents

1. In 2006 Pluto was demoted to the status of dwarf planet.

2. Pluto is the smallest dwarf planet in the Solar System, smaller than Earth’s Moon, and half the width of Jupiter’s moon, Ganymede.

3. Pluto’s journey around the Sun takes 248 Earth years. This means that, since its discovery in 1930, it still has over 160 years to go until it has made a complete orbit around the Sun.

4. The atmosphere of Pluto consists of nitrogen with some carbon monoxide and methane.

5. Pluto orbits the Sun on a different plane than the 8 planets, going over them and below them.

6. Pluto consists of rock with a very thick coating of ice.

7. A day on Pluto is equivalent to Earth’s 6 days and 9 hours, meaning that it has the second slowest rotation in the Solar System (after Venus, which takes 243 days to turn on its axis).

8. Pluto’s orbit is elliptical, meaning that it can come closer to the Sun than Neptune, but then go almost two billion kilometers further away from Neptune’s orbit.

9. Pluto is too faint to be seen with the naked eye. When viewed through a telescope, it looks like a star.

10. Pluto is cold: -233° C (-390° F), just 40° C (72° F) above absolute zero. At this temperature, all elements would be frozen except for neon, hydrogen, and helium.

11. Pluto maximum distance from the Sun – 7.38 billion km (4.6 billion miles).

12. Pluto’s minimum distance from Earth – 4.28 billion km (2.7 billion miles).

13. If you weigh 100 lbs, your weight on Pluto would be 7 lbs. (multiply your actual weight by .067).

14. When gazing at the Sun from Pluto it would appear as a tiny bright start because the two are so far away from each other.

15. According to some astronomers, Pluto used to be one of Neptune’s moons, but it somehow broke out of its orbit.

16. Since being declassified as a planet, Pluto’s technical name is now 134340.

Other Facts

Other Facts

Time click to collapse contents

1. We use time to order events in the past, present and future. We also use it to make comparisons and measure the speed at which things move.

2. If you wanted to measure time you could use a watch, clock, hourglass or even a sundial.

3. A sundial is a tool that uses the position of the Sun to measure time, typically involving a shadow cast across a marked surface.

4. The use of pendulums to accurately measure time was discovered by Galileo Galilei around 400 years ago. A pendulum is a free swinging weight hanging from a pivot.

5. There are 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour and 24 hours in a day.

6. Normal years have 365 days but a Leap year has 366. The Earth takes a little longer than 365 days to go around the Sun so we add an extra day in February every four years (with a few exceptions) to keep calendars and seasons aligned.

7. 10 years is known as a decade, 100 years is known as a century and 1000 years is known as a millennium.

8. Milliseconds, microseconds and nanoseconds are examples of very small units of time.

9. Scientists believe the moon was used as a form of calendar as far back as 6000 years ago. Calendars have been changing ever since and are very accurate in modern times.

10. Accurate clocks that measure hours, minutes and seconds have improved with the invention of sundials, water clocks, mechanical clocks, pendulums and hourglasses through to the digital displays and atomic clocks of today.

11. Many places use daylight saving time (typically by putting clocks forward an hour) for longer daylight in the evenings.

12. Different parts of the world are located in different time zones. This means that while you are having breakfast in the morning, someone in another part of the world is having dinner.

13. Theories related to time have been put forward by famous scientists such as Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. You may have even heard of the term ‘spacetime’, a model in physics that joins space and time together.

14. In terms of philosophy, time is difficult to define. Scientists and philosophers have disagreed on our understanding of time for many years. Some argue it is a ‘real’ part of the Universe while others argue it is just the way humans think, comparing events and putting them in sequence. It’s a little confusing but fun to think about, what do you think

15. Some more questions to get your brain buzzing: Does time have a direction

Sound click to collapse contents

1. Sound comes from vibrations. These vibrations create sound waves which move through mediums such as air and water before reaching our ears.

2. Our ears vibrate in a similar way to the original source of the vibration, allowing us to hear many different sounds.

3. Dogs can hear sound at a higher frequency than humans, allowing them to hear noises that we can’t.

4. Sound is used by many animals to detect danger, warning them of possible attacks before they happen.

5. Sound can’t travel through a vacuum (an area empty of matter).

6. The speed of sound is around 767 miles per hour (1,230 kilometres per hour).

7. The loud noise you create by cracking a whip occurs because the tip is moving so fast it breaks the speed of sound!

8. When travelling through water, sound moves around four times faster than when it travels through air.

9. The scientific study of sound waves is known as acoustics.

10. Although music can be hard to define, it is often described as a pleasing or meaningful arrangement of sounds.

11. The sound of thunder is produced by rapidly heated air surrounding lightning which expands faster than the speed of sound.

Light click to collapse contents

1. In physics, light refers to electromagnetic radiation. The light we normally talk about in everyday life refers to the visible spectrum (the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that the human eye can see).

2. Other animals can see parts of the spectrum that humans can’t. For example, a large number of insects can see ultraviolet (UV) light.

3. UV light can be used to show things the human eye can’t see, coming in handy for forensic scientists.

4. The wavelength of infrared light is too long to be visible to the human eye.

5. Scientists study the properties and behaviors of light in a branch of physics known as optics.

6. Isaac Newton observed that a thin beam of sunlight hitting a glass prism on an angle creates a band of visible colors that includes red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet (ROYGBIV). This occurred because different colors travel through glass (and other mediums) at different speeds, causing them to refract at different angles and separate from each other.

7. Light travels very, very fast. The speed of light in a vacuum (an area empty of matter) is around 186,000 miles per second (300,000 kilometres per second).

8. Light travels slower through different mediums such as glass, water and air. These mediums are given a refractive index to describe by how much they slow the movement of light. Glass has a refractive index of 1.5, meaning that lights travels through it at around 124,000 miles per second (200,000 kilometres per second). The refractive index of water is 1.3 while the refractive index of air is 1.0003, meaning that air only slightly slows down light.

9. Light takes 1.255 seconds to get from the Earth to the Moon.

10. Sunlight can reach a depth of around 80 metres (262 feet) in the ocean.

11. One of the many things Italian scientist Galileo Galilei worked on was telescopes, producing telescopes with around 30x magnification in some of his later work. These telescopes helped him discover the four largest moons orbiting Jupiter (later named the Galilean satellites).

12. Photosynthesis is a process that involves plants using energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into food.

Energy click to collapse contents

1. The word energy comes from the Greek word energeia.

2. Most types of energy are either a form of kinetic energy or potential energy.

3. Common examples include heat energy, elastic potential energy, chemical energy, sound energy, nuclear energy, geothermal energy and gravitational potential energy.

4. Kinetic energy refers to the energy an object has because of its movement. A car in motion has kinetic energy, as does a basketball when you pass or shoot it.

5. Energy can be transformed from one form to another. In lightning, electric potential energy transforms into light, heat and sound energy.

6. The law of conservation of energy states that energy can only be transformed, it can’t be created or destroyed.

7. You might have heard of Albert Einstein’s famous formula E = mc² (energy equals mass multiplied by the speed of light squared).

8. Food contains chemical energy which is used by living organisms such as animals to grow and reproduce. Food energy is usually measured in calories or joules.

9. Wind farms contain large numbers of wind turbines which are used to transform wind energy into a useful energy such as electricity. The use of wind power to generate electricity doubled between the years 2005 and 2008. More wind energy facts.

10. The USA’s Mojave Desert is home to the world’s largest solar power plant. More solar power facts.

11. The Three Gorges Dam in China is the world’s largest hydroelectric power station. More hydropower facts.

12. Nuclear power produces around 13% of the world’s electricity. More nuclear power facts.

13. Plants use energy from sunlight during an important process called photosynthesis.

14. A person standing on a diving board above a swimming pool has gravitational potential energy.

15. During chemical reactions, chemical energy is often transformed into light or heat.

16. Stretched rubber bands and compressed springs are examples of elastic potential energy.

Gravity click to collapse contents

1. Objects with mass are attracted to each other, this is known as gravity.

2. Gravity keeps Earth and the other planets in our solar system in orbit around the Sun. It also keeps the Moon in orbit around Earth.

3. Tides are caused by the rotation of the Earth and the gravitational effects of the Moon and Sun.

4. Because Mars has a lower gravity than Earth, a person weighing 200 pounds on Earth would only weigh 76 pounds on Mars.

5. It is thought that Isaac Newton’s theories on gravity were inspired by seeing an apple fall from a tree.

6. While Newton’s older law of universal gravitation is accurate in most scenarios, modern physics uses Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity to describe gravity.

7. Acceleration of objects to due to the gravity on Earth is around 9.8 m/s2. If you ignore air resistance (drag) then the speed of an object falling to Earth increases by around 9.8 metres per second every second.

8. The force of gravity 100 kilometres (62 miles) above Earth is just 3% less than at the Earth’s surface.

9. The human body can handle increased g-forces as seen in activities such as dragster races, airplane acrobatics and space training. The highest known acceleration voluntarily experienced by a human is 46.2 g by g-force pioneer John Stapp.

10. While formula one racing drivers may feel around 5 g’s under heavy braking, they can experience over 100 g’s if a crash causes them to decelerate extremely quickly over a very short distance.

11. Some roller coasters have been known to include g-forces of around 4 to 6 g.

Physics Facts

Physics Facts

1. Mass and inertia are the same thing. (Mass actually measures inertia – in kilogramsÂ… Much as monetary resources measures financial wealth – in dollars.)

2. Weight (force of gravity) decreases as you move away from the earth by distance squared. (It decreases, but only approaches zero, never reaching it, even far beyond the solar system.)

3. Weight (in newtons) is mass x acceleration (w = mg). Mass is not Weight! Mass is a scalar and measured in kilograms, weight is a force and a vector and measured in Newtons.

4. Velocity can only be constant when the net force (and acceleration) is zero. (The velocity can be zero and not constant – for example when a ball, thrown vertically, is at the top of its trajectory.)

5. Velocity, displacement [s], momentum, force (weight), torque, and acceleration are vectors.

6. Speed, distance [d], time, length, mass, temperature, charge, power and energy (joules) are scalar quantities.

7. The slope of the distance-time graph is velocity.

8. The slope of the velocity-time graph is acceleration.

9. The area under a velocity-time graph is distance.

10. Magnitude is a term used to state how large a vector quantity is.

11. At zero (0) degrees two vectors have a resultant equal to their sum. At 180 degrees two vectors have a resultant equal to their difference. From the minimum value (at 180) to the maximum value (at zero) is the total range of all the possible resultants of any two vectors.

12. An unbalanced force must produce an acceleration and the object cannot be in equilibrium.

13. If an object is not accelerating, it is in equilibrium and no unbalanced forces are acting.

14. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the resultant vector.

15. Momentum is conserved in all collision systems. Energy is conserved (in the KE of the objects) only if a collision is perfectly elastic.

16. Mechanical energy is the sum of the potential and kinetic energy.

17. UNITS: a = [m/sec2]; F = [kg•m/sec2] = Newton; work = PE = KE = [kg•m2/sec2] = Joule; Power = [kg•m2/sec3] = [Joules/sec] = Watt

18. 1ev is a very small energy unit equal to 1.6 x 10-19 joules – used for small objects such as electrons. This is on the Reference Chart.

19. Gravitational potential energy increases as height increases.

20. Kinetic energy changes only if mass or velocity changes.

21. Mechanical energy (PE + KE) does not change for a free falling mass or a swinging pendulum. (when ignoring air friction)

22. A coulomb is charge, an amp is current [coulomb/sec] and a volt is potential difference [joule/coulomb].

23. Short, fat, cold wires make the best conductors.

24. Electrons and protons have equal amounts of charge (1.6 x 10-19 coulombs each – known as one elementary charge). This is on the Reference Chart.

25. Adding a resistor in series increases the total resistance of a circuit.

26. Adding a resistor in parallel decreases the total resistance of a circuit.

27. All resistors in series have equal current (I).

28. All resistors in parallel have equal voltage (V).

29. If two similar charged spheres touch each other add the charges and divide by two to find the final charge on each sphere after they are separated.

30. Insulators contain no electrons free to move.

31. Ionized gases conduct electric current using positive ions, negative ions and electrons.

32. Electric fields all point in the direction of the force on a positive test charge.

33. Electric fields between two parallel plates are uniform in strength except at the edges.

34. Millikan determined the charge on a single electron using his famous oil-drop experiment.

35. All charge changes result from the movement of electrons not protons. (an object becomes positive by losing electrons)

36. The direction of a magnetic field is defined by the direction a compass needle points. (The direction an isolated north pole would feel.)

37. Magnetic fields point from the north to the south outside the magnet and south to north inside the magnet.

38. Magnetic flux is measured in webers.

39. Left hands are for negative charges and reverse answer for positive charges.

40. The first hand rule deals with the B-field around a current bearing wire, the third hand rule looks at the force on charges moving in a B-field, and the second hand rule is redundant.

41. Solenoids are stronger with more current or more wire turns or adding a soft iron core.

42. Sound waves are longitudinal and mechanical.

43. Light slows down, bends toward the normal and has a shorter wavelength when it enters a medium with a higher index of refraction (n).

44. All angles in wave theory problems are measured to the normal.

45. Blue light has more energy, a shorter wavelength and a higher frequency than red light (remember- ROYGBIV).

46. The electromagnetic spectrum (radio, infrared, visible. Ultraviolet x-ray and gamma) are listed lowest energy to highest. They are all electromagnetic and travel at the speed of light (c = f ! l ).

47. The speed (c) of all types of electromagnetic waves is 3.0 x 108 m/sec in a vacuum.

48. As the frequency of an electromagnetic wave increases its energy increases (E = h ! f) and its wavelength decreases and its velocity remains constant as long as it doesn’t enter a medium with a different refractive index (i.e. optical density).

49. A prism produces a rainbow from white light by dispersion. (red bends the least because it slows the least).

50. Transverse wave particles vibrate back and forth perpendicular to the direction of the wave’s velocity. Longitudinal wave particles vibrate back and forth parallel to the direction of the wave’s velocity.

51. Light wave are transverse (they, and all (and only)transverse waves can be polarized).

52. The amplitude of a non-electromagnetic wave (i.e. water, string and sound waves) determines its energy. The frequency determines the pitch of a sound wave. Their wavelength is a function of its frequency and speed (v = f ! l ). Their speed depends on the medium they are traveling in.

53. Constructive interference occurs when two waves are zero (0) degrees out of phase or a whole number of wavelengths (360 degrees.) out of phase.

54. At the critical angle a wave will be refracted to 90 degrees. At angles larger than the critical angle, light is reflected not refracted.

55. Doppler effect: when a wave source moves toward you, you will perceive waves with a shorter wavelength and higher frequency than the waves emitted by the source. When a wave source moves away from you, you will perceive waves with a longer wavelength and lower frequency.

56. Double slit diffraction works because of diffraction and interference.

57. Single slit diffraction produces a much wider central maximum than double slit.

58. Diffuse reflection occurs from dull surfaces while regular (spectacular) reflection occurs from smooth (mirror-like) surfaces.

59. Only waves show diffraction, interference and the polarization.

60. The period of a wave is the inverse of its frequency (T = 1/f ). So waves with higher frequencies have shorter periods.

61. Monochromatic light has one frequency.

62. Coherent light waves are all in phase.

63. In order to explain the photoelectric effect, Einstein proposed particle behavior for light (and all electromagnetic waves) with E = h f and KEmax = hf – Wo.

64. A photon is a particle of light (wave packet).

65. To preserve the symmetry of the universe, DeBroglie proposed wave behavior for particles ( l = h/mv). Therefore large fast moving objects (baseballs, rockets) have very short wavelengths (that are unobservable) but very small objects, particularly when moving slowly have wavelengths that can be detected in the behavior of the objects.

66. Whenever charged particles are accelerated, electromagnetic waves are produced.

67. The lowest energy state of a atom is called the ground state.

68. Increasing light frequency increases the kinetic energy of the emitted photo-electrons in the photo-electric effect (KEmax = hf – Wo).

69. As the threshold frequency increases for a photo-cell (photo emissive material) the work function also increases (Wo = h fo)

70. Increasing light intensity increases the number of emitted photo-electrons in the photo-electric effect but not their KE (i.e. more intensity>more photons>more electrons emitted). This is the particle nature shown by light.

71. Key to understanding trajectories is to separate the motion into two independent components in different dimensions – normally horizontal and vertical. Usually the velocity in the horizontal dimension is constant (not accelerated) and the motion in the vertical dimension is changing (usually with acceleration of g).

72. Centripetal force and centripetal acceleration vectors are toward the center of the circle- while the velocity vector is tangent to the circle. (Centripetal means towards the center!)

73. An object in orbit is not weightless – it is its weight that keeps it moving in a circle around the astronomical mass it is orbiting. In other words, its weight is the centripetal force keeping it moving in a circle.

74. An object in orbit is in free fall – it is falling freely in response to its own weight. Any object inside a freely falling object will appear to be weightless.

75. Rutherford discovered the positive nucleus using his famous gold-foil experiment.

76. Fusion is the process in which hydrogen is combined to make helium.

77. Fission requires that a neutron causes uranium to be split into middle size atoms and produce extra neutrons, which, in turn, can go on and cause more fissions.

78. Radioactive half-lives are not effected by any changes in temperature or pressure (or anything else for that matter).

79. One AMU of mass is equal to 931 meV of energy. (E = mc2). This is on the Reference Charts!

80. Nuclear forces are very strong and very short-ranged.

81. There are two basic types of elementary particles: Hadrons & Leptons (see Chart).

82. There are two types of Hadrons: Baryons and Mesons (see Chart).

83. The two types of Hadrons are different because they are made up of different numbers of quarks. Baryons are made up of 3 quarks, and Mesons of a quark and antiquark.

84. Notice that to make long-lived Hadron particles quarks must combine in such a way as to give the charge of particle formed a multiple of the elementary charge.

85. For every particle in the “Standard Model” there is an antiparticle. The major difference of an antipartcle is that its charge is opposite in sign. All antiparticles will anhililate as soon as they come in contact with matter and will release a great amount of energy.

85. Notice that to make long-lived Hadron particles quarks must combine in such a way as to give the charge of particle formed a multiple of the elementary charge.

86. Notice that the retention of the Energy Level Diagrams on the new charts implies that there will be questions on it. The units (eV) can be converted to Joules with the coversion given on the first Chart of the Regents Reference tables. And can be used with the formula (given under Modern Physics formulas) to calculate the energy absorbed or released when the electron changes levels.

87. Because of differences in gravity, a 200 pound person would only weigh 76 pounds on Mars. More gravity facts.

88. Electric eels can stun both predators and prey with electric shocks of around 500 volts. More electricity facts.

89. Energy from food is usually measured in joules or calories. More energy facts.

90. Light from the Earth takes just 1.255 seconds to reach the Moon. More light facts.

91. Sound travels at a speed of around 767 miles per hour (1,230 kilometres per hour). More sound facts.

92. When traveling at 80 kilometres per hour (50 miles per hour), cars use around half of their fuel just to overcome wind resistance.

93. Water can work against gravity, moving up narrow tubes in a process called capillary action.

94. A magnifying glass uses the properties of a convex shaped lens to magnify an image, making it easier to see.

95. A scientist who studies physics is known as a physicist.

96. Uranus is the only planet in our solar system that rolls on its side like a barrel, while Venus is the only planet that spins in the opposite direction to Earth.

97. The fastest land animal in the world is the Cheetah, clocking a max speed of around 113 km per hour (70 mph).

98. 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics was won by Albert Einstein for his work in the field of theoretical physics.

National Testing service MCQS (General Science)

👁‍🗨

National Testing Service
MCQS* (General Science)

1. What is the body temperature of a normal man?
A. 81.1oC
B. 36.9oC
C. 98.6oC
D. 21.7oC
2. Which of the following helps in clotting of blood?
A. Vitamin B1
B. Vitamin B2
C. Vitamin D
D. Vitamin K
3.Total volume of blood in a normal adult human being is
A. 5-6 liters★
B. 3-4 liters
C. 8-10 liters
D. 10-12 liters
4. Red blood corpuscles are formed in the
A. Liver
B. Bone marrow
C. Kidneys
D. Heart
5. How many bones are there in an adult human being?
A. 210
B. 260
C. 206
D. 300
*6. The pancreas secretes

A. Insulin
B. Bile juice
C. Peptic juice
D. None of these
7. Tibia is a bone found in the
A. Skull
B. Arm
C. Leg
D. Face
8. The largest part of the human brain is the
A. Medulla oblongata
B. Cerebellum
C. Cerebrum
D. None of these
9. What is the main component of bones and teeth?
A. Calcium carbonate
B. Calcium phosphate
C. Calcium sulphate
D. Calcium nitrate
10. The main constituent of hemoglobin is
A. Chlorine
B. Iron
C. Calcium
D. None of these
11. The main function of the kidney is
A. To control blood pressure
B. To control body temperature
C. To remove waste product from the body
D. To help in digestion of food
12. The function of hemoglobin is
*A. Transportation of oxygen

B. Destruction of bacteria
C. Prevention of anemia
D. Utilization of energy
13. Which of the following glands secrete tears?
A. Lachrymal
B. Pituitary
C. Thyroid
D. Pancreas
14. Which is the largest gland in the human body?
A. Thyroid
B. Liver
C. Pancreas
D. None of these
15. Which is the largest organ in the human body?
A. Liver
B. Heart
C. Skin
D. Kidney
16. A person of which of the following blood groups is called a universal donor?
A. O
B. AB
C. A
D. B
17. Which gland in the human body is called the master gland?
A. Pancreas
B. Thyroid
C. Pituitary
D. Spleen
18. How many bones are there in a newly born infant?
A. 206
B. 230
C. 280
D. 300
19. Which of the following have maximum calorific value?
A. Carbohydrates B. Fats
C. Proteins D. Vitamins
20. Which of the following vitamins promote healthy functioning of eyes in human beings?
A. Vitamin B B. Vitamin C
C. Vitamin A D. Vitamin D
21. The average heartbeat per minute in a normal man is
A. 50 B. 70*
C. 80 D. 100
22. A person with which of the following blood groups can receive blood of any group?
A. A B. AB*
C. B D. O
23. Malaria is a disease which effects the
A. Heart B. Lungs
C. Spleen D. Kidneys
24. Which of the following diseases is caused by virus?
A. Small pox * B. Tuberculosis
C. Malaria D. Cholera
*25. Medulla oblongata is a part of human
A. Heart *B. Brain

C. Liver D. Sex organ
26. Myopia is a disease connected with
A. Ears *B. Eyes

C. Lungs D. Brain
27. Leukemia is a disease of the
A. Lungs B. Blood
C. Skin D. Nerves
28. Short-sightedness can be corrected by using
A. Convex lens B. Concave lens
C. Convex-concave lens D. Concave-convex lens
29. Trachoma is a disease of the
A. Liver B. Eyes
C. Lungs D. Kidneys
30. Match the following
Column I Column II
A. Beriberi 1. Vitamin A
B. Scurvy 2. Vitamin B
*C. Rickets 3. Vitamin C

D. Night Blindness 4. Vitamin D
31. Typhoid and cholera are typical examples of
A. Infectious diseases B. Air-borne disease
*C. Water-borne disease
D. None of these
32. Pyorrhea is a disease of the
A. Nose B. Gums
C. Heart D. Lungs
33. Lack of what causes diabetes.
A. Sugar B. Insulin
C. Calcium D. Vitamins
34. Appendix is appendix is a part of
A. Small intestine B. Large intestine
C. Stomach D. Liver
35. Match the following columns
Column I Column II
A. Cataract 1. Bones
B. Jaundice 2. Eyes
C. Diabetes 3. Liver
D. Arthritis 4. Pancreas
36. Bronchitis is a disease of which of the following organs?
A. Blood B. Bladder
C. Liver D. Respiratory tract
37. ECG is used for the diagnosis of aliments of
A. Brain B. Heart
C. Kidneys D. Lungs
38. Biopsy is done on
A. Tissues taken from a dead body
B. Tissues taken form a living body
C. Blood from veins
D. Blood from arteries
39. Barium is used for
A. Checking blood group
B. X-ray of alimentary canal
C. X-ray of brain
D. None of these
40. Dialysis is used for the treatment of
A. Kidney failure B. Heart weakness
C. Brain diseases D. None of these
41. Insulin is injected into the intestines by
A. Pancreas B. Liver
C. Stomach D. Gall bladder
42. Lock Jaw, i.e., difficulty in opening the mouth is a symptom of
A. Cholera B. Plague
C. Tetanus D. Diphtheria
43. Which of the following pairs is incorrect?
A. Plague-rats B. Rabies-dog
C. Tapeworm-pig D. Poliomyelitis-monkey
44. Match the following columns
Column I Column II
A. Air-borne 1. Tetanus
B. Airborne 2. Tuberculosis
C. Contact 3. Cholera
D. Wound 4. Syphilis
45. Ricketts is a disease of the
A. Bones B. Tissue
C. Muscles D. Blood
46. Which of the following statements is correct
A. Pulmonary artery carries pure blood
B. Pulmonary artery carries impure blood
C. Pulmonary vein carries impure blood
D. None of these
47. Lungs are situated in the
A. Abdominal cavity
B. Pericardial cavity
C. Buccal cavity
D. Thoracic cavity
48. The human cell contains
A. 44 chromosomes B. 48 chromosomes
C. 46 chromosomes D. 23 chromosomes
49. Enzymes help in
A. Respiration B. Digestion of food
C. Immune system D. Reproduction
50. Food is normally digested in the
A. Liver B. Stomach
C. Small intestines D. Large intestines…s.vNational Testing Service
MCQS* (General Science)
1. What is the body temperature of a normal man?
A. 81.1oC
B. 36.9oC
C. 98.6oC
D. 21.7oC
2. Which of the following helps in clotting of blood?
A. Vitamin B1
B. Vitamin B2
C. Vitamin D
D. Vitamin K
3.Total volume of blood in a normal adult human being is
A. 5-6 liters★
B. 3-4 liters
C. 8-10 liters
D. 10-12 liters
4. Red blood corpuscles are formed in the
A. Liver
B. Bone marrow
C. Kidneys
D. Heart
5. How many bones are there in an adult human being?
A. 210
B. 260
C. 206
D. 300
*6. The pancreas secretes

A. Insulin
B. Bile juice
C. Peptic juice
D. None of these
7. Tibia is a bone found in the
A. Skull
B. Arm
C. Leg
D. Face
8. The largest part of the human brain is the
A. Medulla oblongata
B. Cerebellum
C. Cerebrum
D. None of these
9. What is the main component of bones and teeth?
A. Calcium carbonate
B. Calcium phosphate
C. Calcium sulphate
D. Calcium nitrate
10. The main constituent of hemoglobin is
A. Chlorine
B. Iron
C. Calcium
D. None of these
11. The main function of the kidney is
A. To control blood pressure
B. To control body temperature
C. To remove waste product from the body
D. To help in digestion of food
12. The function of hemoglobin is
*A. Transportation of oxygen

B. Destruction of bacteria
C. Prevention of anemia
D. Utilization of energy
13. Which of the following glands secrete tears?
A. Lachrymal
B. Pituitary
C. Thyroid
D. Pancreas
14. Which is the largest gland in the human body?
A. Thyroid
B. Liver
C. Pancreas
D. None of these
15. Which is the largest organ in the human body?
A. Liver
B. Heart
C. Skin
D. Kidney
16. A person of which of the following blood groups is called a universal donor?
A. O
B. AB
C. A
D. B
17. Which gland in the human body is called the master gland?
A. Pancreas
B. Thyroid
C. Pituitary
D. Spleen
18. How many bones are there in a newly born infant?
A. 206
B. 230
C. 280
D. 300
19. Which of the following have maximum calorific value?
A. Carbohydrates B. Fats
C. Proteins D. Vitamins
20. Which of the following vitamins promote healthy functioning of eyes in human beings?
A. Vitamin B B. Vitamin C
C. Vitamin A D. Vitamin D
21. The average heartbeat per minute in a normal man is
A. 50 B. 70*
C. 80 D. 100
22. A person with which of the following blood groups can receive blood of any group?
A. A B. AB*
C. B D. O
23. Malaria is a disease which effects the
A. Heart B. Lungs
C. Spleen D. Kidneys
24. Which of the following diseases is caused by virus?
A. Small pox * B. Tuberculosis
C. Malaria D. Cholera
*25. Medulla oblongata is a part of human
A. Heart *B. Brain

C. Liver D. Sex organ
26. Myopia is a disease connected with
A. Ears *B. Eyes

C. Lungs D. Brain
27. Leukemia is a disease of the
A. Lungs B. Blood
C. Skin D. Nerves
28. Short-sightedness can be corrected by using
A. Convex lens B. Concave lens
C. Convex-concave lens D. Concave-convex lens
29. Trachoma is a disease of the
A. Liver B. Eyes
C. Lungs D. Kidneys
30. Match the following
Column I Column II
A. Beriberi 1. Vitamin A
B. Scurvy 2. Vitamin B
*C. Rickets 3. Vitamin C

D. Night Blindness 4. Vitamin D
31. Typhoid and cholera are typical examples of
A. Infectious diseases B. Air-borne disease
*C. Water-borne disease
D. None of these
32. Pyorrhea is a disease of the
A. Nose B. Gums
C. Heart D. Lungs
33. Lack of what causes diabetes.
A. Sugar B. Insulin
C. Calcium D. Vitamins
34. Appendix is appendix is a part of
A. Small intestine B. Large intestine
C. Stomach D. Liver
35. Match the following columns
Column I Column II
A. Cataract 1. Bones
B. Jaundice 2. Eyes
C. Diabetes 3. Liver
D. Arthritis 4. Pancreas
36. Bronchitis is a disease of which of the following organs?
A. Blood B. Bladder
C. Liver D. Respiratory tract
37. ECG is used for the diagnosis of aliments of
A. Brain B. Heart
C. Kidneys D. Lungs
38. Biopsy is done on
A. Tissues taken from a dead body
B. Tissues taken form a living body
C. Blood from veins
D. Blood from arteries
39. Barium is used for
A. Checking blood group
B. X-ray of alimentary canal
C. X-ray of brain
D. None of these
40. Dialysis is used for the treatment of
A. Kidney failure B. Heart weakness
C. Brain diseases D. None of these
41. Insulin is injected into the intestines by
A. Pancreas B. Liver
C. Stomach D. Gall bladder
42. Lock Jaw, i.e., difficulty in opening the mouth is a symptom of
A. Cholera B. Plague
C. Tetanus D. Diphtheria
43. Which of the following pairs is incorrect?
A. Plague-rats B. Rabies-dog
C. Tapeworm-pig D. Poliomyelitis-monkey
44. Match the following columns
Column I Column II
A. Air-borne 1. Tetanus
B. Airborne 2. Tuberculosis
C. Contact 3. Cholera
D. Wound 4. Syphilis
45. Ricketts is a disease of the
A. Bones B. Tissue
C. Muscles D. Blood
46. Which of the following statements is correct
A. Pulmonary artery carries pure blood
B. Pulmonary artery carries impure blood
C. Pulmonary vein carries impure blood
D. None of these
47. Lungs are situated in the
A. Abdominal cavity
B. Pericardial cavity
C. Buccal cavity
D. Thoracic cavity
48. The human cell contains
A. 44 chromosomes B. 48 chromosomes
C. 46 chromosomes D. 23 chromosomes
49. Enzymes help in
A. Respiration B. Digestion of food
C. Immune system D. Reproduction
50. Food is normally digested in the
A. Liver B. Stomach
C. Small intestines D. Large intestines..

**National Testing Service
MCQS
(General Science)
1. What is the body temperature of a normal man?
A. 81.1oC
B. 36.9oC
C. 98.6oC
D. 21.7oC
2. Which of the following helps in clotting of blood?
A. Vitamin B1
B. Vitamin B2
C. Vitamin D
D. Vitamin K
3.Total volume of blood in a normal adult human being is
A. 5-6 liters★
B. 3-4 liters
C. 8-10 liters
D. 10-12 liters
4. Red blood corpuscles are formed in the
A. Liver
B. Bone marrow
C. Kidneys
D. Heart
5. How many bones are there in an adult human being?
A. 210
B. 260
C. 206
D. 300
*6. The pancreas secretes

A. Insulin
B. Bile juice
C. Peptic juice
D. None of these
7. Tibia is a bone found in the
A. Skull
B. Arm
C. Leg
D. Face
8. The largest part of the human brain is the
A. Medulla oblongata
B. Cerebellum
C. Cerebrum
D. None of these
9. What is the main component of bones and teeth?
A. Calcium carbonate
B. Calcium phosphate
C. Calcium sulphate
D. Calcium nitrate
10. The main constituent of hemoglobin is
A. Chlorine
B. Iron
C. Calcium
D. None of these
11. The main function of the kidney is
A. To control blood pressure
B. To control body temperature
C. To remove waste product from the body
D. To help in digestion of food
12. The function of hemoglobin is
*A. Transportation of oxygen

B. Destruction of bacteria
C. Prevention of anemia
D. Utilization of energy
13. Which of the following glands secrete tears?
A. Lachrymal
B. Pituitary
C. Thyroid
D. Pancreas
14. Which is the largest gland in the human body?
A. Thyroid
B. Liver
C. Pancreas
D. None of these
15. Which is the largest organ in the human body?
A. Liver
B. Heart
C. Skin
D. Kidney
16. A person of which of the following blood groups is called a universal donor?
A. O
B. AB
C. A
D. B
17. Which gland in the human body is called the master gland?
A. Pancreas
B. Thyroid
C. Pituitary
D. Spleen
18. How many bones are there in a newly born infant?
A. 206
B. 230
C. 280
D. 300
19. Which of the following have maximum calorific value?
A. Carbohydrates B. Fats
C. Proteins D. Vitamins
20. Which of the following vitamins promote healthy functioning of eyes in human beings?
A. Vitamin B B. Vitamin C
C. Vitamin A D. Vitamin D
21. The average heartbeat per minute in a normal man is
A. 50 B. 70*
C. 80 D. 100
22. A person with which of the following blood groups can receive blood of any group?
A. A B. AB*
C. B D. O
23. Malaria is a disease which effects the
A. Heart B. Lungs
C. Spleen D. Kidneys
24. Which of the following diseases is caused by virus?
A. Small pox * B. Tuberculosis
C. Malaria D. Cholera
*25. Medulla oblongata is a part of human
A. Heart *B. Brain

C. Liver D. Sex organ
26. Myopia is a disease connected with
A. Ears *B. Eyes

C. Lungs D. Brain
27. Leukemia is a disease of the
A. Lungs B. Blood
C. Skin D. Nerves
28. Short-sightedness can be corrected by using
A. Convex lens B. Concave lens
C. Convex-concave lens D. Concave-convex lens
29. Trachoma is a disease of the
A. Liver B. Eyes
C. Lungs D. Kidneys
30. Match the following
Column I Column II
A. Beriberi 1. Vitamin A
B. Scurvy 2. Vitamin B
*C. Rickets 3. Vitamin C

D. Night Blindness 4. Vitamin D
31. Typhoid and cholera are typical examples of
A. Infectious diseases B. Air-borne disease
*C. Water-borne disease
D. None of these
32. Pyorrhea is a disease of the
A. Nose B. Gums
C. Heart D. Lungs
33. Lack of what causes diabetes.
A. Sugar B. Insulin
C. Calcium D. Vitamins
34. Appendix is appendix is a part of
A. Small intestine B. Large intestine
C. Stomach D. Liver
35. Match the following columns
Column I Column II
A. Cataract 1. Bones
B. Jaundice 2. Eyes
C. Diabetes 3. Liver
D. Arthritis 4. Pancreas
36. Bronchitis is a disease of which of the following organs?
A. Blood B. Bladder
C. Liver D. Respiratory tract
37. ECG is used for the diagnosis of aliments of
A. Brain B. Heart
C. Kidneys D. Lungs
38. Biopsy is done on
A. Tissues taken from a dead body
B. Tissues taken form a living body
C. Blood from veins
D. Blood from arteries
39. Barium is used for
A. Checking blood group
B. X-ray of alimentary canal
C. X-ray of brain
D. None of these
40. Dialysis is used for the treatment of
A. Kidney failure B. Heart weakness
C. Brain diseases D. None of these
41. Insulin is injected into the intestines by
A. Pancreas B. Liver
C. Stomach D. Gall bladder
42. Lock Jaw, i.e., difficulty in opening the mouth is a symptom of
A. Cholera B. Plague
C. Tetanus D. Diphtheria
43. Which of the following pairs is incorrect?
A. Plague-rats B. Rabies-dog
C. Tapeworm-pig D. Poliomyelitis-monkey
44. Match the following columns
Column I Column II
A. Air-borne 1. Tetanus
B. Airborne 2. Tuberculosis
C. Contact 3. Cholera
D. Wound 4. Syphilis
45. Ricketts is a disease of the
A. Bones B. Tissue
C. Muscles D. Blood
46. Which of the following statements is correct
A. Pulmonary artery carries pure blood
B. Pulmonary artery carries impure blood
C. Pulmonary vein carries impure blood
D. None of these
47. Lungs are situated in the
A. Abdominal cavity
B. Pericardial cavity
C. Buccal cavity
D. Thoracic cavity
48. The human cell contains
A. 44 chromosomes B. 48 chromosomes
C. 46 chromosomes D. 23 chromosomes
49. Enzymes help in
A. Respiration B. Digestion of food
C. Immune system D. Reproduction
50. Food is normally digested in the
A. Liver B. Stomach
C. Small intestines D. Large intestines…s.vNational Testing Service
MCQS* (General Science)
1. What is the body temperature of a normal man?
A. 81.1oC
B. 36.9oC
C. 98.6oC
D. 21.7oC
2. Which of the following helps in clotting of blood?
A. Vitamin B1
B. Vitamin B2
C. Vitamin D
D. Vitamin K
3.Total volume of blood in a normal adult human being is
A. 5-6 liters★
B. 3-4 liters
C. 8-10 liters
D. 10-12 liters
4. Red blood corpuscles are formed in the
A. Liver
B. Bone marrow
C. Kidneys
D. Heart
5. How many bones are there in an adult human being?
A. 210
B. 260
C. 206
D. 300
*6. The pancreas secretes

A. Insulin
B. Bile juice
C. Peptic juice
D. None of these
7. Tibia is a bone found in the
A. Skull
B. Arm
C. Leg
D. Face
8. The largest part of the human brain is the
A. Medulla oblongata
B. Cerebellum
C. Cerebrum
D. None of these
9. What is the main component of bones and teeth?
A. Calcium carbonate
B. Calcium phosphate
C. Calcium sulphate
D. Calcium nitrate
10. The main constituent of hemoglobin is
A. Chlorine
B. Iron
C. Calcium
D. None of these
11. The main function of the kidney is
A. To control blood pressure
B. To control body temperature
C. To remove waste product from the body
D. To help in digestion of food
12. The function of hemoglobin is
*A. Transportation of oxygen

B. Destruction of bacteria
C. Prevention of anemia
D. Utilization of energy
13. Which of the following glands secrete tears?
A. Lachrymal
B. Pituitary
C. Thyroid
D. Pancreas
14. Which is the largest gland in the human body?
A. Thyroid
B. Liver
C. Pancreas
D. None of these
15. Which is the largest organ in the human body?
A. Liver
B. Heart
C. Skin
D. Kidney
16. A person of which of the following blood groups is called a universal donor?
A. O
B. AB
C. A
D. B
17. Which gland in the human body is called the master gland?
A. Pancreas
B. Thyroid
C. Pituitary
D. Spleen
18. How many bones are there in a newly born infant?
A. 206
B. 230
C. 280
D. 300
19. Which of the following have maximum calorific value?
A. Carbohydrates B. Fats
C. Proteins D. Vitamins
20. Which of the following vitamins promote healthy functioning of eyes in human beings?
A. Vitamin B B. Vitamin C
C. Vitamin A D. Vitamin D
21. The average heartbeat per minute in a normal man is
A. 50 B. 70*
C. 80 D. 100
22. A person with which of the following blood groups can receive blood of any group?
A. A B. AB*
C. B D. O
23. Malaria is a disease which effects the
A. Heart B. Lungs
C. Spleen D. Kidneys
24. Which of the following diseases is caused by virus?
A. Small pox * B. Tuberculosis
C. Malaria D. Cholera
*25. Medulla oblongata is a part of human
A. Heart *B. Brain

C. Liver D. Sex organ
26. Myopia is a disease connected with
A. Ears *B. Eyes

C. Lungs D. Brain
27. Leukemia is a disease of the
A. Lungs B. Blood
C. Skin D. Nerves
28. Short-sightedness can be corrected by using
A. Convex lens B. Concave lens
C. Convex-concave lens D. Concave-convex lens
29. Trachoma is a disease of the
A. Liver B. Eyes
C. Lungs D. Kidneys
30. Match the following
Column I Column II
A. Beriberi 1. Vitamin A
B. Scurvy 2. Vitamin B
*C. Rickets 3. Vitamin C

D. Night Blindness 4. Vitamin D
31. Typhoid and cholera are typical examples of
A. Infectious diseases B. Air-borne disease
*C. Water-borne disease
D. None of these
32. Pyorrhea is a disease of the
A. Nose B. Gums
C. Heart D. Lungs
33. Lack of what causes diabetes.
A. Sugar B. Insulin
C. Calcium D. Vitamins
34. Appendix is appendix is a part of
A. Small intestine B. Large intestine
C. Stomach D. Liver
35. Match the following columns
Column I Column II
A. Cataract 1. Bones
B. Jaundice 2. Eyes
C. Diabetes 3. Liver
D. Arthritis 4. Pancreas
36. Bronchitis is a disease of which of the following organs?
A. Blood B. Bladder
C. Liver D. Respiratory tract
37. ECG is used for the diagnosis of aliments of
A. Brain B. Heart
C. Kidneys D. Lungs
38. Biopsy is done on
A. Tissues taken from a dead body
B. Tissues taken form a living body
C. Blood from veins
D. Blood from arteries
39. Barium is used for
A. Checking blood group
B. X-ray of alimentary canal
C. X-ray of brain
D. None of these
40. Dialysis is used for the treatment of
A. Kidney failure B. Heart weakness
C. Brain diseases D. None of these
41. Insulin is injected into the intestines by
A. Pancreas B. Liver
C. Stomach D. Gall bladder
42. Lock Jaw, i.e., difficulty in opening the mouth is a symptom of
A. Cholera B. Plague
C. Tetanus D. Diphtheria
43. Which of the following pairs is incorrect?
A. Plague-rats B. Rabies-dog
C. Tapeworm-pig D. Poliomyelitis-monkey
44. Match the following columns
Column I Column II
A. Air-borne 1. Tetanus
B. Airborne 2. Tuberculosis
C. Contact 3. Cholera
D. Wound 4. Syphilis
45. Ricketts is a disease of the
A. Bones B. Tissue
C. Muscles D. Blood
46. Which of the following statements is correct
A. Pulmonary artery carries pure blood
B. Pulmonary artery carries impure blood
C. Pulmonary vein carries impure blood
D. None of these
47. Lungs are situated in the
A. Abdominal cavity
B. Pericardial cavity
C. Buccal cavity
D. Thoracic cavity
48. The human cell contains
A. 44 chromosomes B. 48 chromosomes
C. 46 chromosomes D. 23 chromosomes
49. Enzymes help in
A. Respiration B. Digestion of food
C. Immune system D. Reproduction
50. Food is normally digested in the
A. Liver B. Stomach
C. Small intestines D. Large intestines..
👁‍🗨

Fb.com/Adeel.i.Niazi

Numerical Analysis 9th Burden Faires

Preface ix
1 Mathematical Preliminaries and Error Analysis 1
1.1 Review of Calculus 2
1.2 Round-off Errors and Computer Arithmetic 17
1.3 Algorithms and Convergence 32
1.4 Numerical Software 41
2 Solutions of Equations in One Variable 47
2.1 The Bisection Method 48
2.2 Fixed-Point Iteration 56
2.3 Newton’s Method and Its Extensions 67
2.4 Error Analysis for Iterative Methods 79
2.5 Accelerating Convergence 86
2.6 Zeros of Polynomials and Müller’s Method 91
2.7 Survey of Methods and Software 101
3 Interpolation and Polynomial Approximation 105
3.1 Interpolation and the Lagrange Polynomial 106
3.2 Data Approximation and Neville’s Method 117
3.3 Divided Differences 124
3.4 Hermite Interpolation 136
3.5 Cubic Spline Interpolation 144
3.6 Parametric Curves 164
3.7 Survey of Methods and Software 171
4 Numerical Differentiation and Integration 173
4.1 Numerical Differentiation 174
4.2 Richardson’s Extrapolation 185
4.3 Elements of Numerical Integration 193
v
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
vi Contents
4.4 Composite Numerical Integration 203
4.5 Romberg Integration 213
4.6 Adaptive Quadrature Methods 220
4.7 Gaussian Quadrature 228
4.8 Multiple Integrals 235
4.9 Improper Integrals 250
4.10 Survey of Methods and Software 256
5 Initial-Value Problems for Ordinary Differential
Equations 259
5.1 The Elementary Theory of Initial-Value Problems 260
5.2 Euler’s Method 266
5.3 Higher-Order Taylor Methods 276
5.4 Runge-Kutta Methods 282
5.5 Error Control and the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg Method 293
5.6 Multistep Methods 302
5.7 Variable Step-Size Multistep Methods 315
5.8 Extrapolation Methods 321
5.9 Higher-Order Equations and Systems of Differential Equations 328
5.10 Stability 339
5.11 Stiff Differential Equations 348
5.12 Survey of Methods and Software 355
6 Direct Methods for Solving Linear Systems 357
6.1 Linear Systems of Equations 358
6.2 Pivoting Strategies 372
6.3 Linear Algebra and Matrix Inversion 381
6.4 The Determinant of a Matrix 396
6.5 Matrix Factorization 400
6.6 Special Types of Matrices 411
6.7 Survey of Methods and Software 428
7 IterativeTechniques in Matrix Algebra 431
7.1 Norms of Vectors and Matrices 432
7.2 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 443
7.3 The Jacobi and Gauss-Siedel Iterative Techniques 450
7.4 Relaxation Techniques for Solving Linear Systems 462
7.5 Error Bounds and Iterative Refinement 469
7.6 The Conjugate Gradient Method 479
7.7 Survey of Methods and Software 495
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Contents vii
8 ApproximationTheory 497
8.1 Discrete Least Squares Approximation 498
8.2 Orthogonal Polynomials and Least Squares Approximation 510
8.3 Chebyshev Polynomials and Economization of Power Series 518
8.4 Rational Function Approximation 528
8.5 Trigonometric Polynomial Approximation 538
8.6 Fast Fourier Transforms 547
8.7 Survey of Methods and Software 558
9 Approximating Eigenvalues 561
9.1 Linear Algebra and Eigenvalues 562
9.2 Orthogonal Matrices and Similarity Transformations 570
9.3 The Power Method 576
9.4 Householder’s Method 593
9.5 The QR Algorithm 601
9.6 Singular Value Decomposition 614
9.7 Survey of Methods and Software 626
10 Numerical Solutions of Nonlinear Systems of
Equations 629
10.1 Fixed Points for Functions of Several Variables 630
10.2 Newton’s Method 638
10.3 Quasi-Newton Methods 647
10.4 Steepest Descent Techniques 654
10.5 Homotopy and Continuation Methods 660
10.6 Survey of Methods and Software 668
11 Boundary-Value Problems for Ordinary Differential
Equations 671
11.1 The Linear Shooting Method 672
11.2 The Shooting Method for Nonlinear Problems 678
11.3 Finite-Difference Methods for Linear Problems 684
11.4 Finite-Difference Methods for Nonlinear Problems 691
11.5 The Rayleigh-Ritz Method 696
11.6 Survey of Methods and Software 711
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
viii Contents
12 Numerical Solutions to Partial Differential
Equations 713
12.1 Elliptic Partial Differential Equations 716
12.2 Parabolic Partial Differential Equations 725
12.3 Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations 739
12.4 An Introduction to the Finite-Element Method 746
12.5 Survey of Methods and Software 760
Bibliography 763
Answers to Selected Exercises 773
Index 863About

Overview

This well-respected text gives an introduction to the theory and application of modern numerical approximation techniques for students taking a one- or two-semester course in numerical analysis. With an accessible treatment that only requires a calculus prerequisite, Burden and Faires explain how, why, and when approximation techniques can be expected to work, and why, in some situations, they fail. A wealth of examples and exercises develop students’ intuition, and demonstrate the subject’s practical applications to important everyday problems in math, computing, engineering, and physical science disciplines. The first book of its kind built from the ground up to serve a diverse undergraduate audience, three decades later Burden and Faires remains the definitive introduction to a vital and practical subject.

9780538733519.jpg

Features and Benefits

  • Virtually every concept in the text is illustrated by examples, and reinforced by more than 2500 class-tested exercises ranging from elementary applications of methods and algorithms to generalizations and extensions of the theory.
  • The exercise sets include many applied problems from diverse areas of engineering, as well as from the physical, computer, biological, and social sciences.
  • The algorithms in the text are designed to work with a wide variety of software packages and programming languages, allowing maximum flexibility for users to harness computing power to perform approximations. The book’s companion website offers Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB worksheets, as well as C, FORTRAN, Java, and Pascal programs.
  • The design of the text gives instructors flexibility in choosing topics they wish to cover, selecting the level of theoretical rigor desired, and deciding which applications are most appropriate or interesting for their classes.

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About the Text
This book was written for a sequence of courses on the theory and application of numerical
approximation techniques. It is designed primarily for junior-level mathematics, science,
and engineering majors who have completed at least the standard college calculus sequence.
Familiarity with the fundamentals of linear algebra and differential equations is useful, but
there is sufficient introductory material on these topics so that courses in these subjects are
not needed as prerequisites.
Previous editions of Numerical Analysis have been used in a wide variety of situations.
In some cases, the mathematical analysis underlying the development of approximation
techniques was given more emphasis than the methods; in others, the emphasis was reversed. The book has been used as a core reference for beginning graduate level courses
in engineering and computer science programs and in first-year courses in introductory
analysis offered at international universities. We have adapted the book to fit these diverse
users without compromising our original purpose:
To introduce modern approximation techniques; to explain how, why, and when they
can be expected to work; and to provide a foundation for further study of numerical
analysis and scientific computing.
The book contains sufficient material for at least a full year of study, but we expect many
people to use it for only a single-term course. In such a single-term course, students learn
to identify the types of problems that require numerical techniques for their solution and
see examples of the error propagation that can occur when numerical methods are applied.
They accurately approximate the solution of problems that cannot be solved exactly and
learn typical techniques for estimating error bounds for the approximations. The remainder
of the text then serves as a reference for methods not considered in the course. Either the
full-year or single-course treatment is consistent with the philosophy of the text.
Virtually every concept in the text is illustrated by example, and this edition contains
more than 2600 class-tested exercises ranging from elementary applications of methods
and algorithms to generalizations and extensions of the theory. In addition, the exercise
sets include numerous applied problems from diverse areas of engineering as well as from
the physical, computer, biological, economic, and social sciences. The chosen applications
clearly and concisely demonstrate how numerical techniques can be, and often must be,
applied in real-life situations.
A number of software packages, known as Computer Algebra Systems (CAS), have
been developed to produce symbolic mathematical computations. Maple®, Mathematica®,
and MATLAB® are predominant among these in the academic environment, and versions
of these software packages are available for most common computer systems. In addition,
Sage, a free open source system, is now available. This system was developed primarily
ix
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
x Preface
by William Stein at the University of Washington, and was first released in February 2005.
Information about Sage can be found at the site
http://www.sagemath.org .
Although there are differences among the packages, both in performance and price, all can
perform standard algebra and calculus operations.
The results in most of our examples and exercises have been generated using problems
for which exact solutions are known, because this permits the performance of the approximation method to be more easily monitored. For many numerical techniques the error
analysis requires bounding a higher ordinary or partial derivative, which can be a tedious
task and one that is not particularly instructive once the techniques of calculus have been
mastered. Having a symbolic computation package available can be very useful in the study
of approximation techniques, because exact values for derivatives can easily be obtained. A
little insight often permits a symbolic computation to aid in the bounding process as well.
We have chosen Maple as our standard package because of its wide academic distribution and because it now has a NumericalAnalysis package that contains programs that
parallel the methods and algorithms in our text. However, other CAS can be substituted with
only minor modifications. Examples and exercises have been added whenever we felt that
a CAS would be of significant benefit, and we have discussed the approximation methods
that CAS employ when they are unable to solve a problem exactly.
Algorithms and Programs
In our first edition we introduced a feature that at the time was innovative and somewhat
controversial. Instead of presenting our approximation techniques in a specific programming
language (FORTRAN was dominant at the time), we gave algorithms in a pseudo code that
would lead to a well-structured program in a variety of languages. The programs are coded
and available online in most common programming languages and CAS worksheet formats.
All of these are on the web site for the book:
http://www.math.ysu.edu/∼faires/Numerical-Analysis/ .
For each algorithm there is a program written in FORTRAN, Pascal, C, and Java. In addition,
we have coded the programs using Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB. This should ensure
that a set of programs is available for most common computing systems.
Every program is illustrated with a sample problem that is closely correlated to the text.
This permits the program to be run initially in the language of your choice to see the form
of the input and output. The programs can then be modified for other problems by making
minor changes. The form of the input and output are, as nearly as possible, the same in
each of the programming systems. This permits an instructor using the programs to discuss
them generically, without regard to the particular programming system an individual student
chooses to use.
The programs are designed to run on a minimally configured computer and given in
ASCII format for flexibility of use. This permits them to be altered using any editor or word
processor that creates standard ASCII files (commonly called “Text Only” files). Extensive
README files are included with the program files so that the peculiarities of the various
programming systems can be individually addressed. The README files are presented
both in ASCII format and as PDF files. As new software is developed, the programs will
be updated and placed on the web site for the book.
For most of the programming systems the appropriate software is needed, such as a
compiler for Pascal, FORTRAN, and C, or one of the computer algebra systems (Maple,
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Preface xi
Mathematica, and MATLAB). The Java implementations are an exception. You need the
system to run the programs, but Java can be freely downloaded from various sites. The best
way to obtain Java is to use a search engine to search on the name, choose a download site,
and follow the instructions for that site.
New for This Edition
The first edition of this book was published more than 30 years ago, in the decade after major
advances in numerical techniques were made to reflect the new widespread availability of
computer equipment. In our revisions of the book we have added new techniques in order
to keep our treatment current. To continue this trend, we have made a number of significant
changes to the ninth edition.
• Our treatment of Numerical Linear Algebra has been extensively expanded, and constitutes one of major changes in this edition. In particular, a section on Singular Value
Decomposition has been added at the end of Chapter 9. This required a complete rewrite
of the early part of Chapter 9 and considerable expansion of Chapter 6 to include necessary material concerning symmetric and orthogonal matrices. Chapter 9 is approximately
40% longer than in the eighth edition, and contains a significant number of new examples
and exercises. Although students would certainly benefit from a course in Linear Algebra
before studying this material, sufficient background material is included in the book, and
every result whose proof is not given is referenced to at least one commonly available
source.
• All the Examples in the book have been rewritten to better emphasize the problem to
be solved before the specific solution is presented. Additional steps have been added to
many of the examples to explicitly show the computations required for the first steps of
iteration processes. This gives the reader a way to test and debug programs they have
written for problems similar to the examples.
• A new item designated as an Illustration has been added. This is used when discussing a
specific application of a method not suitable for the problem statement-solution format
of the Examples.
• The Maple code we include now follows, whenever possible, the material included in
their NumericalAnalysis package. The statements given in the text are precisely what is
needed for the Maple worksheet applications, and the output is given in the same font
and color format that Maple produces.
• A number of sections have been expanded, and some divided, to make it easier for instructors to assign problems immediately after the material is presented. This is particularly
true in Chapters 3, 6, 7, and 9.
• Numerous new historical notes have been added, primarily in the margins where they
can be considered independent of the text material. Much of the current material used in
Numerical Analysis was developed in middle of the 20th century, and students should be
aware that mathematical discoveries are ongoing.
• The bibliographic material has been updated to reflect new editions of books that we
reference. New sources have been added that were not previously available.
As always with our revisions, every sentence was examined to determine if it was phrased
in a manner that best relates what is described.
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
xii Preface
Supplements
A Student Solutions Manual and Study Guide (ISBN-10: 0-538-73351-9; ISBN-13: 978-0-
538-73351-9) is available for purchase with this edition, and contains worked-out solutions
to many of the problems. The solved exercises cover all of the techniques discussed in the
text, and include step-by-step instructions for working through the algorithms. The first two
chapters of this Guide are available for preview on the web site for the book.
Complete solutions to all exercises in the text are available to instructors in secure,
customizable online format through the Cengage Solution Builder service. Adopting instructors can sign up for access at http://www.cengage.com/solutionbuilder. Computation results
in these solutions were regenerated for this edition using the programs on the web site to
ensure compatibility among the various programming systems.
A set of classroom lecture slides, prepared by Professor John Carroll of Dublin City
University, are available on the book’s instructor companion web site at http://www.cengage.
com/math/burden. These slides, created using the Beamer package of LaTeX, are in PDF
format. They present examples, hints, and step-by-step animations of important techniques
in Numerical Analysis.

No decision taken on Mohammad Amir’s return to Pakistan team: PCB

No decision taken on Mohammad Amir’s return to Pakistan team: PCB


The Pakistan cricket authorities are having second thoughts about rushing Mohammad Amir back into the national team.

The Chairman of the Pakistan Cricket Board, Shaharyar Khan told the media in Lahore that until now no final decision has been taken on when Amir would be considered for national selection again.

“We have to first monitor his attitude and behavior and see other things as well. They are some players who are opposed to his comeback to the Pakistan team and we have to sit down first and talk to them and also Amir,” he said.

Khan’s statement was different from the one he gave last week when he said that the PCB had decided to give Amir a chance to win back his place in the Pakistan team.

Pakistan’s head coach Waqar Younis had also said that since Amir had served his five year ban for spot-fixing he deserved a second chance.

But a well-informed source told PTI that the PCB had got some feedback from the Bangladesh Premier League and they were not very happy to hear some things about Amir’s attitude and conduct there.

Amir has impressed with his bowling in the BPL and after having dismissed Pakistan’s Test and T20 captains Misbah-ul-Haq and Shahid Afridi in the tournament on Tuesday he also accounted for the scalp of Muhammad Hafeez.

Amir clearly didn’t try to hide his delight at having Hafeez caught behind in his celebrations which included a kick in the air to apparently send a message to his former Pakistan teammate.

Hafeez is the only Pakistani player to have gone on record recently and said he wouldn’t like to share a dressing room with any of the three players Amir, Salman Butt and Muhammad Asif who were banned for spot fixing in 2010.

Aamir has been brilliant for Chittagong Vikings in the BPL.

The Chittagong Vikings match with Dhaka Dynamites on Tuesday was much anticipated as earlier Hafeez had also said he turned down an offer to play alongside Amir’s team in BPL, saying that he could not “share a dressing room with a player who tarnished the image of Pakistan”.

Better late than never for Rafatullah

Good things come to those who wait and after nearly two decades of domestic cricket, Rafatullah Mohmand is in line for his Pakistan debut

222403.4

For 19 years Rafatullah Mohmand has grafted away on the Pakistan domestic circuit. Recently, the 39-year-old has pondered retirement but now he is on the brink of fulfilling the dream of an international debut having been included in the T20 squad for the series against England and staking a claim for the World T20.

Since 1996 Rafatullah has not missed a single season. He started his career for his native team Peshawar and later joined Habib Bank Limited and is presently representing WAPDA. His name was floated around for national selection in 2006 when he was enjoying a consistent run in the Quaid-e-Azam trophy with Peshawar, where he finished second-highest run-scorer in the Gold League, but he only reached as far as the Pakistan A side for a Top End one-day tournament in Australia.

“I have been playing cricket for a long time and like many I also had a dream to represent the country at highest level,” Rafatullah said after his national selection. “But we all know how big the competition is in Pakistan and you only few get a chances but I am happy that I finally got a chance. Now, I know I have less time so my target in whatever the time left is I want to do my best and help Pakistan to win matches.

“Whatever I have learnt and whatever I know I will transform it at the top level. It been a very long time I have been playing domestic and I have been use to of it. Obviously every cricket player has a dream to play and after such prolonged domestic career came at certain stage of my career where I was thinking about quitting. But now I have a chance and whatever the age is I want to perform and if I am not able to give perform well I will move aside.”

In the 2003-04 and 2004-05 seasons, Rafatullah averaged over fifty in List A cricket but he could not quite do enough to force his way to the top of the list. In 2009 he was involved in a first-class world-record second-wicket stand of 580 with Aamer Sajjid where he finished unbeaten on a career-best 302.

At a time when he was struggling to earn a national call-up despite his consistent runs, he tried emigrating to Afghanistan in a bid to play the ICC World Cup Qualifier in 2009 but his name was later withdrawn as he would not have spent the required four years in the country.

In the 2012-13 season he trebled his number of one-day hundreds as he scored 425 runs in six matches with three centuries, but it was this year’s Haier Mobile T20 Cup which finally brought him his reward after scoring 230 runs at a strike-rate of 157.53 to help Peshawar to the title. He was also considered one of the fittest players available and before selection, Rafatullah was called up in the National Cricket Academy for a fitness test and ESPNcricinfo understands he has passed with distinction. If he makes his debut, he will be the oldest T20 international debutant for a Full Member.

“We always talk about youngsters but they are raw and with World T20 ahead we want an experienced campaigner,” Haroon Rasheed, the chief selector, told ESPNcricinfo. “Rafat is the one we think can give us what we need in the line-up. He is among the fittest guys in our domestic circuit and his form, we have seen him batting in the recent T20.

“He knows that he doesn’t have much time but we wanted to reward him for his persistence in domestic cricket. He has been an outstanding batsman in T20 for his team Peshawar. Having experience of playing first-class cricket for many years, with his form, sound technique and fitness, and also given his fielding credentials, he has been afforded an opportunity as he was considered to have potential to feature in an international T20 competition as an opener.”

Pakistan have never been afraid to throw a player in young. Now they have shown they don’t mind blooding them somewhat older, too.

Umar Farooq is ESPNcricinfo’s Pakistan correspondent.

پاکستان کے پاس اب انڈین پریمیئر لیگ کی طرح پاکستان سپر لیگ ہے۔ یہ صرف وقت کی بات تھی کیونکہ ہندوستان کے بعد اگر کسی دوسرے ملک کے کرکٹ شائقین اس کھیل سے جنون کی حد تک عقیدت رکھتے ہیں، تو وہ پاکستان ہے۔

حال ہی میں بنگلہ دیش، سری لنکا اور یہاں تک کہ ویسٹ انڈیز نے بھی تھوڑی بہت کامیابی کے ساتھ آئی پی ایل کے اپنے اپنے ورژن لانچ کیے۔ مگر پاکستان میں چیزیں صفر سے آگے نہیں بڑھ سکیں جس کی کئی وجوہات میں سے بنیادی وجہ بین الاقوامی ٹیموں کا سکیورٹی خدشات کی بناء پر پاکستان میں میچ کھیلنے سے انکار تھا۔

مگر ایسا لگتا ہے کہ اب چیزیں درست سمت میں جا رہی ہیں۔ کئی سالوں کی غیر یقینی صورتحال کے بعد پاکستان کرکٹ بورڈ نے اب ستمبر میں پاکستان سپر لیگ کے لیے ٹھوس منصوبوں کا اعلان کیا ہے۔ افتتاحی ایڈیشن فروری 2016 میں شروع ہوگا۔

یہ دوسری ٹی 20 لیگز کی طرح فرنچائز ماڈل پر ہی مبنی ہوگا جس میں پانچ فرنچائز — کراچی، لاہور، پشاور، کوئٹہ اور اسلام آباد — چار صوبائی اور ایک وفاقی دار الحکومت کی نمائندگی کریں گی جبکہ انعامی رقم 10 لاکھ ڈالر ہوگی۔

اور پی ایس ایل میں بڑے ناموں کی کوئی کمی نہیں ہوگی۔ کرس گیل، کیرن پولارڈ، کیون پیٹرسن اور کمار سنگاکارا ان 100 سے زائد کھلاڑیوں میں شامل ہیں جنہوں نے ٹورنامنٹ میں شرکت کی حامی بھری ہے۔

زمینی حقائق

لیکن صرف ایک پریشانی جگہ کی ہے۔ بھلے ہی اس ایونٹ کا نام پاکستان سپر لیگ ہے، مگر یہ ایونٹ پاکستان میں نہیں ہو رہا۔ شروعات میں تو میچز کے لیے قطر کا نام تجویز کیا گیا تھا، مگر پھر پاکستان کرکٹ بورڈ نے فیصلہ کیا کہ پی ایس ایل کا پہلا ایڈیشن متحدہ عرب امارات میں ہوگا۔

پی سی بی کے پاس اس سلسلے میں زیادہ آپشن نہیں تھے۔ زیادہ تر بین الاقوامی ٹیمیں اب بھی پاکستان کو غیر محفوظ سمجھتی ہیں۔ پاکستانی قومی کرکٹ ٹیم اپنے ہوم میچز امارات میں کھیلتی ہے۔ مئی میں پاکستان نے زمبابوے کا دورہ کیا مگر دوسری ٹیموں کے پاکستان آنے میں اب بھی بہت وقت باقی ہے۔

لیکن پھر بھی پی سی بی نے یہ ایونٹ اپنی سرزمین پر کروانے کے لیے سرتوڑ کوششیں کیں۔ انہوں نے اعلیٰ پائے کے بین الاقوامی کھلاڑیوں کو مینیج کر رہی ایجنسیوں کے ذریعے انہیں پاکستان میں کھیلنے کے لیے دعوت دی مگر منفی جواب ملا۔

کرس گیل اور کیون پیٹرسن جیسے زبردست ٹی 20 کھلاڑیوں کی شرکت کے بغیر پاکستان سپر لیگ ایک ناکام ایونٹ ثابت ہوتا اس لیے ایونٹ کو پاکستان سے باہر رکھنا کاروباری اعتبار سے ایک درست فیصلہ تھا۔

مثبت چیزوں پر توجہ دینا

ایک انٹرویو میں پی سی بی ایگزیکٹو کمیٹی کے سربراہ نجم سیٹھی پرامید تھے کہ پاکستان سپر لیگ کو بیرونِ ملک منعقد کروانا پاکستان کے لیے مددگار ثابت ہوگا۔ سیٹھی نے وضاحت کی کہ جگہ سے زیادہ اہم بات یہ ہے کہ پاکستان برانڈ میں کمرشل دلچسپی زیادہ ہوگی جس سے کھلاڑیوں کو زیادہ معاوضہ ادا کیا جا سکے گا۔

پاکستانیوں کا اپنے کھلاڑیوں کو اپنے سامنے کھیلتا نہ دیکھ سکنے کا افسوس اس امید سے کچھ کم ہوجاتا ہے کہ شاید اس سے پاکستان کرکٹ بالآخر بہتری کی جانب جائے۔

فیصل زیدی نامی ڈان کے ایک فری لانس صحافی اور کرکٹ شائق نے کہا کہ “پاکستان میں ایک عرصے سے بین الاقوامی کرکٹ منعقد نہیں ہوا ہے، اس لیے لوگ پاکستان سپر لیگ کا انعقاد پاکستان میں ہر حال میں چاہتے ہیں۔ لیکن اگر حقیقت پسندی سے دیکھیں تو ایونٹ پاکستان میں منعقد ہونے پر یہاں کوئی بھی نہیں آتا۔ پر اگر یہ امارات میں کھیلا جاتا ہے اور کامیاب ہوتا ہے، تو اس بات کی قوی امید ہے کہ ایک یا دو سیزن کے بعد یہ پاکستان منتقل کر دیا جائے گا۔”

مختصر فارمیٹ

پی ایس ایل کو آئی پی ایل سے دو مزید چیزیں ممتاز کرتی ہیں۔

پہلی چیز ٹیموں کی تعداد ہے۔ آئی پی ایل کے برعکس پی ایس ایل میں صرف پانچ ٹیمیں ہوں گی، جس کا مطلب ہے کہ مکمل ٹورنامنٹ صرف 24 میچز پر مشتمل ہوگا۔ یہ آئی پی ایل سے چھوٹا ہوگا جہاں آٹھ ٹیمیں تقریباً دو ماہ تک کھیلتی ہیں۔

دوسری چیز نیلامی کا نظام ہے۔ پی سی بی کیریبیئن پریمیئر لیگ کی طرح ڈرافٹ فارمیٹ اپنائے گا جس میں ہر کھلاڑی کو ایک مخصوص کیٹیگری میں ڈالا جاتا ہے اور پھر بیلٹ کے ذریعے اسے منتخب کیا جاتا ہے۔ سیٹھی کے مطابق اس سے پاکستانی کھلاڑیوں کو بین الاقوامی کھلاڑیوں جتنا معاوضہ ملنا ممکن ہوگا۔

پاکستانی کرکٹ کی غیر یقینی صورتحال کو دیکھتے ہوئے پی ایس ایل کے پہلے ایڈیشن کا شدت سے انتظار کیا جا رہا ہے۔ سب سے پہلی ترجیح یہ ہوگی کہ افتتاحی ایڈیشن بغیر کسی بڑے مسئلے کے نمٹ جائے۔

مگر اس سے بھی زیادہ اہم یہ کہ اگر پی ایس ایل پاکستان میں بین الاقوامی کرکٹ کی بحالی کا سبب بن جاتی ہے، تو یہ ایک بہت بڑی کامیابی ہوگی نہ صرف پاکستان کرکٹ بورڈ کے لیے،بلکہ کرکٹ کے لیے بھی۔

انگلش میں پڑھیں۔

Views from India: Why it’s important for the Pakistan Super League to succeed

 

 

Pakistan now has its own version of the Indian Premier League. To be fair, it was only a matter of time. After India, if there is one country that can match the cricketing devotion of its fervent fans, it is Pakistan.

In recent years, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and even the West Indies launched their own versions of the IPL, with varying degrees of success. But Pakistan didn’t quite manage to get things off the ground. A big factor was the fact that international teams were not willing to tour Pakistan because of security concerns.

But things seem to be looking up now. After years of uncertainty, the Pakistan Cricket Board finally unveiled concrete plans for the Pakistan Super League in September. The inaugural edition is set to begin in February 2016.

It will follow a similar format to the other franchise-based Twenty20 leagues in the world, with five franchises representing the five provincial capitals – Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta and Islamabad – with prize money of $1 million.

And the PSL isn’t likely to be short of big names. Chris Gayle, Kieron Pollard, Kevin Pietersen and Kumar Sangakkara are among the more than 100 players who have signed up for the tournament.

Ground realities

The only caveat is the location. Despite being called the Pakistan Super League, the event will not be held in Pakistan. Though Qatar was the original venue, the Pakistan Cricket Board later declared that the first edition of the PSL would take place in the United Arab Emirates.

The PCB really did not have much choice in the matter. Most international cricket teams still consider Pakistan out of bounds. The Pakistani national cricket team continues to play their home games in the UAE. Zimbabwe tested the waters in May by touring Pakistan. However, there is still a long way to go before other teams will be willing to set foot in Pakistan.

Even so, the PCB tried its utmost best to host the event on home soil. They initially contacted agencies handling some of the top international players to consider playing in Pakistan, but the response was negative.

Without the participation of Twenty20 heavyweights like Chris Gayle and Kevin Pietersen, the Pakistan Super League would have ultimately turned out to be a damp squib. Therefore, the move to a venue outside Pakistan makes reasonable business sense.

Looking at the positives

In an interview, the PCB Executive Committee chief Najam Sethi was confident that hosting the PSL abroad would ultimately help Pakistan. Sethi explained that more than the venue, there would be a greater commercial interest in the Pakistan brand, which would result in better player remuneration.

In Pakistan, the dismay at not being able to watch its stars live is tempered with the hope that it may lead to a resurgence of Pakistani cricket.

“Look, it is true that people here badly want the PSL to be in Pakistan as we have been in cricketing isolation,” said Faisal Zaidi, a freelance journalist for Dawn and an avid cricket fan. “But let us be realistic, if it was held in Pakistan, no one would have come here. If it is played in the UAE and if it becomes successful, there is a chance that it will be moved to Pakistan after one or two seasons.”

Shorter format

Two other features differentiate the PSL from the IPL.

The first factor is the number of teams – unlike the IPL, the PSL will only have five teams, which means that the entire tournament will comprise of only 24 matches. That is much shorter than the IPL, where eight teams currently play each other over a period of almost two months.

The second factor is the auction system. The PCB will follow the draft format followed by the Caribbean Premier League, where each player is put in a certain category and chosen by ballot. According to Sethi, this will ensure that Pakistani players will make the same money as international players.

Considering the mercurial nature of Pakistani cricket, the first edition of the PSL is being keenly anticipated. The first priority would be to ensure that the inaugural edition goes off without any major hitch.

But more importantly, if the PSL can become the first step in the resumption of international cricket in Pakistan, it will be a huge success story for a beleaguered Pakistan Cricket Board and the game as a whole


دنیا کی 100 اعلیٰ ترین یونیورسٹیوں میں ایک بھی اسلامی ملک کی یونیورسٹی شامل نہیں، رپورٹ

دنیا کی 100 اعلیٰ ترین یونیورسٹیوں میں ایک بھی اسلامی ملک کی یونیورسٹی شامل نہیں، رپورٹ

Pakistan overachievers? Who’d have thought it?

October 30, 2015

Pakistan overachievers? Who’d have thought it?

Over the last five years they have won over half their away series and have not been beaten at home. It is a stark contrast to what went before

A strong home record is not to be sniffed at Gareth Copley / © Getty Images

A last-gasp victory and after all the turbulence of ten days of Test cricket the result in the end has been somewhat predictable. For the sixth season in a row Pakistan will end up unbeaten in the desert. It has become such a state of affairs that even the local fan base has become used to it – almost taking it for granted. It bears repeating: there’s nothing wrong with being a bully at home. Perhaps being dominant at home is worth being satisfied about, rather than being something worth denigrating as somehow unworthy, somehow Indian even.

One of the more fascinating things to come out of this series – against England, and so bound to be high-profile – is how the results affect so much and yet so little: you can change your form, your reputation, your performances, but the narrative? That takes more than mere competence.

In the weeks before the series started, most headlines inevitably revolved around Mohammad Amir (him of zero first-class matches in five years) not being back in the team immediately after his ban was lifted. The rest focused on Saeed Ajmal and Abdur Rehman – neither of whom had played a Test match in the year prior to the team selection for this series – being excluded from the squad. It almost seemed as if Pakistani cricket might as well have been in stasis during their time between the last home series against England and this one, rather than having gone through a downfall and a revival, as was actually the case. Pakistan went from a spin-led juggernaut to a team struggling without identity, which eventually rebounded thanks to domestic veterans and batsmen playing beyond their own expectations.

Of course, that is a better alternative to, say, the Australian perspective. For instance, the conversations at the start of the Australian season last year seemed to indicate there had been a memory wipe regarding Australia’s tour to the Emirates. While it has become a cliché to lampoon what happens in the Channel Nine commentary box, it was still surprising that a discussion there on cricket’s fastest centuries failed to mention Misbah-ul-Haq’s effort barely a month prior, against their own lot. At least for England, what happens against them still counts as actual cricket, even if it takes place far from their shores.

Is it really the team’s fault that their board has neither the clout nor the vision to give them the sort of opportunities their record deserves? Are they to blame for not touring any of the big three in this period, or is it the fault of their board, or of the condescending triopoly that rules cricket right now?

Pakistan exist as the pariah of the cricket world, and even when they enter the mainstream, they seem to do so temporarily. To be fair, it’s not as if Pakistan and the builders of their narrative play a particularly positive role in changing this state of affairs.

That doesn’t mean their achievements should be played down, particularly at home. Pakistan have gone through a quiet, televised revolution. The return of Younis Khan, the appointment of Misbah, and their relocation to the UAE came at perhaps the lowest point in modern Pakistan’s Test history.

In the previous 47 months they played nine Test series and won none – the longest winless run in their history. No batsman but Younis Khan had averaged over 45, no bowler had averaged under 25. The glimmers of hope – a new-ball pair who could rule the world, a captain who could bring stability – had been removed, Eeyore might have been deemed too optimistic in Pakistan at the time.

Five years later they hold the longest unbeaten home run in Test cricket. That too has to be taken into context. Their fortunes till then had been rather different to those of their Asian brethren. At the start of this run by Pakistan, Sri Lanka had lost two of their previous 19 home series; India had lost two of their previous 34 series – one each to Australia and South Africa. Pakistan, meanwhile, had lost nearly as many Test series (nine) as they had won (eight) at home over the previous 15 years, losing to six different Test nations. If you had told Pakistani fans that five years from then they would all be complaining about being dominant at home, they’d have called you a madman – and then probably accepted the notion, since satisfaction has never been part of their dictionary; they only feel at home in elation or misery.

Yet Pakistan’s away record is different from what popular perception might say it is too. They have won half (five) of their away series in this period, or as many as they had won in the 11 years prior to the start of this run.

This Pakistan team has made Test cricket interesting again for its fans © AFP

Is it really the team’s fault that their board has neither the clout nor the vision to give them the sort of opportunities their record deserves? Are they to blame for not touring any of the big three in this period, or is it the fault of their board, or of the condescending triopoly that rules cricket right now? Is it their fault that every time the Test team starts to get into their groove, they have to face months on end without a single Test match?

Perhaps their greatest achievement, despite what the crowd attendance in the Emirates might argue, has been to do with interest in the longest format. Test cricket was slowly becoming an irrelevance in Pakistan – perhaps best illustrated by them going a calendar year, 2008, without playing a single Test. Five years of success later, the TV network broadcasting the Pakistan-England series can proudly call the ratings from the Test series record-breaking. It’s amazing what a winning team can do.

But all good things must come to an end. In the most likely scenario of there being no Tests in the India series, which is in any case unlikely to take place, Pakistan will go at least seven months without a Test. Misbah might be gone by then; Younis’ Indian summer will almost certainly be over. The players who are around will either be more in tune with the shorter formats, or (in the case of the Test specialists) out of tune with the international game. The Sharjah Test might be our last look at an under-heralded team.

So appreciate them while you can, because a decade from now, a bunch of hipster writers certainly will. After all, nothing pleases their narrative as much as a Pakistani team from days gone by.

Hassan Cheema is a sports journalist, writer and commentator, and co-hosts the online cricket show Pace is Pace Yaar. @mediagag